Gotham Gazette Gotham Gazette is an online publication covering New York policy and politics as well as news on public safety, transportation, education, finance and more. http://www.gothamgazette.com/component/tags/tag/immigration 2017-12-15T08:17:42+00:00 Webmaster webmaster@gothamgazette.com New York City Now Has Its Own Legal Parameters for ‘Disorderly Conduct’ 2017-12-04T05:00:00+00:00 2017-12-04T05:00:00+00:00 http://www.gothamgazette.com/?id=7350:new-york-city-now-has-its-own-legal-parameters-for-disorderly-conduct Ben Max <p><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/images/graphics/2017/reset_1/vanessa_gibson_city_council_john_mccarten.jpg" alt="vanessa gibson city council john mccarten" width="600" height="400" /></p> <p>Council Member Vanessa Gibson (photo: John McCarten/City Council)</p> <hr /> <p>A City Council bill that creates an alternative to the state’s “disorderly conduct” statute, and mandates lower punishment for the infraction, became law on Friday along with numerous other bills relating to protecting undocumented immigrant New Yorkers. The bill, sponsored by City Council Member Vanessa Gibson, chair of the public safety committee, also adds another plank to the Council’s broad agendas of criminal justice reform and immigrant protections.</p> <p>The <a href="http://legistar.council.nyc.gov/LegislationDetail.aspx?ID=3028942&amp;GUID=1058179C-1264-44A8-A9D0-D3B4A3C66B59&amp;Options=&amp;Search=" target="_blank" rel="noopener">new city law</a> prohibits “disorderly behavior” much in the same way the existing state law currently does -- for incidents involving public altercations, unreasonable noise, obscene gestures in public, obstruction of traffic and other similar offenses -- &nbsp;but it provides for a maximum sentence of five days in prison or a $200 fine, and also includes a civil (as opposed to criminal) penalty option in the form of a $75 fine.</p> <p>Under the state law, in which punishment can reach up to 15 days in prison or a $250 fine, there were roughly 54,000 convictions in 2016 in New York City criminal courts.</p> <p>The rationale behind the new city law is simple, but controversial: lowering punishment can prevent the involvement of federal Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) agents, which is often triggered when undocumented immigrants interact or are pulled into the criminal justice system. A punishment longer than five days can also make immigrants ineligible for the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) protections.</p> <p>“It’s an option for district attorneys, for judges and for police to use in instances of disorderly conduct, and obviously for non-violent and low-level cases,” said Council Member Gibson, in a phone interview on Monday, during which she warned of dangers undocumented immigrants face from an openly hostile federal administration.</p> <p>Since before he took office, Donald Trump has been aggressively attacking undocumented immigrants with rhetoric, and, under his presidency federal immigration authorities have followed through with action, stepping up their enforcement efforts. They have taken particular aim at so-called “sanctuary cities” such as New York, which are home to massive populations of undocumented immigrants and relatively friendly local laws.</p> <p>The New York City Council has responded to the federal administration in kind, by passing a slew of measures aimed at limiting cooperation with ICE and protecting the city’s immigrant population. “We did it so it wouldn’t propel a negative consequence,” Gibson said of her bill. “We wanted to give DAs additional tools to employ. For us, while it applies to everyone, there’s obviously a very intentional focus on immigrants.”</p> <p>In April, then-Acting Brooklyn District Attorney Eric Gonzalez (who has since been elected to the position) <a href="http://www.brooklynda.org/2017/04/24/acting-brooklyn-district-attorney-eric-gonzalez-announces-new-policy-regarding-handling-of-cases-against-non-citizen-defendants/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">announced</a> that his office would try to avoid prosecution strategies that could result in deportation proceedings for immigrants. “I am committed to equal and fair justice for all Brooklyn residents – citizens, lawful residents and undocumented immigrants alike,” he said in a statement accompanying the announcement. “Now more than ever, we must ensure that a conviction, especially for a minor offense, does not lead to unintended and severe consequences like deportation, which can be unfair, tear families apart and destabilize our communities and businesses.”</p> <p>As Gibson noted, the Council has moved to reduce penalties and create civil fines for numerous low-level offenses, most significantly through the Criminal Justice Reform Act passed last year. Those efforts have taken on increased importance under Trump. In the last few months, ICE agents have begun to stake out courthouses to nab immigrants showing up to court appearances, even in cases involving nonviolent crimes.</p> <p>Initial data has shown drastic reductions in criminal court summonses issued under the offenses that were included in the Criminal Justice Reform Act. Between when the act took effect on June 13 and October 1, 2017, there were 4,370 criminal summonses issued under those offenses, compared to 55,224 in the same period in 2016. The NYPD issued 26,154 civil summonses for the covered offenses.</p> <p>Gibson said her bill was just another part of that larger agenda to ensure “proportional penalties” that match the crimes committed. The efforts don’t necessarily mean an easing of enforcement or so-called broken windows policing of low-level crimes in an effort to prevent larger ones, but it relates to how violations like disorderly conduct are classified and punished. “It falls in line with work we’ve done on criminal justice reform,” she said. “It’s absolutely critical. In light of the current climate, it’s really important for the City Council to advance progressive legislation that protects all New Yorkers, regardless of immigration status.”</p> <p>Murad Awawdeh, vice president of advocacy at the New York Immigration Coalition, said the organization was glad to see the Council take proactive measures to protect immigrants from the “nexus of the criminal justice system and the immigration system,” which can often endanger their status in the country.</p> <p>“By lowering the maximum punishment for this offense, the city is ensuring that immigrants aren’t unnecessarily detained or possibly deported,” he said of the new disorderly conduct law. “I think it’s timely and also long overdue.”</p> <p>

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by Samar Khurshid, City government reporter, Gotham Gazette
     

Read more by this writer.

</p>
<p><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/images/graphics/2017/reset_1/vanessa_gibson_city_council_john_mccarten.jpg" alt="vanessa gibson city council john mccarten" width="600" height="400" /></p> <p>Council Member Vanessa Gibson (photo: John McCarten/City Council)</p> <hr /> <p>A City Council bill that creates an alternative to the state’s “disorderly conduct” statute, and mandates lower punishment for the infraction, became law on Friday along with numerous other bills relating to protecting undocumented immigrant New Yorkers. The bill, sponsored by City Council Member Vanessa Gibson, chair of the public safety committee, also adds another plank to the Council’s broad agendas of criminal justice reform and immigrant protections.</p> <p>The <a href="http://legistar.council.nyc.gov/LegislationDetail.aspx?ID=3028942&amp;GUID=1058179C-1264-44A8-A9D0-D3B4A3C66B59&amp;Options=&amp;Search=" target="_blank" rel="noopener">new city law</a> prohibits “disorderly behavior” much in the same way the existing state law currently does -- for incidents involving public altercations, unreasonable noise, obscene gestures in public, obstruction of traffic and other similar offenses -- &nbsp;but it provides for a maximum sentence of five days in prison or a $200 fine, and also includes a civil (as opposed to criminal) penalty option in the form of a $75 fine.</p> <p>Under the state law, in which punishment can reach up to 15 days in prison or a $250 fine, there were roughly 54,000 convictions in 2016 in New York City criminal courts.</p> <p>The rationale behind the new city law is simple, but controversial: lowering punishment can prevent the involvement of federal Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) agents, which is often triggered when undocumented immigrants interact or are pulled into the criminal justice system. A punishment longer than five days can also make immigrants ineligible for the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) protections.</p> <p>“It’s an option for district attorneys, for judges and for police to use in instances of disorderly conduct, and obviously for non-violent and low-level cases,” said Council Member Gibson, in a phone interview on Monday, during which she warned of dangers undocumented immigrants face from an openly hostile federal administration.</p> <p>Since before he took office, Donald Trump has been aggressively attacking undocumented immigrants with rhetoric, and, under his presidency federal immigration authorities have followed through with action, stepping up their enforcement efforts. They have taken particular aim at so-called “sanctuary cities” such as New York, which are home to massive populations of undocumented immigrants and relatively friendly local laws.</p> <p>The New York City Council has responded to the federal administration in kind, by passing a slew of measures aimed at limiting cooperation with ICE and protecting the city’s immigrant population. “We did it so it wouldn’t propel a negative consequence,” Gibson said of her bill. “We wanted to give DAs additional tools to employ. For us, while it applies to everyone, there’s obviously a very intentional focus on immigrants.”</p> <p>In April, then-Acting Brooklyn District Attorney Eric Gonzalez (who has since been elected to the position) <a href="http://www.brooklynda.org/2017/04/24/acting-brooklyn-district-attorney-eric-gonzalez-announces-new-policy-regarding-handling-of-cases-against-non-citizen-defendants/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">announced</a> that his office would try to avoid prosecution strategies that could result in deportation proceedings for immigrants. “I am committed to equal and fair justice for all Brooklyn residents – citizens, lawful residents and undocumented immigrants alike,” he said in a statement accompanying the announcement. “Now more than ever, we must ensure that a conviction, especially for a minor offense, does not lead to unintended and severe consequences like deportation, which can be unfair, tear families apart and destabilize our communities and businesses.”</p> <p>As Gibson noted, the Council has moved to reduce penalties and create civil fines for numerous low-level offenses, most significantly through the Criminal Justice Reform Act passed last year. Those efforts have taken on increased importance under Trump. In the last few months, ICE agents have begun to stake out courthouses to nab immigrants showing up to court appearances, even in cases involving nonviolent crimes.</p> <p>Initial data has shown drastic reductions in criminal court summonses issued under the offenses that were included in the Criminal Justice Reform Act. Between when the act took effect on June 13 and October 1, 2017, there were 4,370 criminal summonses issued under those offenses, compared to 55,224 in the same period in 2016. The NYPD issued 26,154 civil summonses for the covered offenses.</p> <p>Gibson said her bill was just another part of that larger agenda to ensure “proportional penalties” that match the crimes committed. The efforts don’t necessarily mean an easing of enforcement or so-called broken windows policing of low-level crimes in an effort to prevent larger ones, but it relates to how violations like disorderly conduct are classified and punished. “It falls in line with work we’ve done on criminal justice reform,” she said. “It’s absolutely critical. In light of the current climate, it’s really important for the City Council to advance progressive legislation that protects all New Yorkers, regardless of immigration status.”</p> <p>Murad Awawdeh, vice president of advocacy at the New York Immigration Coalition, said the organization was glad to see the Council take proactive measures to protect immigrants from the “nexus of the criminal justice system and the immigration system,” which can often endanger their status in the country.</p> <p>“By lowering the maximum punishment for this offense, the city is ensuring that immigrants aren’t unnecessarily detained or possibly deported,” he said of the new disorderly conduct law. “I think it’s timely and also long overdue.”</p> <p>

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by Samar Khurshid, City government reporter, Gotham Gazette
     

Read more by this writer.

</p>
Our Families Are Under Attack, So We Rise Up 2017-04-19T04:00:00+00:00 2017-04-19T04:00:00+00:00 http://www.gothamgazette.com/?id=6881:our-families-are-under-attack-so-we-rise-up Ben Max <p><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/images/graphics/2017/pic_2_copy.jpg" alt="Make The Road DREAMers" width="600" height="420" /></p> <hr /> <p>I came to this country at the age of two. I have grown up in this country for over two decades, and I am a New Yorker through and through. New York City is where I go to school, where I work, and the place my family and I call home.</p> <p>But my life here, and my family’s life, is at risk because I am a “Dreamer.” My only protection from being separated from my family is Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA).</p> <p>Donald Trump’s administration has already started trying to tear apart families like mine, including detaining Dreamers like me. Daniel Ramírez, a Dreamer, was detained in Washington. Daniela Vargas, also a Dreamer, was detained in Mississippi. Whether or not Trump decides to repeal DACA, it is clear that our families are under attack.</p> <p>But, for immigrants like me, there is one key lesson from the first months of the new administration: when we fight back, we win.</p> <p>When Trump issued the Muslim and refugee ban, it was enormous grassroots opposition, coupled with legal advocacy, that blocked these policies.</p> <p>When Daniel and Daniela were detained, it was a groundswell of popular support—protests, petitions, and more—that got them free.</p> <p>When Trump and Paul Ryan tried to repeal the Affordable Care Act and take health insurance away from tens of millions of people, it was ordinary people taking to the streets, town halls, and congressional offices that defeated them.</p> <p>Despite these early losses, Trump shows no signs of slowing down his anti-immigrant agenda. Having failed to pass healthcare reform, Trump now wants to pass a budget that will allow him to build a wall that we don’t need and spend billions more to terrorize our families. But our communities will defeat his wall and his budget in the same way we’ve beaten him on his other priorities: by taking to the streets.</p> <p>That’s why, <a href="https://www.facebook.com/events/1804989066488877/" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">on Monday May 1, at 5pm in Foley Square</a>, I’m joining a coalition of dozens of immigrant, community, and labor organizations to rally for immigrant rights and workers’ rights.</p> <p>On May 1, whether you were born here or in another country, whatever you believe in or however you got here—we need to stand together and resist together. With 50,000 people packed into Foley Square, we will demand that Trump stop his unjust attacks towards our communities.</p> <p>Immigrant families are under attack. Workers’ rights are in jeopardy. And Muslims and refugees are in the crosshairs of this administration. Together, we will send a strong message of resistance against Trump’s agenda of hate.</p> <p>As immigrants, we demand a stop to Trump’s anti-immigrant policies that are separating families throughout the nation and seeking to terrorize us all.</p> <p>As workers, we demand good jobs, the right to organize and join a union, and for Congress to pass a federal budget that reflects our priorities.</p> <p>As New Yorkers, we demand respect and dignity for all.</p> <p>On May 1, with 50,000 people in the streets, we will show that we will not live in fear and that we stand united for a better future for all New Yorkers.</p> <p>***<br />Yatziri Tovar is a Youth Power Project member of Make the Road New York, the largest grassroots community organization in New York offering services and organizing the immigrant community. On Twitter: <a href="https://twitter.com/MaketheRoadNY" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">@maketheroadny</a>.</p> <p>

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<p><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/images/graphics/2017/pic_2_copy.jpg" alt="Make The Road DREAMers" width="600" height="420" /></p> <hr /> <p>I came to this country at the age of two. I have grown up in this country for over two decades, and I am a New Yorker through and through. New York City is where I go to school, where I work, and the place my family and I call home.</p> <p>But my life here, and my family’s life, is at risk because I am a “Dreamer.” My only protection from being separated from my family is Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA).</p> <p>Donald Trump’s administration has already started trying to tear apart families like mine, including detaining Dreamers like me. Daniel Ramírez, a Dreamer, was detained in Washington. Daniela Vargas, also a Dreamer, was detained in Mississippi. Whether or not Trump decides to repeal DACA, it is clear that our families are under attack.</p> <p>But, for immigrants like me, there is one key lesson from the first months of the new administration: when we fight back, we win.</p> <p>When Trump issued the Muslim and refugee ban, it was enormous grassroots opposition, coupled with legal advocacy, that blocked these policies.</p> <p>When Daniel and Daniela were detained, it was a groundswell of popular support—protests, petitions, and more—that got them free.</p> <p>When Trump and Paul Ryan tried to repeal the Affordable Care Act and take health insurance away from tens of millions of people, it was ordinary people taking to the streets, town halls, and congressional offices that defeated them.</p> <p>Despite these early losses, Trump shows no signs of slowing down his anti-immigrant agenda. Having failed to pass healthcare reform, Trump now wants to pass a budget that will allow him to build a wall that we don’t need and spend billions more to terrorize our families. But our communities will defeat his wall and his budget in the same way we’ve beaten him on his other priorities: by taking to the streets.</p> <p>That’s why, <a href="https://www.facebook.com/events/1804989066488877/" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">on Monday May 1, at 5pm in Foley Square</a>, I’m joining a coalition of dozens of immigrant, community, and labor organizations to rally for immigrant rights and workers’ rights.</p> <p>On May 1, whether you were born here or in another country, whatever you believe in or however you got here—we need to stand together and resist together. With 50,000 people packed into Foley Square, we will demand that Trump stop his unjust attacks towards our communities.</p> <p>Immigrant families are under attack. Workers’ rights are in jeopardy. And Muslims and refugees are in the crosshairs of this administration. Together, we will send a strong message of resistance against Trump’s agenda of hate.</p> <p>As immigrants, we demand a stop to Trump’s anti-immigrant policies that are separating families throughout the nation and seeking to terrorize us all.</p> <p>As workers, we demand good jobs, the right to organize and join a union, and for Congress to pass a federal budget that reflects our priorities.</p> <p>As New Yorkers, we demand respect and dignity for all.</p> <p>On May 1, with 50,000 people in the streets, we will show that we will not live in fear and that we stand united for a better future for all New Yorkers.</p> <p>***<br />Yatziri Tovar is a Youth Power Project member of Make the Road New York, the largest grassroots community organization in New York offering services and organizing the immigrant community. On Twitter: <a href="https://twitter.com/MaketheRoadNY" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">@maketheroadny</a>.</p> <p>

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How Obama Can Help New York Immigrants Before Leaving Office 2017-01-16T05:00:00+00:00 2017-01-16T05:00:00+00:00 http://www.gothamgazette.com/?id=6714:how-obama-can-help-new-york-immigrants-before-leaving-office Ben Max <p><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/images/menchaca_city_hall_press_conf.jpg" alt="menchaca city hall press conf" width="600" height="400" /></p> <p>City Council Member Carlos Menchaca, the author (photo: William Alatriste)</p> <hr /> <p>Barack Obama may have given his farewell address, but he still has work to do. In his speech, the president rightly celebrated America’s history of welcoming immigrants and their contributions to our country. But Mr. Obama’s legacy on immigration is mixed. He has both deported more people than any prior president and acted in America’s best traditions by letting the Dreamers - undocumented youth brought to the United States as children – emerge from the shadows. There is one final step that President Obama can, and should, take to cement his legacy on the side of history we know is in his heart.</p> <p>Most immigrant families in the United States are mixed status, meaning most have children who are citizens and immigrant parents, including Legal Permanent Residents (LPRs). The incoming administration’s promise to deport 2-3 million people with legal infractions threatens to rip these American families apart, because the threshold for deporting legal permanent residents is so low. Experts argue that this 2-3 million number cannot be reached without deporting people for minor offenses, such as traffic tickets. This is why I recently joined 60 local elected officials from across the country in asking President Obama to grant a blanket pardon to legal immigrants who have minor infractions and pose no threat to the country. He can prevent the breakup of these American families.</p> <p>Pardoning this group of immigrants fits with the president’s recent actions on criminal justice and immigration. His clemency initiative and Deferred Arrival for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) program seek to fix the broken criminal justice and immigrant systems that harm American families.</p> <p>Having already designated Legal Permanent Residents with minor convictions as low priorities for deportation, President Obama could protect these American families further with a presidential pardon.</p> <p>Some will object, arguing that America is a country of law and order. We agree, and support the deportation of those posing a risk to our community. We also support the American belief that punishment should fit the crime. Someone who had a minor infraction such as shoplifting or excessive traffic violations as a teenager could be eligible for deportation 20 years later as a responsible adult with children who are citizens. These deportations make no sense, and hurt families and children without enhancing the wellbeing of the country.</p> <p>The group making this request, Local Progress, is composed of local elected officials that know, work with, live in, represent, and are part immigrant communities. We know that deportations cripple families and harm neighborhoods and the economy. We also know that the American Dream lives in our communities and that the country benefits from these newcomers and their children. Pardoning this group would prevent the unnecessary breakup of our American families, and allow parents to stay where they belong, raising their children in the communities they have helped build.</p> <p>Watching President Obama’s farewell speech, I could not help but think about the many families in my Brooklyn district that have lost a family member to deportation. The effects are harsh. When a father gets deported, the family loses income and can lose their apartment. The education of children can be disrupted, and those remaining long to be with their missing family member. For the children – citizens, immigrants, or both – it is a hurt that does not go away. It is a step the U.S. government should not take lightly, or for symbolic political reasons.</p> <p>I stand with my fellow elected officials to ask President Obama to grant these pardons. I also call on my fellow New Yorkers to call the president’s office and tell him to grant clemency to the hundreds of thousands of immigrants who stand to lose under President Trump. Before he leaves office, President Obama can help cement his legacy with such a pardon. He has the power, and should use it, as other presidents have done in the past. There is still time.</p> <p>***<br />Carlos Menchaca is a New York City Council Member and Chair of the Council’s Immigration Committee. On Twitter <a href="https://twitter.com/cmenchaca" target="_blank">@cmenchaca</a>.</p> <p>

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<p><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/images/menchaca_city_hall_press_conf.jpg" alt="menchaca city hall press conf" width="600" height="400" /></p> <p>City Council Member Carlos Menchaca, the author (photo: William Alatriste)</p> <hr /> <p>Barack Obama may have given his farewell address, but he still has work to do. In his speech, the president rightly celebrated America’s history of welcoming immigrants and their contributions to our country. But Mr. Obama’s legacy on immigration is mixed. He has both deported more people than any prior president and acted in America’s best traditions by letting the Dreamers - undocumented youth brought to the United States as children – emerge from the shadows. There is one final step that President Obama can, and should, take to cement his legacy on the side of history we know is in his heart.</p> <p>Most immigrant families in the United States are mixed status, meaning most have children who are citizens and immigrant parents, including Legal Permanent Residents (LPRs). The incoming administration’s promise to deport 2-3 million people with legal infractions threatens to rip these American families apart, because the threshold for deporting legal permanent residents is so low. Experts argue that this 2-3 million number cannot be reached without deporting people for minor offenses, such as traffic tickets. This is why I recently joined 60 local elected officials from across the country in asking President Obama to grant a blanket pardon to legal immigrants who have minor infractions and pose no threat to the country. He can prevent the breakup of these American families.</p> <p>Pardoning this group of immigrants fits with the president’s recent actions on criminal justice and immigration. His clemency initiative and Deferred Arrival for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) program seek to fix the broken criminal justice and immigrant systems that harm American families.</p> <p>Having already designated Legal Permanent Residents with minor convictions as low priorities for deportation, President Obama could protect these American families further with a presidential pardon.</p> <p>Some will object, arguing that America is a country of law and order. We agree, and support the deportation of those posing a risk to our community. We also support the American belief that punishment should fit the crime. Someone who had a minor infraction such as shoplifting or excessive traffic violations as a teenager could be eligible for deportation 20 years later as a responsible adult with children who are citizens. These deportations make no sense, and hurt families and children without enhancing the wellbeing of the country.</p> <p>The group making this request, Local Progress, is composed of local elected officials that know, work with, live in, represent, and are part immigrant communities. We know that deportations cripple families and harm neighborhoods and the economy. We also know that the American Dream lives in our communities and that the country benefits from these newcomers and their children. Pardoning this group would prevent the unnecessary breakup of our American families, and allow parents to stay where they belong, raising their children in the communities they have helped build.</p> <p>Watching President Obama’s farewell speech, I could not help but think about the many families in my Brooklyn district that have lost a family member to deportation. The effects are harsh. When a father gets deported, the family loses income and can lose their apartment. The education of children can be disrupted, and those remaining long to be with their missing family member. For the children – citizens, immigrants, or both – it is a hurt that does not go away. It is a step the U.S. government should not take lightly, or for symbolic political reasons.</p> <p>I stand with my fellow elected officials to ask President Obama to grant these pardons. I also call on my fellow New Yorkers to call the president’s office and tell him to grant clemency to the hundreds of thousands of immigrants who stand to lose under President Trump. Before he leaves office, President Obama can help cement his legacy with such a pardon. He has the power, and should use it, as other presidents have done in the past. There is still time.</p> <p>***<br />Carlos Menchaca is a New York City Council Member and Chair of the Council’s Immigration Committee. On Twitter <a href="https://twitter.com/cmenchaca" target="_blank">@cmenchaca</a>.</p> <p>

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New York: A Sanctuary City with A Plan 2016-12-08T05:00:00+00:00 2016-12-08T05:00:00+00:00 http://www.gothamgazette.com/?id=6660:new-york-a-sanctuary-city-with-a-plan Ben Max <p><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/images/13528878_1124384977604978_3045454797811728480_n_1.jpg" alt="ferreras-copeland menchaca press conference" width="600" height="450" /></p> <p>The authors: Council Members Menchaca, left, &amp; Ferreras-Copeland, center</p> <hr /> <p>New York’s immigrant families are waking up terrified as President-elect Trump, his supporters and growing administration spew hate. In spite of his new stance to “work something out” for Dreamers, Trump’s words are met with lack of trust. As the children of immigrants, we take attacks from Trump and his supporters personally and are filled with the courage needed to fight harder and smarter than ever to protect the rights and freedoms of diverse immigrant communities throughout New York City.</p> <p>To this end, the New York City Council passed a resolution this week affirming our commitment to remain a sanctuary city for immigrants, and we personally delivered it hours later to Trump Tower. Our resolution codifies past commitments to sanctuary while signaling to everyone that we will invest the time, energy, and resources required to make good on our promises.<br />Our resolve is clear: we are here to stay.</p> <p>Our City Council, like those in municipalities across the country, will play a lead role in this fight by redoubling our efforts to keep New York City a true sanctuary city. With the support of our Council colleagues, Speaker Melissa Mark-Viverito, Mayor Bill de Blasio, fierce advocates, and brave New York families, we commit to immigrants that this city will remain a safe home.</p> <p>This week’s sanctuary city resolution memorialized our commitment, and we will ensure it through, in part, the following:</p> <p>First, we will defend our victories by preserving existing policies, initiatives, and programs that protect immigrants.</p> <p>Detainer Law: The Council’s 2014 detainer discretion law has protected between 3,000 and 4,000 New Yorkers per year from deportation. The law draws a bright line between municipal law enforcement and overly aggressive federal immigration enforcement. All New Yorkers are safer when there is trust between immigrants and the NYPD because crimes are more likely to be reported and witnesses feel safer. Under the Trump Administration, we commit to gear up for legal challenges to this law, and we expect to prevail.</p> <p>The New York Immigrant Family Unity Program (NYIFUP): NYIFUP provides legal services for New Yorkers who are detained and facing deportation. It has been highly successful and serves as a blueprint for other progressive municipalities. Continued funding for NYIFUP is not guaranteed by the city. The de Blasio administration must increase NYIFUP funding and make it permanent.</p> <p>CUNY Citizenship Now!: Since 1996, the City University of New York lawyers, paralegals, and volunteers have assisted hundreds of thousands of immigrants with legal advice, representation, and referrals. Programs like this are worthy of celebration and require our continuing support.</p> <p>IDNYC: IDNYC is the largest municipal ID program in the country with over 900,000 subscribers. It promotes civic participation, the economy, and public safety. We will ensure it continues to thrive. We call on the de Blasio administration to do everything in its power to protect the personal data of IDNYC cardholders. Entities like the NYPD, banks, and cultural institutions must continue to honor this government-issued ID. We will do our part in the Council, and in conversations with the mayor, to protect and defend the privacy of current and future IDNYC cardholders.</p> <p>Second, we must expand protections and investment for New York City immigrants.</p> <p>We are committed to building upon our victories, expanding existing initiatives, and creating new services, through efforts such as:</p> <p>Expanding Funding for Immigration Legal Services: Today, NYIFUP is limited to individuals who are detained and do not have a prior order of removal. In anticipation of the Trump administration, the program should be expanded to provide representation to other classes of immigrants facing deportation. The City Council and the de Blasio administration have also recently invested in legal representation in complex immigration cases. The demand for this type of representation will likely expand under a Trump presidency, requiring increased funding for these services, as well. We commit to fighting for these increases in funding for immigration legal services in the fiscal year 2018 budget negotiation process.</p> <p>Right to Immigration Counsel Law: A right to immigration counsel enshrined in law would help ensure that all individuals going through immigration court proceedings are represented by competent lawyers. While this might be expensive, we cannot let that deter us from doing what is right. We commit to working with our colleagues in the Council and the mayor to further assess the feasibility of a Right to Immigration Counsel Law.</p> <p>Protection from Notario and Immigration Attorney Fraud: One of the clearest ways to protect immigrant families is to ensure they are not victimized by unethical “notarios” (notaries who present themselves as immigration legal service providers) and incompetent or sham attorneys. Notario and attorney fraud harms vulnerable New Yorkers seeking immigration assistance. Our constituents encounter fake lawyers, scams, inflated fees, and predatory providers daily. Often, in addition to bilking families out of thousands of dollars, these bad actors cause serious harm to their legitimate immigration cases. We commit to working with the Department of Consumer Affairs, the Mayor’s Office of Immigrant Affairs, and advocates on continuing to protect immigrants from notario and immigration attorney fraud.</p> <p>Expanding Participatory Budgeting: Each year, through Participatory Budgeting (PB), Council members voluntarily cede capital budget allocation decisions to residents of their districts who collaborate to decide which projects best serve their communities. We have repeatedly seen an overwhelming number of PB ballots in languages other than English, which demonstrates the engagement of immigrants in this process. This also indicates to us that while many immigrants cannot vote in other types of elections due to their immigration status, many are eager to participate in our city’s democratic process. The city all immigrants and other residents love, contribute to, and call home should welcome civic participation. We commit to strengthening PB in our districts and supporting its growth across the city.</p> <p>We are prepared for a Trump era during which immigrant communities will likely be under attack. New York City will stand as a beacon of welcome, hope, and protection for immigrants.</p> <p>In the New York City Council, we commit to defending our history of hard-won victories, while also expanding protections for immigrants. We know cities will need to hold the line against Trump administration attacks. As New Yorkers, we embrace that challenge together.</p> <p>***<br />Carlos Menchaca is the City Council Member for District 38 in Brooklyn and Chair of the Committee on Immigration.<br />Julissa Ferreras-Copeland is the City Council Member for District 21 in Queens and Chair of the Committee on Finance.<br />Follow them on Twitter: <a href="https://twitter.com/cmenchaca" target="_blank">@cmenchaca</a>&nbsp;&amp; <a href="https://twitter.com/JulissaFerreras" target="_blank">@julissaferreras</a>.</p> <p>

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<p><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/images/13528878_1124384977604978_3045454797811728480_n_1.jpg" alt="ferreras-copeland menchaca press conference" width="600" height="450" /></p> <p>The authors: Council Members Menchaca, left, &amp; Ferreras-Copeland, center</p> <hr /> <p>New York’s immigrant families are waking up terrified as President-elect Trump, his supporters and growing administration spew hate. In spite of his new stance to “work something out” for Dreamers, Trump’s words are met with lack of trust. As the children of immigrants, we take attacks from Trump and his supporters personally and are filled with the courage needed to fight harder and smarter than ever to protect the rights and freedoms of diverse immigrant communities throughout New York City.</p> <p>To this end, the New York City Council passed a resolution this week affirming our commitment to remain a sanctuary city for immigrants, and we personally delivered it hours later to Trump Tower. Our resolution codifies past commitments to sanctuary while signaling to everyone that we will invest the time, energy, and resources required to make good on our promises.<br />Our resolve is clear: we are here to stay.</p> <p>Our City Council, like those in municipalities across the country, will play a lead role in this fight by redoubling our efforts to keep New York City a true sanctuary city. With the support of our Council colleagues, Speaker Melissa Mark-Viverito, Mayor Bill de Blasio, fierce advocates, and brave New York families, we commit to immigrants that this city will remain a safe home.</p> <p>This week’s sanctuary city resolution memorialized our commitment, and we will ensure it through, in part, the following:</p> <p>First, we will defend our victories by preserving existing policies, initiatives, and programs that protect immigrants.</p> <p>Detainer Law: The Council’s 2014 detainer discretion law has protected between 3,000 and 4,000 New Yorkers per year from deportation. The law draws a bright line between municipal law enforcement and overly aggressive federal immigration enforcement. All New Yorkers are safer when there is trust between immigrants and the NYPD because crimes are more likely to be reported and witnesses feel safer. Under the Trump Administration, we commit to gear up for legal challenges to this law, and we expect to prevail.</p> <p>The New York Immigrant Family Unity Program (NYIFUP): NYIFUP provides legal services for New Yorkers who are detained and facing deportation. It has been highly successful and serves as a blueprint for other progressive municipalities. Continued funding for NYIFUP is not guaranteed by the city. The de Blasio administration must increase NYIFUP funding and make it permanent.</p> <p>CUNY Citizenship Now!: Since 1996, the City University of New York lawyers, paralegals, and volunteers have assisted hundreds of thousands of immigrants with legal advice, representation, and referrals. Programs like this are worthy of celebration and require our continuing support.</p> <p>IDNYC: IDNYC is the largest municipal ID program in the country with over 900,000 subscribers. It promotes civic participation, the economy, and public safety. We will ensure it continues to thrive. We call on the de Blasio administration to do everything in its power to protect the personal data of IDNYC cardholders. Entities like the NYPD, banks, and cultural institutions must continue to honor this government-issued ID. We will do our part in the Council, and in conversations with the mayor, to protect and defend the privacy of current and future IDNYC cardholders.</p> <p>Second, we must expand protections and investment for New York City immigrants.</p> <p>We are committed to building upon our victories, expanding existing initiatives, and creating new services, through efforts such as:</p> <p>Expanding Funding for Immigration Legal Services: Today, NYIFUP is limited to individuals who are detained and do not have a prior order of removal. In anticipation of the Trump administration, the program should be expanded to provide representation to other classes of immigrants facing deportation. The City Council and the de Blasio administration have also recently invested in legal representation in complex immigration cases. The demand for this type of representation will likely expand under a Trump presidency, requiring increased funding for these services, as well. We commit to fighting for these increases in funding for immigration legal services in the fiscal year 2018 budget negotiation process.</p> <p>Right to Immigration Counsel Law: A right to immigration counsel enshrined in law would help ensure that all individuals going through immigration court proceedings are represented by competent lawyers. While this might be expensive, we cannot let that deter us from doing what is right. We commit to working with our colleagues in the Council and the mayor to further assess the feasibility of a Right to Immigration Counsel Law.</p> <p>Protection from Notario and Immigration Attorney Fraud: One of the clearest ways to protect immigrant families is to ensure they are not victimized by unethical “notarios” (notaries who present themselves as immigration legal service providers) and incompetent or sham attorneys. Notario and attorney fraud harms vulnerable New Yorkers seeking immigration assistance. Our constituents encounter fake lawyers, scams, inflated fees, and predatory providers daily. Often, in addition to bilking families out of thousands of dollars, these bad actors cause serious harm to their legitimate immigration cases. We commit to working with the Department of Consumer Affairs, the Mayor’s Office of Immigrant Affairs, and advocates on continuing to protect immigrants from notario and immigration attorney fraud.</p> <p>Expanding Participatory Budgeting: Each year, through Participatory Budgeting (PB), Council members voluntarily cede capital budget allocation decisions to residents of their districts who collaborate to decide which projects best serve their communities. We have repeatedly seen an overwhelming number of PB ballots in languages other than English, which demonstrates the engagement of immigrants in this process. This also indicates to us that while many immigrants cannot vote in other types of elections due to their immigration status, many are eager to participate in our city’s democratic process. The city all immigrants and other residents love, contribute to, and call home should welcome civic participation. We commit to strengthening PB in our districts and supporting its growth across the city.</p> <p>We are prepared for a Trump era during which immigrant communities will likely be under attack. New York City will stand as a beacon of welcome, hope, and protection for immigrants.</p> <p>In the New York City Council, we commit to defending our history of hard-won victories, while also expanding protections for immigrants. We know cities will need to hold the line against Trump administration attacks. As New Yorkers, we embrace that challenge together.</p> <p>***<br />Carlos Menchaca is the City Council Member for District 38 in Brooklyn and Chair of the Committee on Immigration.<br />Julissa Ferreras-Copeland is the City Council Member for District 21 in Queens and Chair of the Committee on Finance.<br />Follow them on Twitter: <a href="https://twitter.com/cmenchaca" target="_blank">@cmenchaca</a>&nbsp;&amp; <a href="https://twitter.com/JulissaFerreras" target="_blank">@julissaferreras</a>.</p> <p>

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On Election Day, Federal Policy & Funding Stakes High for New York City 2016-11-06T04:00:00+00:00 2016-11-06T04:00:00+00:00 http://www.gothamgazette.com/?id=6612:on-election-day-federal-policy-funding-stakes-high-for-new-york-city Ben Max <p><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/images/graphics/2016/26067102650_c00781c0fb_z.jpg" alt="clinton de blasio inner circle" width="600" height="400" /></p> <p dir="ltr">Clinton &amp; de Blasio (photo: Michael&nbsp;Appleton/Mayor's Office)</p> <hr /> <p dir="ltr">Both Hillary Clinton and Donald Trump will be in New York City on election night, and one of them will be the next President of the United States. Through the results of the presidential election, which comes down to one native New Yorker and one New York transplant, and with the congressional elections on the ballot, there’s a great deal at stake for New York City.</p> <p dir="ltr">According to the fiscal year 2017 <a href="http://www1.nyc.gov/assets/omb/downloads/pdf/sum4-16.pdf">budget summary</a> released by the mayor’s office in April, in 1978 almost 23 percent of New York City’s budget came from the <a href="https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B2FgsXnUTRTiZXJrMUhKLVd0WXc/view">federal</a> government. During the late 1980s, that number was at roughly 11 percent. In 2015, the federal government provided slightly under 9 percent of the city’s total budget. Despite spikes in funding during catastrophic times like the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks or the Great Recession, decline in federal investment in New York City is nothing new, nor is it purely partisan.</p> <p dir="ltr">While cuts have been made to federal funding for infrastructure, housing, health care, and other important city programs over the years, New York felt a particular sting when President Barack Obama announced in February a significant cut in anti-terrorism funding in his 2017 budget. Mayor Bill de Blasio, frustrated, <a href="http://www.amny.com/news/mayor-bill-de-blasio-decries-homeland-security-cuts-1.11578166">traveled</a> to Washington to testify in front of Congress to restore the full amount of federal money granted. In May of this year, Congress <a href="https://www.schumer.senate.gov/newsroom/press-releases/after-schumer-push-key-nyc-anti-terrorism-funds-restored-to-600-million-previously-released-white-house-budget-wrongly-cut-funds-by-half-putting-vital-nypd-anti-terror-operations-in-jeopardy">passed</a> a Homeland Security <a href="https://www.congress.gov/114/bills/s1619/BILLS-114s1619pcs.pdf">bill</a>, which included the original $600 million for the Urban Area Security Initiative, more than the $330 million proposed by the White House.</p> <p dir="ltr">Federal aid in the form of grants helps fund community development, social service, and education programs -- but who is in the White House and party control in Congress have a great deal of influence over amount of such funding. New York City’s current fiscal year 2017 budget is about $82 billion, less than one-tenth of which comes through federal funds. In 2013, New York City &nbsp;taxpayers sent $57.3 billion in federal income tax to Washington, according to <a href="http://observer.com/2016/03/feds-to-new-york-city-drop-dead-again/">the Observer</a>, which reported in March on &nbsp;federal disinvestment in New York.</p> <p dir="ltr">According to the city’s Independent Budget Office, the top three city <a href="http://ibo.nyc.ny.us/cgi-park2/category/federal-aid/">agencies</a> that received the most federal aid from 2011-2015 were the Department of Education ($8.4 billion), Human Resources Administration ($7.7 billion) and the Administration for Children’s Services ($6.4 billion).</p> <p dir="ltr">The fiscal needs of big cities like New York sometimes get short-changed in D.C., explained Jonathan Bowles, executive director of the Center for an Urban Future, an independent policy group focused on improving New York City’s economy.</p> <p dir="ltr">“Because it’s such a big city, because it’s perceived as a liberal city,” Bowles said in an interview. “For whatever reason, it’s struggled to get its fair share of funding.”</p> <p dir="ltr">Some also point to cities, especially New York, being seen as economic engines not in need of federal support -- saying that leaders in Washington see New York City more as a booster of federal coffers through tax revenue.</p> <p>Bowles said the next presidential administration has a real opportunity to include urban areas in new budget proposals, after decades of ignoring them.</p> <p>“Politicians in Washington really didn’t want to talk about urban areas, and they were perceived as the problem,” he said. “But whether it’s public housing, transit funding or so many other things, New York’s needs are clearly not being taken care of by the federal government.”</p> <p>Over the past year, Mayor de Blasio has campaigned for Hillary Clinton, his fellow Democrat, on numerous occasions and in a variety of states (this, after he delayed his endorsement of Clinton). De Blasio dedicated his time to campaigning for Clinton instead of stumping for Democratic candidates in key New York State Senate races, where control of that chamber will be decided. In 2014, de Blasio and his allies attempted to swing seats to ensure a Democratic takeover of the last Republican stronghold in New York statewide government. The effort failed and “Team de Blasio” is under investigation for some of the fundraising tactics it used.<br />De Blasio said he is focusing on the federal election this cycle, and in part doing so due to the large stakes at play for New York.</p> <p dir="ltr">“[This election] will decide the presidency, it will decide the future of the Senate, maybe even the House, but it’s also going to reset the American political dialogue,” de Blasio said at a<a href="http://www1.nyc.gov/office-of-the-mayor/news/799-16/mayor-de-blasio-more-help-tenants-20-000-more-seniors-new-yorkers-with#/0"> press conference</a> when Gotham Gazette asked why he was choosing to be involved in the presidential race but not state Senate races. Key pieces of de Blasio’s agenda have been limited or blocked by Senate Republicans in Albany.</p> <p dir="ltr">“I think it’s some of the time that’s going to be best spent in the next few weeks because if it helps us change the trajectory of the country and the federal government, that’s going to help New York City in a very big and very material way,” de Blasio said of campaigning for Clinton. At other times, de Blasio has acknowledged that he is staying away from the state Senate races because of the “atmosphere” of investigations into his team’s 2014 tactics.</p> <p dir="ltr">Most federal policies impact New York. According to E.J. McMahon, research director at the Empire Center for Public Policy, the outcome of congressional races may affect New Yorkers more so than who becomes the country’s next president. <br /><br />“Congress controls the purse strings,” McMahon said by email. “Congress basically wrote the two most important pieces of Obama-era legislation, the [Affordable Care Act] and stimulus. The makeup of Congress will ultimately determine whether there is any significant change in tax or infrastructure policy, both of which have major implications for New York in particular.”</p> <p dir="ltr">As the city’s economic relationship with Washington continues to decline, city officials seek a presidential administration that would resurrect the stronger partnership it once had. Policy and funding are the two key areas, and they are usually linked. Federal policy on immigration, education, health care, and other key areas greatly affect what New York City does -- and there is a great deal at stake in the presidential race in terms of different policy visions. The same goes for those who might control each house of Congress.</p> <p dir="ltr">In terms of additional funds from Washington, the city is looking for increased aid for bridges, tunnels, and roads; money toward jobs programs and housing vouchers; and more.</p> <p dir="ltr">While it is not completely clear how a Clinton or a Trump presidency would differ for New York City -- and control of Congress may come into play significantly -- the two major party candidates have outlined different visions on the overall role of the federal government, as well as on trade, immigration, the minimum wage and a variety of other policies.</p> <p dir="ltr">Dr. Bruce Berg, a political science professor at Fordham University, said there are three levels on which to assess the candidates’ plans and their potential impact on New York. These include each campaigns’ intended agenda, which party controls the House of Representatives and the Senate, and the candidate’s relationship with the mayor. Berg says the issues most at stake for New Yorkers in this election include infrastructure investment, immigration reform, healthcare, and public housing.</p> <p dir="ltr"><strong>New York City’s Aging Infrastructure</strong><br />Prioritizing investment in the nation’s infrastructure may be the biggest area of agreement for Clinton and Trump. The aging roads, bridges, and water systems of the United States are deteriorating; <a href="http://www.economist.com/news/united-states/21709038-it-will-take-more-just-money-get-america-moving-view-bridge">government data </a>show in 2014, 32 percent of roads were rated “poor,” up from 16 percent in 2005.</p> <p dir="ltr">During a recent U.S. Conference of Mayors event in Manhattan, Mayor de Blasio said 160 bridges in New York City were built over 100 or more years ago. The average lifespan for a bridge remains about 40 years. Despite being the tenth largest economy in the world, attracting more and more residents and tourists to the city each year, New York City’s aging infrastructure needs a serious upgrade, according to the mayor, as well as many others. And it’s not just New York, de Blasio explained at the USCM event, but cities nationwide that are losing funding for infrastructure projects.</p> <p dir="ltr">“In the biggest cities in the country, there are more structurally deficient bridges than there are McDonald’s in the entire country,” de Blasio said. “And if you think about something that unites us all, those golden arches...and then think of a lot of bridges tragically on the verge of falling down.”</p> <p dir="ltr">Although both Clinton and Trump agree the nation’s infrastructure is crumbling, their plans to pay for related projects differ dramatically. If Hillary Clinton wins the election, her first-100-days <a href="https://www.hillaryclinton.com/issues/fixing-americas-infrastructure/">plan</a> includes investing $275 billion to rebuild the country’s infrastructure. This includes investing in roads and bridges, but also in water systems, increasing wide-accessibility to internet, and improving the rate of completing these projects.</p> <p dir="ltr">Former Mayor of Philadelphia and Governor of Pennsylvania, Ed Rendell, a Clinton surrogate, said Clinton’s investment will be over five years and paid for through business tax reforms, including &nbsp;a one-time tax for corporations bringing profits held overseas back to the U.S. She hopes to allocate $25 billion over five years to a national infrastructure bank, which would fund projects that become held up due to political inertia in Congress. According to Rendell, Clinton also hopes to reauthorize the Build America Bonds program, which would finance infrastructure projects entirely from the federal government.</p> <p dir="ltr">“It will bring jobs, growth, improve infrastructure, improve public safety, improve our quality of live and make us more economically competitive,” Governor Rendell said about Clinton’s plan at the Conference of Mayors event.</p> <p dir="ltr">Calling it “America’s Infrastructure First,” Trump also plans to invest heavily in infrastructure. His <a href="https://www.donaldjtrump.com/policies/an-americas-infrastructure-first-plan/">plan</a> includes spending <a href="http://finance.yahoo.com/news/exclusive-trumps-newest-plan-spend-1-trillion-on-infrastructure-without-raising-taxes-130001535.html">$1 trillion</a> over a decade. He says he will pay for this plan not by raising taxes, but instead through private companies by offering a tax credit. &nbsp;While one-sixth of a project’s cost would be funded privately, government-issued bonds would cover the <a href="http://finance.yahoo.com/news/how-trump-and-clinton-differ-on-infrastructure-spending-201038825.html">rest</a>.&nbsp;</p> <p dir="ltr">Trump’s proposal, the details of which were released two weeks before the election, would take advantage of low interest rates and encourage construction companies to spend on road and bridge projects that have revenue attached. These include toll roads, toll bridges and airports. This way, according to Trump and his advisors, the plan will pay for itself.</p> <p dir="ltr">In June, Trump vowed to create the “greatest infrastructure” in the world with his plan. “When I see the crumbling roads and bridges, or the dilapidated airports or the factories moving overseas to Mexico, or to other countries for that matter, I know these problems can all be fixed, but not by Hillary Clinton,” he said. “Only by me.”&nbsp;</p> <p dir="ltr"><strong>City of Immigrants</strong><br />Approximately <a href="https://nycfuture.org/pdf/A-City-of-Immigrants.pdf">37 percent</a> of New York City’s total population is foreign-born. Making up roughly 43 percent of the city’s total <a href="https://osc.state.ny.us/osdc/rpt7-2016.pdf">workforce</a>, immigrants significantly contribute to the city’s <a href="https://www1.nyc.gov/site/planning/data-maps/nyc-population/newest-new-yorkers-2013.page">economy</a>. The immigration policies under the next President and Congress will greatly impact the city’s immigrants, half a million of whom are undocumented, as well as prospective immigrants, both documented and undocumented.</p> <p dir="ltr">Alisa Wellek, the executive director of the Immigration Defense Project, a nonprofit, said New York has long been considered a target for deportation and detention of immigrants by Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE), a federal agency.</p> <p dir="ltr">“After 9/11 in New York, the enforcement apparatus really ramped up those efforts in the city and nationally,” Wellek said. “It’s really an unprecedented scale of mass deportations which affects many New Yorkers who are noncitizens and those who are a part of families that are a mix of citizens and noncitizens.” &nbsp;</p> <p dir="ltr">Within her first 100 days as President, Clinton <a href="https://www.hillaryclinton.com/issues/immigration-reform/">plans</a> to create a pathway to full citizenship, defend President Obama’s executive actions of DACA and DAPA, which extended the amount of time immigrant children and their parents can stay in the country, access to healthcare for all immigrants, and end corporation-owned, private immigration detention centers. During the final presidential <a href="http://www.vox.com/policy-and-politics/2016/10/19/13336894/third-presidential-debate-live-transcript-clinton-trump">debate</a>, Clinton discussed how she would enforce immigration laws.</p> <p dir="ltr">“I don’t want to rip families apart,” Clinton said. “I don’t want to be sending parents away from children. I don’t want to see the deportation force that Donald has talked about in action in our country,” she said.</p> <p dir="ltr">Clinton also said she wants to bring undocumented immigrants “out from the shadows” and into the economy in order to protect them from “exploitative” employers and wage theft.</p> <p dir="ltr">Since the beginning of his campaign, Trump’s top issue has been illegal immigration. His <a href="https://www.donaldjtrump.com/policies/immigration">plans</a> include building a wall at the country’s southern border, paid for by Mexico, ending sanctuary cities, and creating a <a href="http://www.cnn.com/2015/12/07/politics/donald-trump-muslim-ban-immigration/">“total and complete shut down of Muslims”</a> from entering the country. He has spoken &nbsp;unclearly about what a “shut down” actually means, referring to “extreme vetting” of potential migrants and refugees, and saying the ban would not be on Muslims, per se, but on people leaving certain areas of the world where ISIS is most active.</p> <p dir="ltr">In New York City, the Muslim population continues to grow and <a href="http://www.nytimes.com/2014/04/18/nyregion/muslims-in-new-york-city-unite-on-push-to-add-holidays-to-school-calendar.html">estimates</a> range from 600,000 to 1 million individuals. Trump’s plan to create a database of Muslims living in the United States and ban them from entering the U.S. could potentially have significant social and economic effects, though the specifics remain unclear. It is also not clear whether these measures would enhance national security.</p> <p dir="ltr">During a visit to Phoenix, Arizona this summer, Trump discussed his idea of immigration <a href="https://www.donaldjtrump.com/press-releases/donald-j.-trump-address-on-immigration">reform</a>:&nbsp;“We also have to be honest about the fact that not everyone who seeks to join our country will be able to successfully assimilate,” Trump said. “It is our right as a sovereign nation to choose immigrants that we think are the likeliest to thrive and flourish here.”</p> <p dir="ltr">Wellek said she hopes the next administration will overhaul the immigration system by repealing the 1996 immigration laws, ending mandatory deportation and detention and aligning reforms made in the criminal justice system with the immigration system. According to Wellek, New York has recognized the role immigrants play in the city.</p> <p dir="ltr">“One thing New York City has done, that’s been very progressive, has been narrowing the collaboration between local police and immigration enforcement,” she said. “I think one big act for the next administration would be to end that collaboration fully.”&nbsp;</p> <p dir="ltr">What Wellek is referring to is a decision by Mayor de Blasio and the City Council to cooperate less with ICE. Indeed, many elected officials from the city, which is dominated by Democrats, have spoken out against Trump’s immigration agenda and said that it would be especially harmful to New York.</p> <p dir="ltr"><strong>New York Health Care</strong><br />Since it’s inception, President Obama’s Affordable Care Act (ACA) has helped <a href="http://www.gallup.com/poll/181664/arkansas-kentucky-improvement-uninsured-rates.aspx?utm_source=tagrss&amp;utm_medium=rss&amp;utm_campaign=syndication">decrease</a> the number of New Yorkers lacking health insurance by 2.5 percent, from 12.6 to 10.1 percent uninsured. Despite data showing this success, uninsured patients still makeup about <a href="http://www1.nyc.gov/assets/home/downloads/pdf/reports/2016/Health-and-Hospitals-Report.pdf">70 percent</a> of stays at public New York City hospitals, Health + Hospitals, which is very costly to the city. Some of these patients are undocumented immigrants who were left out of the ACA, but still use public hospitals. This, along with soaring costs and declining revenue, has New York City’s public hospitals in <a href="http://www.bloomberg.com/politics/articles/2016-08-22/new-york-city-hospitals-seen-unwilling-to-take-stronger-medicine">financial crisis</a>. Health + Hospitals is projected to have an operating deficit of $1.8 billion by 2020. The candidates’ two very different healthcare reform plans have the potential to affect the future of healthcare in New York.</p> <p dir="ltr">Like most Republicans, Donald Trump disparages the ACA, or Obamacare as it is often known, and Trump <a href="https://www.donaldjtrump.com/positions/healthcare-reform">plans</a> to eliminate and replace the ACA on day one of office, he says. He called Obamacare “a big fat, horrible lie” and a “catastrophe” -- criticism that has received some boost given recent news about rate hikes under ACA exchanges.</p> <p dir="ltr">Trump has not explained exactly what he would replace it with, but promises something “far better” and cheaper, and has said the country must eliminate “the lines” that restrict how insurers can sell health insurance state by state.</p> <p dir="ltr">Trump wants to transform Medicaid, the federal healthcare program for the poor, into state block grants.&nbsp;</p> <p dir="ltr">If elected, Hillary Clinton <a href="https://www.hillaryclinton.com/issues/health-care/">plans</a> to preserve the ACA and attempt to expand coverage for those that do not currently qualify for health insurance under the law. This means expanding Medicaid in every state, lowering health care premiums, and providing citizens a public-option insurance plan, which Clinton hopes to push states to offer their residents. A public option could insure over 400,000 people in New York who were left out of the ACA. If Republicans continue to control the House of Representatives, this expansion of the law has <a href="http://www.npr.org/2016/11/02/500371785/platform-check-trump-and-clinton-on-health-care">little chance</a> of passing Congress.</p> <p dir="ltr">Clinton also said she wants to double the funding for primary care services at community health centers over the next ten years, which would increase access to health care for many underserved, low-income, and uninsured New Yorkers. According to her campaign website, she also wants to “expand access to affordable health care to families regardless of immigration status by allowing families to buy health insurance on the health Exchanges regardless of their immigration status” - a move that could have drastic effects in New York City given the financial issues at Health + Hospitals.</p> <p dir="ltr"><strong>Funding for NYCHA</strong><br />As the largest public housing authority in the country, the New York City Housing Authority (NYCHA) <a href="https://www1.nyc.gov/assets/nycha/downloads/pdf/factsheet.pdf">currently serves</a> about 600,000 New Yorkers, including Section 8 voucher holders. Based on the July 2015 Census, 4.7 percent of the city’s population lives in public housing. No new public housing buildings are being constructed and New York is one of few places in the country that has committed to keeping its public housing stock. At the same time, federal funding for NYCHA has shrunk considerably, with the federal government moving more toward housing vouchers, which are used at some NYCHA facilities.&nbsp;</p> <p dir="ltr">The de Blasio administration has invested considerable additional funds into NYCHA, but the authority is also in serious financial trouble. The mayor launched a 10-year plan titled NextGeneration NYCHA, which includes a variety of initiatives, one of which is a program that <a href="http://citylimits.org/2016/06/21/intense-nycha-engagement-effort-could-soften-infill-opposition/">leases underutilized land</a> to developers to build both affordable and market-rate housing.</p> <p dir="ltr">This plan hopes to combat the <a href="http://www.politico.com/states/new-york/city-hall/story/2016/05/hud-slashes-funding-for-some-new-york-city-homeless-shelters-101531">decline</a> in federal funds dedicated to public housing, especially after NYCHA’s expected deficit jumped from $25 million to $60 million in 2016. NYCHA has struggled to meet basic <a href="http://www.nydailynews.com/new-york/no-gas-6-weeks-nycha-housing-tenants-outraged-article-1.2819245">maintenance and operation</a> costs, though it has instituted several new reforms to improve the situation. Bowles, of Center for an Urban Future, said that Congress has not increased funding for housing projects in New York and other major cities for decades.</p> <p dir="ltr">“Public housing has been starved at the federal level for years,” Bowles said. “It’s been decades since we’ve seen a real appetite in Washington to support the public housing infrastructure.”</p> <p dir="ltr">Public housing is one piece of the overall affordable housing picture. Despite being a major issue for most cities nationwide, tackling<a href="http://www.nytimes.com/2016/08/12/us/politics/trump-clinton-poverty.html"> affordable housing and the cycle of poverty</a> never became a major focus during this presidential election. In September, Clinton wrote an <a href="http://www.nytimes.com/2016/09/21/opinion/hillary-clinton-my-plan-for-helping-americas-poor.html">op-ed</a> in the New York Times addressing housing.</p> <p dir="ltr">“If we want to get serious about poverty, we also need a national commitment to create more affordable housing,” Clinton wrote. “Too many people are putting off saving for their children or retirement just to keep a roof over their families’ heads.”</p> <p dir="ltr">Clinton calls for expanding Low Income Housing Tax Credits in areas of high-cost to create more affordable housing in viable neighborhoods.</p> <p dir="ltr">Trump, a real-estate mogul, has released no specific plan to address affordable housing and nothing on his campaign website mentions it. However, the Republican Party’s <a href="https://www.gop.com/platform/restoring-the-american-dream/">platform</a> calls for “responsible homeownership” and giving more control over zoning procedures to local authorities, rather than from the federal government.</p> <p dir="ltr"><strong>Congress, the President and Mayor de Blasio</strong><br />The relationship between the Mayor of New York City and the next president is important, as is the next president’s commitment to urban issues. Additionally, the makeup of Congress and the major funding decisions regarding aid sent to cities remains of utmost importance. If Democrats are able to retake control of the Senate, New York Senator Charles Schumer is likely to be Majority Leader, which could be a boon for New York.</p> <p dir="ltr">Despite a long relationship with Clinton, including managing her 2000 campaign for U.S. Senate, de Blasio waited months after Clinton announced her presidential candidacy to endorse her, wanting to push her more to the left on issues. In recently hacked emails, the Clinton campaign expressed annoyance with de Blasio, jokingly calling him a “<a href="http://www.nydailynews.com/news/politics/leaked-emails-show-clinton-aide-calling-de-blasio-terrorist-article-1.2829337">terrorist</a>.” Donald Trump has <a href="http://nypost.com/2016/07/07/trump-de-blasio-is-the-worst-mayor-in-nyc-history/">called</a> de Blasio “incompetent” and the “single worst mayor in the history of New York City,” but has praised the mayor after he was elected.</p> <p dir="ltr">In part due to obstruction by congressional Republicans who want to see less government, President Obama has issued over 250 executive actions to get around legislative gridlock. Bruce Berg of Fordham University says if Clinton wins the presidency, she may face similar barriers to getting laws passed in Congress, which would affect federal aid granted to New York City and elsewhere.&nbsp;</p> <p>“I think the most likely scenario, looking at the election right now, is a Clinton victory, where she comes in as a rather crippled president and we get very little major initiative in the next four years,” Berg said. “I think what that means is that routine federal aid to New York continues to decline slowly as it has for the last several decades.”</p> <p>

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by Devin Gannon for Gotham Gazette

Read more by this writer.

</p>
<p><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/images/graphics/2016/26067102650_c00781c0fb_z.jpg" alt="clinton de blasio inner circle" width="600" height="400" /></p> <p dir="ltr">Clinton &amp; de Blasio (photo: Michael&nbsp;Appleton/Mayor's Office)</p> <hr /> <p dir="ltr">Both Hillary Clinton and Donald Trump will be in New York City on election night, and one of them will be the next President of the United States. Through the results of the presidential election, which comes down to one native New Yorker and one New York transplant, and with the congressional elections on the ballot, there’s a great deal at stake for New York City.</p> <p dir="ltr">According to the fiscal year 2017 <a href="http://www1.nyc.gov/assets/omb/downloads/pdf/sum4-16.pdf">budget summary</a> released by the mayor’s office in April, in 1978 almost 23 percent of New York City’s budget came from the <a href="https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B2FgsXnUTRTiZXJrMUhKLVd0WXc/view">federal</a> government. During the late 1980s, that number was at roughly 11 percent. In 2015, the federal government provided slightly under 9 percent of the city’s total budget. Despite spikes in funding during catastrophic times like the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks or the Great Recession, decline in federal investment in New York City is nothing new, nor is it purely partisan.</p> <p dir="ltr">While cuts have been made to federal funding for infrastructure, housing, health care, and other important city programs over the years, New York felt a particular sting when President Barack Obama announced in February a significant cut in anti-terrorism funding in his 2017 budget. Mayor Bill de Blasio, frustrated, <a href="http://www.amny.com/news/mayor-bill-de-blasio-decries-homeland-security-cuts-1.11578166">traveled</a> to Washington to testify in front of Congress to restore the full amount of federal money granted. In May of this year, Congress <a href="https://www.schumer.senate.gov/newsroom/press-releases/after-schumer-push-key-nyc-anti-terrorism-funds-restored-to-600-million-previously-released-white-house-budget-wrongly-cut-funds-by-half-putting-vital-nypd-anti-terror-operations-in-jeopardy">passed</a> a Homeland Security <a href="https://www.congress.gov/114/bills/s1619/BILLS-114s1619pcs.pdf">bill</a>, which included the original $600 million for the Urban Area Security Initiative, more than the $330 million proposed by the White House.</p> <p dir="ltr">Federal aid in the form of grants helps fund community development, social service, and education programs -- but who is in the White House and party control in Congress have a great deal of influence over amount of such funding. New York City’s current fiscal year 2017 budget is about $82 billion, less than one-tenth of which comes through federal funds. In 2013, New York City &nbsp;taxpayers sent $57.3 billion in federal income tax to Washington, according to <a href="http://observer.com/2016/03/feds-to-new-york-city-drop-dead-again/">the Observer</a>, which reported in March on &nbsp;federal disinvestment in New York.</p> <p dir="ltr">According to the city’s Independent Budget Office, the top three city <a href="http://ibo.nyc.ny.us/cgi-park2/category/federal-aid/">agencies</a> that received the most federal aid from 2011-2015 were the Department of Education ($8.4 billion), Human Resources Administration ($7.7 billion) and the Administration for Children’s Services ($6.4 billion).</p> <p dir="ltr">The fiscal needs of big cities like New York sometimes get short-changed in D.C., explained Jonathan Bowles, executive director of the Center for an Urban Future, an independent policy group focused on improving New York City’s economy.</p> <p dir="ltr">“Because it’s such a big city, because it’s perceived as a liberal city,” Bowles said in an interview. “For whatever reason, it’s struggled to get its fair share of funding.”</p> <p dir="ltr">Some also point to cities, especially New York, being seen as economic engines not in need of federal support -- saying that leaders in Washington see New York City more as a booster of federal coffers through tax revenue.</p> <p>Bowles said the next presidential administration has a real opportunity to include urban areas in new budget proposals, after decades of ignoring them.</p> <p>“Politicians in Washington really didn’t want to talk about urban areas, and they were perceived as the problem,” he said. “But whether it’s public housing, transit funding or so many other things, New York’s needs are clearly not being taken care of by the federal government.”</p> <p>Over the past year, Mayor de Blasio has campaigned for Hillary Clinton, his fellow Democrat, on numerous occasions and in a variety of states (this, after he delayed his endorsement of Clinton). De Blasio dedicated his time to campaigning for Clinton instead of stumping for Democratic candidates in key New York State Senate races, where control of that chamber will be decided. In 2014, de Blasio and his allies attempted to swing seats to ensure a Democratic takeover of the last Republican stronghold in New York statewide government. The effort failed and “Team de Blasio” is under investigation for some of the fundraising tactics it used.<br />De Blasio said he is focusing on the federal election this cycle, and in part doing so due to the large stakes at play for New York.</p> <p dir="ltr">“[This election] will decide the presidency, it will decide the future of the Senate, maybe even the House, but it’s also going to reset the American political dialogue,” de Blasio said at a<a href="http://www1.nyc.gov/office-of-the-mayor/news/799-16/mayor-de-blasio-more-help-tenants-20-000-more-seniors-new-yorkers-with#/0"> press conference</a> when Gotham Gazette asked why he was choosing to be involved in the presidential race but not state Senate races. Key pieces of de Blasio’s agenda have been limited or blocked by Senate Republicans in Albany.</p> <p dir="ltr">“I think it’s some of the time that’s going to be best spent in the next few weeks because if it helps us change the trajectory of the country and the federal government, that’s going to help New York City in a very big and very material way,” de Blasio said of campaigning for Clinton. At other times, de Blasio has acknowledged that he is staying away from the state Senate races because of the “atmosphere” of investigations into his team’s 2014 tactics.</p> <p dir="ltr">Most federal policies impact New York. According to E.J. McMahon, research director at the Empire Center for Public Policy, the outcome of congressional races may affect New Yorkers more so than who becomes the country’s next president. <br /><br />“Congress controls the purse strings,” McMahon said by email. “Congress basically wrote the two most important pieces of Obama-era legislation, the [Affordable Care Act] and stimulus. The makeup of Congress will ultimately determine whether there is any significant change in tax or infrastructure policy, both of which have major implications for New York in particular.”</p> <p dir="ltr">As the city’s economic relationship with Washington continues to decline, city officials seek a presidential administration that would resurrect the stronger partnership it once had. Policy and funding are the two key areas, and they are usually linked. Federal policy on immigration, education, health care, and other key areas greatly affect what New York City does -- and there is a great deal at stake in the presidential race in terms of different policy visions. The same goes for those who might control each house of Congress.</p> <p dir="ltr">In terms of additional funds from Washington, the city is looking for increased aid for bridges, tunnels, and roads; money toward jobs programs and housing vouchers; and more.</p> <p dir="ltr">While it is not completely clear how a Clinton or a Trump presidency would differ for New York City -- and control of Congress may come into play significantly -- the two major party candidates have outlined different visions on the overall role of the federal government, as well as on trade, immigration, the minimum wage and a variety of other policies.</p> <p dir="ltr">Dr. Bruce Berg, a political science professor at Fordham University, said there are three levels on which to assess the candidates’ plans and their potential impact on New York. These include each campaigns’ intended agenda, which party controls the House of Representatives and the Senate, and the candidate’s relationship with the mayor. Berg says the issues most at stake for New Yorkers in this election include infrastructure investment, immigration reform, healthcare, and public housing.</p> <p dir="ltr"><strong>New York City’s Aging Infrastructure</strong><br />Prioritizing investment in the nation’s infrastructure may be the biggest area of agreement for Clinton and Trump. The aging roads, bridges, and water systems of the United States are deteriorating; <a href="http://www.economist.com/news/united-states/21709038-it-will-take-more-just-money-get-america-moving-view-bridge">government data </a>show in 2014, 32 percent of roads were rated “poor,” up from 16 percent in 2005.</p> <p dir="ltr">During a recent U.S. Conference of Mayors event in Manhattan, Mayor de Blasio said 160 bridges in New York City were built over 100 or more years ago. The average lifespan for a bridge remains about 40 years. Despite being the tenth largest economy in the world, attracting more and more residents and tourists to the city each year, New York City’s aging infrastructure needs a serious upgrade, according to the mayor, as well as many others. And it’s not just New York, de Blasio explained at the USCM event, but cities nationwide that are losing funding for infrastructure projects.</p> <p dir="ltr">“In the biggest cities in the country, there are more structurally deficient bridges than there are McDonald’s in the entire country,” de Blasio said. “And if you think about something that unites us all, those golden arches...and then think of a lot of bridges tragically on the verge of falling down.”</p> <p dir="ltr">Although both Clinton and Trump agree the nation’s infrastructure is crumbling, their plans to pay for related projects differ dramatically. If Hillary Clinton wins the election, her first-100-days <a href="https://www.hillaryclinton.com/issues/fixing-americas-infrastructure/">plan</a> includes investing $275 billion to rebuild the country’s infrastructure. This includes investing in roads and bridges, but also in water systems, increasing wide-accessibility to internet, and improving the rate of completing these projects.</p> <p dir="ltr">Former Mayor of Philadelphia and Governor of Pennsylvania, Ed Rendell, a Clinton surrogate, said Clinton’s investment will be over five years and paid for through business tax reforms, including &nbsp;a one-time tax for corporations bringing profits held overseas back to the U.S. She hopes to allocate $25 billion over five years to a national infrastructure bank, which would fund projects that become held up due to political inertia in Congress. According to Rendell, Clinton also hopes to reauthorize the Build America Bonds program, which would finance infrastructure projects entirely from the federal government.</p> <p dir="ltr">“It will bring jobs, growth, improve infrastructure, improve public safety, improve our quality of live and make us more economically competitive,” Governor Rendell said about Clinton’s plan at the Conference of Mayors event.</p> <p dir="ltr">Calling it “America’s Infrastructure First,” Trump also plans to invest heavily in infrastructure. His <a href="https://www.donaldjtrump.com/policies/an-americas-infrastructure-first-plan/">plan</a> includes spending <a href="http://finance.yahoo.com/news/exclusive-trumps-newest-plan-spend-1-trillion-on-infrastructure-without-raising-taxes-130001535.html">$1 trillion</a> over a decade. He says he will pay for this plan not by raising taxes, but instead through private companies by offering a tax credit. &nbsp;While one-sixth of a project’s cost would be funded privately, government-issued bonds would cover the <a href="http://finance.yahoo.com/news/how-trump-and-clinton-differ-on-infrastructure-spending-201038825.html">rest</a>.&nbsp;</p> <p dir="ltr">Trump’s proposal, the details of which were released two weeks before the election, would take advantage of low interest rates and encourage construction companies to spend on road and bridge projects that have revenue attached. These include toll roads, toll bridges and airports. This way, according to Trump and his advisors, the plan will pay for itself.</p> <p dir="ltr">In June, Trump vowed to create the “greatest infrastructure” in the world with his plan. “When I see the crumbling roads and bridges, or the dilapidated airports or the factories moving overseas to Mexico, or to other countries for that matter, I know these problems can all be fixed, but not by Hillary Clinton,” he said. “Only by me.”&nbsp;</p> <p dir="ltr"><strong>City of Immigrants</strong><br />Approximately <a href="https://nycfuture.org/pdf/A-City-of-Immigrants.pdf">37 percent</a> of New York City’s total population is foreign-born. Making up roughly 43 percent of the city’s total <a href="https://osc.state.ny.us/osdc/rpt7-2016.pdf">workforce</a>, immigrants significantly contribute to the city’s <a href="https://www1.nyc.gov/site/planning/data-maps/nyc-population/newest-new-yorkers-2013.page">economy</a>. The immigration policies under the next President and Congress will greatly impact the city’s immigrants, half a million of whom are undocumented, as well as prospective immigrants, both documented and undocumented.</p> <p dir="ltr">Alisa Wellek, the executive director of the Immigration Defense Project, a nonprofit, said New York has long been considered a target for deportation and detention of immigrants by Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE), a federal agency.</p> <p dir="ltr">“After 9/11 in New York, the enforcement apparatus really ramped up those efforts in the city and nationally,” Wellek said. “It’s really an unprecedented scale of mass deportations which affects many New Yorkers who are noncitizens and those who are a part of families that are a mix of citizens and noncitizens.” &nbsp;</p> <p dir="ltr">Within her first 100 days as President, Clinton <a href="https://www.hillaryclinton.com/issues/immigration-reform/">plans</a> to create a pathway to full citizenship, defend President Obama’s executive actions of DACA and DAPA, which extended the amount of time immigrant children and their parents can stay in the country, access to healthcare for all immigrants, and end corporation-owned, private immigration detention centers. During the final presidential <a href="http://www.vox.com/policy-and-politics/2016/10/19/13336894/third-presidential-debate-live-transcript-clinton-trump">debate</a>, Clinton discussed how she would enforce immigration laws.</p> <p dir="ltr">“I don’t want to rip families apart,” Clinton said. “I don’t want to be sending parents away from children. I don’t want to see the deportation force that Donald has talked about in action in our country,” she said.</p> <p dir="ltr">Clinton also said she wants to bring undocumented immigrants “out from the shadows” and into the economy in order to protect them from “exploitative” employers and wage theft.</p> <p dir="ltr">Since the beginning of his campaign, Trump’s top issue has been illegal immigration. His <a href="https://www.donaldjtrump.com/policies/immigration">plans</a> include building a wall at the country’s southern border, paid for by Mexico, ending sanctuary cities, and creating a <a href="http://www.cnn.com/2015/12/07/politics/donald-trump-muslim-ban-immigration/">“total and complete shut down of Muslims”</a> from entering the country. He has spoken &nbsp;unclearly about what a “shut down” actually means, referring to “extreme vetting” of potential migrants and refugees, and saying the ban would not be on Muslims, per se, but on people leaving certain areas of the world where ISIS is most active.</p> <p dir="ltr">In New York City, the Muslim population continues to grow and <a href="http://www.nytimes.com/2014/04/18/nyregion/muslims-in-new-york-city-unite-on-push-to-add-holidays-to-school-calendar.html">estimates</a> range from 600,000 to 1 million individuals. Trump’s plan to create a database of Muslims living in the United States and ban them from entering the U.S. could potentially have significant social and economic effects, though the specifics remain unclear. It is also not clear whether these measures would enhance national security.</p> <p dir="ltr">During a visit to Phoenix, Arizona this summer, Trump discussed his idea of immigration <a href="https://www.donaldjtrump.com/press-releases/donald-j.-trump-address-on-immigration">reform</a>:&nbsp;“We also have to be honest about the fact that not everyone who seeks to join our country will be able to successfully assimilate,” Trump said. “It is our right as a sovereign nation to choose immigrants that we think are the likeliest to thrive and flourish here.”</p> <p dir="ltr">Wellek said she hopes the next administration will overhaul the immigration system by repealing the 1996 immigration laws, ending mandatory deportation and detention and aligning reforms made in the criminal justice system with the immigration system. According to Wellek, New York has recognized the role immigrants play in the city.</p> <p dir="ltr">“One thing New York City has done, that’s been very progressive, has been narrowing the collaboration between local police and immigration enforcement,” she said. “I think one big act for the next administration would be to end that collaboration fully.”&nbsp;</p> <p dir="ltr">What Wellek is referring to is a decision by Mayor de Blasio and the City Council to cooperate less with ICE. Indeed, many elected officials from the city, which is dominated by Democrats, have spoken out against Trump’s immigration agenda and said that it would be especially harmful to New York.</p> <p dir="ltr"><strong>New York Health Care</strong><br />Since it’s inception, President Obama’s Affordable Care Act (ACA) has helped <a href="http://www.gallup.com/poll/181664/arkansas-kentucky-improvement-uninsured-rates.aspx?utm_source=tagrss&amp;utm_medium=rss&amp;utm_campaign=syndication">decrease</a> the number of New Yorkers lacking health insurance by 2.5 percent, from 12.6 to 10.1 percent uninsured. Despite data showing this success, uninsured patients still makeup about <a href="http://www1.nyc.gov/assets/home/downloads/pdf/reports/2016/Health-and-Hospitals-Report.pdf">70 percent</a> of stays at public New York City hospitals, Health + Hospitals, which is very costly to the city. Some of these patients are undocumented immigrants who were left out of the ACA, but still use public hospitals. This, along with soaring costs and declining revenue, has New York City’s public hospitals in <a href="http://www.bloomberg.com/politics/articles/2016-08-22/new-york-city-hospitals-seen-unwilling-to-take-stronger-medicine">financial crisis</a>. Health + Hospitals is projected to have an operating deficit of $1.8 billion by 2020. The candidates’ two very different healthcare reform plans have the potential to affect the future of healthcare in New York.</p> <p dir="ltr">Like most Republicans, Donald Trump disparages the ACA, or Obamacare as it is often known, and Trump <a href="https://www.donaldjtrump.com/positions/healthcare-reform">plans</a> to eliminate and replace the ACA on day one of office, he says. He called Obamacare “a big fat, horrible lie” and a “catastrophe” -- criticism that has received some boost given recent news about rate hikes under ACA exchanges.</p> <p dir="ltr">Trump has not explained exactly what he would replace it with, but promises something “far better” and cheaper, and has said the country must eliminate “the lines” that restrict how insurers can sell health insurance state by state.</p> <p dir="ltr">Trump wants to transform Medicaid, the federal healthcare program for the poor, into state block grants.&nbsp;</p> <p dir="ltr">If elected, Hillary Clinton <a href="https://www.hillaryclinton.com/issues/health-care/">plans</a> to preserve the ACA and attempt to expand coverage for those that do not currently qualify for health insurance under the law. This means expanding Medicaid in every state, lowering health care premiums, and providing citizens a public-option insurance plan, which Clinton hopes to push states to offer their residents. A public option could insure over 400,000 people in New York who were left out of the ACA. If Republicans continue to control the House of Representatives, this expansion of the law has <a href="http://www.npr.org/2016/11/02/500371785/platform-check-trump-and-clinton-on-health-care">little chance</a> of passing Congress.</p> <p dir="ltr">Clinton also said she wants to double the funding for primary care services at community health centers over the next ten years, which would increase access to health care for many underserved, low-income, and uninsured New Yorkers. According to her campaign website, she also wants to “expand access to affordable health care to families regardless of immigration status by allowing families to buy health insurance on the health Exchanges regardless of their immigration status” - a move that could have drastic effects in New York City given the financial issues at Health + Hospitals.</p> <p dir="ltr"><strong>Funding for NYCHA</strong><br />As the largest public housing authority in the country, the New York City Housing Authority (NYCHA) <a href="https://www1.nyc.gov/assets/nycha/downloads/pdf/factsheet.pdf">currently serves</a> about 600,000 New Yorkers, including Section 8 voucher holders. Based on the July 2015 Census, 4.7 percent of the city’s population lives in public housing. No new public housing buildings are being constructed and New York is one of few places in the country that has committed to keeping its public housing stock. At the same time, federal funding for NYCHA has shrunk considerably, with the federal government moving more toward housing vouchers, which are used at some NYCHA facilities.&nbsp;</p> <p dir="ltr">The de Blasio administration has invested considerable additional funds into NYCHA, but the authority is also in serious financial trouble. The mayor launched a 10-year plan titled NextGeneration NYCHA, which includes a variety of initiatives, one of which is a program that <a href="http://citylimits.org/2016/06/21/intense-nycha-engagement-effort-could-soften-infill-opposition/">leases underutilized land</a> to developers to build both affordable and market-rate housing.</p> <p dir="ltr">This plan hopes to combat the <a href="http://www.politico.com/states/new-york/city-hall/story/2016/05/hud-slashes-funding-for-some-new-york-city-homeless-shelters-101531">decline</a> in federal funds dedicated to public housing, especially after NYCHA’s expected deficit jumped from $25 million to $60 million in 2016. NYCHA has struggled to meet basic <a href="http://www.nydailynews.com/new-york/no-gas-6-weeks-nycha-housing-tenants-outraged-article-1.2819245">maintenance and operation</a> costs, though it has instituted several new reforms to improve the situation. Bowles, of Center for an Urban Future, said that Congress has not increased funding for housing projects in New York and other major cities for decades.</p> <p dir="ltr">“Public housing has been starved at the federal level for years,” Bowles said. “It’s been decades since we’ve seen a real appetite in Washington to support the public housing infrastructure.”</p> <p dir="ltr">Public housing is one piece of the overall affordable housing picture. Despite being a major issue for most cities nationwide, tackling<a href="http://www.nytimes.com/2016/08/12/us/politics/trump-clinton-poverty.html"> affordable housing and the cycle of poverty</a> never became a major focus during this presidential election. In September, Clinton wrote an <a href="http://www.nytimes.com/2016/09/21/opinion/hillary-clinton-my-plan-for-helping-americas-poor.html">op-ed</a> in the New York Times addressing housing.</p> <p dir="ltr">“If we want to get serious about poverty, we also need a national commitment to create more affordable housing,” Clinton wrote. “Too many people are putting off saving for their children or retirement just to keep a roof over their families’ heads.”</p> <p dir="ltr">Clinton calls for expanding Low Income Housing Tax Credits in areas of high-cost to create more affordable housing in viable neighborhoods.</p> <p dir="ltr">Trump, a real-estate mogul, has released no specific plan to address affordable housing and nothing on his campaign website mentions it. However, the Republican Party’s <a href="https://www.gop.com/platform/restoring-the-american-dream/">platform</a> calls for “responsible homeownership” and giving more control over zoning procedures to local authorities, rather than from the federal government.</p> <p dir="ltr"><strong>Congress, the President and Mayor de Blasio</strong><br />The relationship between the Mayor of New York City and the next president is important, as is the next president’s commitment to urban issues. Additionally, the makeup of Congress and the major funding decisions regarding aid sent to cities remains of utmost importance. If Democrats are able to retake control of the Senate, New York Senator Charles Schumer is likely to be Majority Leader, which could be a boon for New York.</p> <p dir="ltr">Despite a long relationship with Clinton, including managing her 2000 campaign for U.S. Senate, de Blasio waited months after Clinton announced her presidential candidacy to endorse her, wanting to push her more to the left on issues. In recently hacked emails, the Clinton campaign expressed annoyance with de Blasio, jokingly calling him a “<a href="http://www.nydailynews.com/news/politics/leaked-emails-show-clinton-aide-calling-de-blasio-terrorist-article-1.2829337">terrorist</a>.” Donald Trump has <a href="http://nypost.com/2016/07/07/trump-de-blasio-is-the-worst-mayor-in-nyc-history/">called</a> de Blasio “incompetent” and the “single worst mayor in the history of New York City,” but has praised the mayor after he was elected.</p> <p dir="ltr">In part due to obstruction by congressional Republicans who want to see less government, President Obama has issued over 250 executive actions to get around legislative gridlock. Bruce Berg of Fordham University says if Clinton wins the presidency, she may face similar barriers to getting laws passed in Congress, which would affect federal aid granted to New York City and elsewhere.&nbsp;</p> <p>“I think the most likely scenario, looking at the election right now, is a Clinton victory, where she comes in as a rather crippled president and we get very little major initiative in the next four years,” Berg said. “I think what that means is that routine federal aid to New York continues to decline slowly as it has for the last several decades.”</p> <p>

***
by Devin Gannon for Gotham Gazette

Read more by this writer.

</p>
On the Issues: Presidential Candidate Comparison 2016-10-31T04:00:00+00:00 2016-10-31T04:00:00+00:00 http://www.gothamgazette.com/?id=6601:presidential-candidate-comparison Ben Max <p><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/images/graphics/2016/election-candidates.png" alt="election candidates" width="600" height="399" /></p> <p><strong><a href="http://www.gothamgazette.com/#fullissue" target="_self" style="background-color: #02619c; border-radius: 25px; color: #fff; cursor: pointer; font-weight: bolder; margin: 2px; padding: 5px;" title="Click here to see the full list">Click here to see the full list</a></strong></p> <p> </p> <section> <article> <a id="fullissue"></a> <div id="hidden1" class="issues-list"> <h1>Vice President</h1> <div id="hclinton"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/hillary-clinton2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Vice President</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="hc-positions">Tim Kaine of Virginia. U.S. Senator, former Governor of Virginia, former Mayor of Richmond.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="dtrump"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/donald-trump2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Vice President</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="dt-positions">Mike Pence of Indiana. Governor of Indiana, former member of the United States House of Represenatatives, where he was a leader of the Tea Party movement.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="gjohnson"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/gary-johnson2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Vice President</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="gj-positions">William Weld of Massachusetts. Former Republican governor of Massachusetts 1991, former U.S. Senate candidate.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="jstein"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/jill-stein2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Vice President</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="js-candidates">Ajamu Baraka of Georgia. Human rights activist, founding executive director of the U.S. Human Rights Network.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <!-- CLEAR --> <h1>&nbsp;</h1> <h1>Bio</h1> <div id="hclinton"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/hillary-clinton2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Bio</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="hc-positions">Hillary Clinton, born in 1947, is most notable for serving as First Lady of the United States (1993-2001), a United States Senator from New York (2001-2009), and the United States Secretary of State from 2009 to 2013. She's known for, among other things, her push for national health care reform in 1993-1994 as First Lady.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="dtrump"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/donald-trump2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Bio</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="dt-positions">Donald Trump, born in 1946, is a businessman, real estate mogul, and television personality. He has built further on the buisness empire started by his father and made a national name for his real estate and casino businesses, and as the host of The Apprentice.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="gjohnson"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/gary-johnson2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Bio</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="gj-positions">Gary Johnson, born in 1953, founded what became one of the largest construction companies in New Mexico. Former governor of New Mexico, winning his longshot 1994 bid, serving two terms. Has long-favored small government. Also ran for President as the Libertarian Party nominee in 2012. He got 0.99% of the national vote that year.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="jstein"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/jill-stein2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Bio</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="js-candidates">Jill Stein, born in 1950, is a physician and activist whose biggest focus has been environmental and health issues. She was the Green Party Candidate for Governor of Massachusetts in 2002 and 2010, and the Green Party Candidate for President in 2012. She received 0.36% of the national vote that year.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <!-- CLEAR --> <h1>&nbsp;</h1> <h1>Campaign Websites</h1> <div id="hclinton"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/hillary-clinton2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><span class="header"></span><span id="hc-positions"><a href="https://www.hillaryclinton.com">Campaign Website</a></span></p> <p><a href="https://twitter.com/HillaryClinton">Twitter</a></p> <p><a href="https://www.facebook.com/hillaryclinton">Facebook</a></p> <p><a href="https://www.youtube.com/hillaryclinton">YouTube</a></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="dtrump"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/donald-trump2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><span id="dt-positions"><a href="https://www.donaldjtrump.com">Campaign Website</a></span></p> <p><a href="https://twitter.com/realDonaldTrump">Twitter</a></p> <p><a href="https://www.facebook.com/DonaldTrump">Facebook</a></p> <p><a href="https://www.youtube.com/donaldtrump">YouTube</a></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="gjohnson"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/gary-johnson2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><span id="gj-positions"><a href="https://www.johnsonweld.com">Campaign Website</a></span></p> <p><a href="http://www.twitter.com/govgaryjohnson">Twitter</a></p> <p><a href="http://www.facebook.com/govgaryjohnson">Facebook</a></p> <p><a href="https://www.youtube.com/c/govgaryjohnson">YouTube</a></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="jstein"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/jill-stein2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a href="http://www.jill2016.com/">Campaign Website</a></p> <p><a href="https://twitter.com/drjillstein">Twitter</a></p> <p><a href="https://www.facebook.com/drjillstein">Facebook</a></p> <p><a href="https://www.youtube.com/jill2016">YouTube</a></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <!-- CLEAR --> <h1>&nbsp;</h1> <h1>Jobs</h1> <div id="hclinton"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/hillary-clinton2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Jobs</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="hc-positions">Clinton wants to invest in infrastructure to bolster the economy, including in clean energy. She is also focused on modernizing the economy through manufacturing and technology. She advocates for an increase in the minimum wage to $12 an hour nationally, with room for states to go higher, and she wants equal pay for equal work. </span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="dtrump"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/donald-trump2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Jobs</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="dt-positions">Trump believes that lower taxes and less regulation, as a whole, will bolster the economy. He believes the U.S. has agreed to bad trade deals, which he promises to renegotiate, that have led to lost American jobs to countries like Mexico and China. He promised to keep companies in the U.S. and to make American manufacturing great again.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="gjohnson"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/gary-johnson2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Jobs</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="gj-positions">Johnson generally favors less regulation, though any regulation which reigns in harmful actors will stay, he says. He also believes that out-of-control spending has hurt the U.S. economy, and that this spending needs to be reigned in. He believes smaller and less government will allow the economy to flourish.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="jstein"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/jill-stein2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Jobs</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="js-candidates">Stein believes in "living-wage jobs for every American who needs work." Government would be the last resort employer under this plan. She also believes in a $15 minimum wage and the breaking up of banks that are "too big to fail." Key to Stein's, and the Green Party's, platform is a "Green New Deal," which aims to create jobs through the building of clean energy infrastructure, so that America relies on 100% clean energy by 2030.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <!-- CLEAR --><br /><br /> <h1>Taxes</h1> <div id="hclinton"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/hillary-clinton2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Taxes</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="hc-positions">"Hillary will implement a "fair share surcharge" on multi-millionaires and billionaires." She will also fight for measures like the Buffett Rule, so that wealthier individuals pay their fair share of taxes, she says. She also looks to close up any loopholes which benefit Wall Street, cut taxes for small businesses, and "provide tax relief to working families from the rising costs they face." A Clinton Administration will look to tax high-frequency trading on Wall Street.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="dtrump"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/donald-trump2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Taxes</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="dt-positions">Trump believes lower taxes will help the economy. In particular, he believes that business taxes are too high, and that they need to be lowered so that they are competitive with the rest of the world. He believes that a simplified tax system will help. Like many Democrats, Trump believes in closing the carried interest loophole. </span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="gjohnson"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/gary-johnson2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Taxes</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="gj-positions">Johnson proposes getting rid of tax loopholes, as well as double taxes on small businesses. He favors "the replacement of all income and payroll taxes with a single consumption tax that determines your tax burden by how much you spend, not how much you earn."</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="jstein"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/jill-stein2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Taxes</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="js-candidates">Stein wants Wall Street corporations to pay their fair share in taxes. Also believes in a tax on companies that pollute. She believes in higher taxes for the wealthy, and lower taxes for the poor and middle class.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <h1>&nbsp;</h1> <h1>National Debt</h1> <div id="hclinton"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/hillary-clinton2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">National Debt</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="hc-positions">"From the Democratic Party Platform: ""We believe that by making those at the top and the largest corporations pay their fair share we can pay for ambitious progressive investments that create good-paying jobs and offer security to working families without adding to the debt."""</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="dtrump"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/donald-trump2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">National Debt</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="dt-positions">"You never have to default because you print the money," Trump said at one time. He has also suggested at times that borrowing is not a problem and that the U.S. could renegotiate its debt. </span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="gjohnson"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/gary-johnson2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">National Debt</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="gj-positions">Johnson plans to veto any bill which results in deficit spending. He also touts his record of vetoing many bills as governor of New Mexico, vetos he said helped balance New Mexico's budget. </span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="jstein"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/jill-stein2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">National Debt</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="js-candidates">Stein said on her campaign website in 2012 that she would reduce "the budget deficit by restoring full employment, cutting the bloated military budget, and cutting private health insurance waste."</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <!-- CLEAR --> <h1>&nbsp;</h1> <h1>Trade</h1> <div id="hclinton"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/hillary-clinton2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Trade</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="hc-positions">Clinton has moved in her support for trade deals, and has a new rubric for them, saying they must provide jobs for Americans, not sacrifice U.S. security, and be good for American national and international priorities. She supported NAFTA in the past, but admits to troubling outcomes for American jobs, and after supporting the Trans-Pacific Partnership as it was in development, she has come out against the version put forward by the Obama Administration. On trade, she says she's held deals to "the same test. Will they create jobs in America? Will they raise incomes in America? And are they good for our national security?" </span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="dtrump"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/donald-trump2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Trade</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="dt-positions">Trump has campaigned vocally against NAFTA, other past trade deals, and TPP. His vews on trade and the United States is best reflected in what he said at the Republican National Convention--"Americanism, not globalism, will be our credo."</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="gjohnson"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/gary-johnson2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Trade</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="gj-positions">Johnson generally supports NAFTA, TPP, and any other free trade agreements. He believes that any jobs lost to NAFTA while he was Governor of New Mexico were jobs that New Mexico didn't want anyway.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="jstein"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/jill-stein2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Trade</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="js-candidates">Stein believes that NAFTA and other similar agreements takes away jobs, hurts wages, and overall has negative economic impacts on Americans. She wants to "enact fair trade laws that benefits local workers and communities."</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <!-- CLEAR --> <h1>&nbsp;</h1> <h1>Immigration</h1> <div id="hclinton"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/hillary-clinton2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Immigration</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="hc-positions">There are two major facets to Clinton's immigration plan: protect families and provide a pathway to citizenship. She says that comprehensive immigration reform is desperately needed.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="dtrump"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/donald-trump2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Immigration</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="dt-positions">Trump promises no amnesty to undocumented immigrants and promises mass deportations, though at times he has appeared to soften some of his stances. His major campaign promise is to end illegal immigration and to institute "extreme vetting" of individuals, especially refugees, seeking entrance into the country. He talks about having a secure border and promises to build a wall along the southern border that he promises Mexico will pay for. He has also questioned birthright citizenship.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="gjohnson"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/gary-johnson2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Immigration</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="gj-positions">Johnson desn't believe that immigration is as simple as building a wall. "We should focus on creating a more efficient system of providing work visas, conducting background checks, and incentivizing non-citizens to pay their taxes, obtain proof of employment, and otherwise assimilate with our diverse society," his website says. </span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="jstein"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/jill-stein2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Immigration</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="js-candidates">"Create a welcoming path to citizenship for immigrants" is posted on Stein's website. Past policy positions also indicates that she is not in favor of the mass deportation of people which has happened under President Obama and promised to a greater degree by Trump.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <!-- CLEAR --> <h1>&nbsp;</h1> <h1>Health Care</h1> <div id="hclinton"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/hillary-clinton2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Health Care</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="hc-positions">Clinton wants to defend, tweak, and expand, but not repeal, Obamacare. She praises how many more people have become insured, but she wants to get costs down.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="dtrump"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/donald-trump2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Health Care</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="dt-positions">Trump promises to repeal Obamacare, and replace it with something far better. He says health care companies must be allowed to sell policies across state lines. He also wants transparency with health care costs and providers, and to "allow individuals to fully deduct health insurance premium payments from their tax returns under the current tax system." He argues for increased competitive, not government regulation of health care. Trump has also said that everyone deserves health care.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="gjohnson"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/gary-johnson2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Health Care</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="gj-positions">Generally speaking, Johnson is in favor of repealing Obamacare. He believes that free market competition will do the best job of covering health care for people.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="jstein"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/jill-stein2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Health Care</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="js-candidates">Stein believes in a Medicare for All system.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <!-- CLEAR --> <h1>&nbsp;</h1> <h1>The Environment</h1> <div id="hclinton"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/hillary-clinton2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">The Environment</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="hc-positions">Clinton will encourage clean energy: "Launch a $60 billion Clean Energy Challenge to partner with states, cities, and rural communities to cut carbon pollution and expand clean energy, including for low-income families." "Invest in clean energy infrastructure, innovation, manufacturing and workforce development to make the U.S. economy more competitive and create good-paying jobs and careers." </span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="dtrump"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/donald-trump2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">The Environment</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="dt-positions">Trump does not discuss the environment much. He has called climate change a hoax. And, he believes that the Environmental Protection Agency has too many regulations.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="gjohnson"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/gary-johnson2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">The Environment</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="gj-positions">Johnson places emphasis on protection of National Parks and wants the Environmental Protection Agency to "focus on its true mission." He also believes in regulations to protect from pollutors, but also believes that the government meddles too much in deciding which companies determine the future of clean energy.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="jstein"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/jill-stein2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">The Environment</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="js-candidates">Stein and the Green Party are, historically, especially focused on the environment. The Green New Deal looks to have the U.S. be on 100% clean energy by 2030. Stein wants to end use of fossil fuels and any support thereof. She places a special emphasis on protecting ecosystems, and strengthening environmental justice laws.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <!-- CLEAR --> <h1>&nbsp;</h1> <h1>Foreign Policy</h1> <div id="hclinton"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/hillary-clinton2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Foreign Policy</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="hc-positions">Clinton believes that the United States should defend its allies, push for diplomacy whenever possible, and be firm but not overaggressive with rivals such as China, Russia, and Iran. She is known as an interventionist, but has also spent time negotiating peace deals as Secretary of State. Her vote in favor of the Iraq War as a U.S. Senator is one that she has long been criticized for and has herself called a mistake.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="dtrump"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/donald-trump2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Foreign Policy</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="dt-positions">Trump has an "America First" foreign policy, based on protecting the interests of the United States above all else, not meddling in other countries' affairs, protecting American security and jobs, seemingly no matter what it takes to do so. Trump has promised an aggressive approach with Mexico and illegal immigration, China and currency manipulation, and the Middle East and wars in the region. Trump has been criticized and questioned for an apparent coziness with Vladimir Putin of Russia, which he has denied.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="gjohnson"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/gary-johnson2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Foreign Policy</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="gj-positions">Johnson believes that the U.S. meddles too much in foreign affairs and wars, and that needs to stop. He believes in fixing the problems that exist at home, while at the same time building relationships with allies abroad. Johnson has struggled with discussing foreign affairs on the campaign trail.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="jstein"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/jill-stein2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Foreign Policy</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="js-candidates">Stein wants to focus on diplomacy whenever possible, but also the punishment of abusers of human rights. Those human rights abusers include Egypt, Saudi Arabia, and Israel, she says.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <!-- CLEAR --> <h1>&nbsp;</h1> <h1>Combatting ISIS</h1> <div id="hclinton"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/hillary-clinton2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">ISIS</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="hc-positions">Clinton looks to support counter-terrorism law enformcement with the tools they need, and an increase of the airstrike campaign against ISIS in the Middle East. She has called for an "intelligence surge" to help the U.S. in its efforts against ISIS and other foreign threats.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="dtrump"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/donald-trump2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">ISIS</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="dt-positions">Generally speaking, Trump calls for a very aggressive military approach to ISIS, at times using expletives to explain his plan to bomb its forces and strongholds. He has repeatedly called for destroying oil fields that ISIS may have access to. But it is unclear to what extent he will pursue these strategies because he has not released as many plans regarding ISIS. Trump says U.S. leaders are foolish in telegraphing their military plans and that he will not divulge his. He has repeatedly insulted both U.S. political and military leaders.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="gjohnson"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/gary-johnson2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">ISIS</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="gj-positions">Johnson believes that the "meddling" of past administrations, Republican and Democrat, have created the monster that is ISIS. He has not shown a particular adeptness at discussing foreign affairs or presenting a plan to help eliminate threats from ISIS.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="jstein"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/jill-stein2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">ISIS</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="js-candidates">Stein says little about ISIS, but overall she is calling for the U.S. to not be engaged in war and foreign intervention.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <!-- CLEAR --> <h1>&nbsp;</h1> <h1>Gun Control</h1> <div id="hclinton"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/hillary-clinton2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Gun Control</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="hc-positions">Clinton has made gun control a focus of her campaign; calling for expanding background checks, and keeping "guns out of the hands of domestic abusers, other violent criminals, and the severely mentally ill." Clinton has said she believes in the Second Amendment and responsible gun ownership, but that she wants to do more to keep guns out of the wrong hands.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="dtrump"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/donald-trump2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Gun Control</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="dt-positions">Trump is pro-gun ownership and has promised to defend the Second Amendment. He believes that current gun regulations are a failure, and that background checks need to be fixed because it seems like criminals don't go through background checks. </span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="gjohnson"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/gary-johnson2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Gun Control</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="gj-positions">Johnson does not believe in increasing gun regulations. He is of the mind that if you take guns away only outlaws and criminals will have guns.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="jstein"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/jill-stein2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Gun Control</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="js-candidates">Stein believes that the ownership of guns should be regulated for the sake of public safety.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <!-- CLEAR --> <h1>&nbsp;</h1> <h1>Justice Reform</h1> <div id="hclinton"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/hillary-clinton2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Justice Reform</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="hc-positions">Clinton supports legislation to end any form of racial profiling. She wants law enforcement to focus on violent crimes and not petty ones like possession of marijuana. National guidelines should be brought in on use of force, she says, and body cameras should be provided to every police department in the United States. She has regularly spoken about the need to improve community-police relationships and about incidents of police brutality against people of color. And, she believes in ending the use of private prisons.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="dtrump"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/donald-trump2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Justice Reform</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="dt-positions">Trump calls himself the "Law and Order candidate," though as to what that means in terms of policy is unclear, though he has advocated for a robust stop-and-frisk policy nationwide based on what he sees as its success in New York City. Trump often talks about the need to support and respect police.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="gjohnson"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/gary-johnson2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Justice Reform</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="gj-positions">Johnson believes that all unnecessary laws should be taken out so that not as many things are criminalized. He also believes that there should be an end to the "War on Drugs."</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="jstein"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/jill-stein2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Justice Reform</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="js-candidates">Stein wants to end police brutality and de-militarize the police. She, like Johnson, wants to end the War on Drugs. She also proposes that drug addictions are treated like a health problem, not a criminal one.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <!-- CLEAR --> <h1>&nbsp;</h1> <h1>Education</h1> <div id="hclinton"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/hillary-clinton2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Education</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="hc-positions">Clinton supports the Common Core learning standards. She also believes in universal pre-kindergarten, college education that is debt free, and free tuition at all community colleges. She also looks to end overly punitive policies against students at schools and has discussed doing more for English Language Learners.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="dtrump"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/donald-trump2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Education</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="dt-positions">Trump rejects Common Core and believes that education decisions, as a whole, should be left up to states. He therefore wants to completely abolish the Department of Education.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="gjohnson"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/gary-johnson2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Education</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="gj-positions">Johnson rejects Common Core and believes that education decisions should be left to the states. He also wants to abolish the Department of Education because he believes that the federal government has no right to be involved with education decisions.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="jstein"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/jill-stein2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Education</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="js-candidates">Stein is not supportive of Common Core or standardized testing (and thinks curricula should be designed by educators). She prefers evaluation of teachers done by fellow professionals. She supports tuition-free, and debt-free, education through all four years of college. </span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <!-- CLEAR --> <h1>&nbsp;</h1> <h1>LGBTQ Rights</h1> <div id="hclinton"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/hillary-clinton2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">LGBTQ Rights</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="hc-positions">Clinton pushes for full rights for LGBTQ people, in the United States and around the world. Clinton has 'evolved' fairly quickly on related issues, like marriage equality.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="dtrump"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/donald-trump2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">LGBTQ Rights</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="dt-positions">Trump vows to protect LGBTQ citizens and has had several particularly significant moments, including at the Republican National Convention, around promoting and protecting LGBTQ rights. He has not stated personal support for same-sex marriage, but says that it is the law of the land and that it should be protected as such.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="gjohnson"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/gary-johnson2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">LGBTQ Rights</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="gj-positions">Johnson believes that the government should not be in the business of telling people who to marry. He therefore does not look to restrict same-sex marriage, and in fact he cites this non-government interference idea as a major reason why he supported same-sex marriage before many liberals did the same.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="jstein"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/jill-stein2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">LGBTQ Rights</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="js-candidates">Stein says that she will seek to end all forms of discrimination against the LGBTQ community.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <!-- CLEAR --> <h1>&nbsp;</h1> <h1>Abortion</h1> <div id="hclinton"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/hillary-clinton2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Abortion</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="hc-positions">Clinton looks to protect the reproductive rights of all women and protecting a woman's right to choose to have an abortion. She is also proud of her endorsement from Planned Parenthood.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="dtrump"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/donald-trump2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Abortion</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="dt-positions">Trump calls himself "pro-life" and at times has called for the defunding of Planned Parenthood. However he has at times touted a number of services that Planned Parenthood provides, and earlier in his life he considered himself "pro-choice." He has explained an 'evolution' on the issue. Trump has said that if he appoints several Supreme Court justices it is likely that Roe v. Wade is overturned.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="gjohnson"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/gary-johnson2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Abortion</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="gj-positions">Johnson believes that abortion is a deeply personal choice, and that as such the governnment should not be in the business of deciding who does or does not get abortions. </span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="jstein"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/jill-stein2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Abortion</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="js-candidates">Stein views reproductive freedom as a key facet of tackling women's rights issues. She also wants to expand access to the "morning after" pill.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <!-- CLEAR --> <h1>&nbsp;</h1> <h1>Supreme Court Vacancies</h1> <div id="hclinton"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/hillary-clinton2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Supreme Court Vacancies</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="hc-positions">The Supreme Court, in Clinton's eyes, should help protect women's rights and LGBTQ rights, and overturn the Citizens United case. She has not committed to renominate President Obama's SCOTUS pick, Merrick Garland, for the currently vacant seat.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="dtrump"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/donald-trump2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Supreme Court Vacancies</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="dt-positions">Trump has stressed that the Supreme Court must protect the Second Amendment in particular, as it would be under threat, he says, if Clinton is elected President. Trump's SCOTUS nominees would be pro-life and more conservative in nature, he has said, pointing to recently-deceased Justice Antonin Scalia as a model.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="gjohnson"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/gary-johnson2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Supreme Court Vacancies</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="gj-positions">Johnson would use potential nominees' positions on cases such as Kelo v. City of New London (a 2005 case on the issue of eminent domain) and others related to key issues for Libertarians to determine who he might nominate to the SCOTUS.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="jstein"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/jill-stein2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Supreme Court Vacancies</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="js-candidates">Stein would nominate justices to the SCOTUS who would overturn Citizens United and help restrict the flow of corporate money into politics.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <!-- CLEAR --> <h1>&nbsp;</h1> <h1>Campaign Finance Reform</h1> <div id="hclinton"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/hillary-clinton2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Campaign Finance Reform</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="hc-positions">Clinton supports an overturn of Citizens United to limit the impact of money in politics. She also wants legislation which will "require outside groups to publicly disclose significant political spending." Her other piece of suggested reform is to start a "small-donor matching system for presidential and congressional elections to give small donors greater influence."</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="dtrump"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/donald-trump2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Campaign Finance Reform</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="dt-positions">Trump has described Political Action Committees (PACs) as a "horrible thing" because he feels that PACs lack transparency. Trump has also claimed that politicians do favors for donors, citing his own experience as a donor. He does not promote, though, public financing of campaigns.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="gjohnson"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/gary-johnson2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Campaign Finance Reform</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="gj-positions">Johnson believes that spending in campaigns, including from unions and corporations, is perfectly allowable. Any restrictions on campaign finance would be a limit to free speech, in Johnson's opinion.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="jstein"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/jill-stein2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Campaign Finance Reform</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="js-candidates">Stein wants an overturn of the 2010 Citizens United Supreme Court case. She believes that corporations should not be allowed to fund political campaigns, but believes that there should instead be public funding of campaigns.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <!-- CLEAR --> <div>***<br />by Brendan Birth and Ben Max<br /><a href="https://twitter.com/GothamGazette" target="_blank">@GothamGazette</a></div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div>Feedback? Email Ben at bmax@gothamgazette.com</div> <!-- CLEAR --> </div> </article> </section> <p><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/images/graphics/2016/election-candidates.png" alt="election candidates" width="600" height="399" /></p> <p><strong><a href="http://www.gothamgazette.com/#fullissue" target="_self" style="background-color: #02619c; border-radius: 25px; color: #fff; cursor: pointer; font-weight: bolder; margin: 2px; padding: 5px;" title="Click here to see the full list">Click here to see the full list</a></strong></p> <p> </p> <section> <article> <a id="fullissue"></a> <div id="hidden1" class="issues-list"> <h1>Vice President</h1> <div id="hclinton"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/hillary-clinton2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Vice President</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="hc-positions">Tim Kaine of Virginia. U.S. Senator, former Governor of Virginia, former Mayor of Richmond.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="dtrump"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/donald-trump2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Vice President</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="dt-positions">Mike Pence of Indiana. Governor of Indiana, former member of the United States House of Represenatatives, where he was a leader of the Tea Party movement.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="gjohnson"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/gary-johnson2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Vice President</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="gj-positions">William Weld of Massachusetts. Former Republican governor of Massachusetts 1991, former U.S. Senate candidate.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="jstein"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/jill-stein2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Vice President</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="js-candidates">Ajamu Baraka of Georgia. Human rights activist, founding executive director of the U.S. Human Rights Network.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <!-- CLEAR --> <h1>&nbsp;</h1> <h1>Bio</h1> <div id="hclinton"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/hillary-clinton2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Bio</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="hc-positions">Hillary Clinton, born in 1947, is most notable for serving as First Lady of the United States (1993-2001), a United States Senator from New York (2001-2009), and the United States Secretary of State from 2009 to 2013. She's known for, among other things, her push for national health care reform in 1993-1994 as First Lady.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="dtrump"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/donald-trump2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Bio</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="dt-positions">Donald Trump, born in 1946, is a businessman, real estate mogul, and television personality. He has built further on the buisness empire started by his father and made a national name for his real estate and casino businesses, and as the host of The Apprentice.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="gjohnson"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/gary-johnson2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Bio</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="gj-positions">Gary Johnson, born in 1953, founded what became one of the largest construction companies in New Mexico. Former governor of New Mexico, winning his longshot 1994 bid, serving two terms. Has long-favored small government. Also ran for President as the Libertarian Party nominee in 2012. He got 0.99% of the national vote that year.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="jstein"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/jill-stein2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Bio</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="js-candidates">Jill Stein, born in 1950, is a physician and activist whose biggest focus has been environmental and health issues. She was the Green Party Candidate for Governor of Massachusetts in 2002 and 2010, and the Green Party Candidate for President in 2012. She received 0.36% of the national vote that year.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <!-- CLEAR --> <h1>&nbsp;</h1> <h1>Campaign Websites</h1> <div id="hclinton"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/hillary-clinton2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><span class="header"></span><span id="hc-positions"><a href="https://www.hillaryclinton.com">Campaign Website</a></span></p> <p><a href="https://twitter.com/HillaryClinton">Twitter</a></p> <p><a href="https://www.facebook.com/hillaryclinton">Facebook</a></p> <p><a href="https://www.youtube.com/hillaryclinton">YouTube</a></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="dtrump"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/donald-trump2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><span id="dt-positions"><a href="https://www.donaldjtrump.com">Campaign Website</a></span></p> <p><a href="https://twitter.com/realDonaldTrump">Twitter</a></p> <p><a href="https://www.facebook.com/DonaldTrump">Facebook</a></p> <p><a href="https://www.youtube.com/donaldtrump">YouTube</a></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="gjohnson"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/gary-johnson2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><span id="gj-positions"><a href="https://www.johnsonweld.com">Campaign Website</a></span></p> <p><a href="http://www.twitter.com/govgaryjohnson">Twitter</a></p> <p><a href="http://www.facebook.com/govgaryjohnson">Facebook</a></p> <p><a href="https://www.youtube.com/c/govgaryjohnson">YouTube</a></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="jstein"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/jill-stein2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a href="http://www.jill2016.com/">Campaign Website</a></p> <p><a href="https://twitter.com/drjillstein">Twitter</a></p> <p><a href="https://www.facebook.com/drjillstein">Facebook</a></p> <p><a href="https://www.youtube.com/jill2016">YouTube</a></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <!-- CLEAR --> <h1>&nbsp;</h1> <h1>Jobs</h1> <div id="hclinton"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/hillary-clinton2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Jobs</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="hc-positions">Clinton wants to invest in infrastructure to bolster the economy, including in clean energy. She is also focused on modernizing the economy through manufacturing and technology. She advocates for an increase in the minimum wage to $12 an hour nationally, with room for states to go higher, and she wants equal pay for equal work. </span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="dtrump"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/donald-trump2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Jobs</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="dt-positions">Trump believes that lower taxes and less regulation, as a whole, will bolster the economy. He believes the U.S. has agreed to bad trade deals, which he promises to renegotiate, that have led to lost American jobs to countries like Mexico and China. He promised to keep companies in the U.S. and to make American manufacturing great again.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="gjohnson"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/gary-johnson2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Jobs</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="gj-positions">Johnson generally favors less regulation, though any regulation which reigns in harmful actors will stay, he says. He also believes that out-of-control spending has hurt the U.S. economy, and that this spending needs to be reigned in. He believes smaller and less government will allow the economy to flourish.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="jstein"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/jill-stein2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Jobs</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="js-candidates">Stein believes in "living-wage jobs for every American who needs work." Government would be the last resort employer under this plan. She also believes in a $15 minimum wage and the breaking up of banks that are "too big to fail." Key to Stein's, and the Green Party's, platform is a "Green New Deal," which aims to create jobs through the building of clean energy infrastructure, so that America relies on 100% clean energy by 2030.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <!-- CLEAR --><br /><br /> <h1>Taxes</h1> <div id="hclinton"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/hillary-clinton2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Taxes</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="hc-positions">"Hillary will implement a "fair share surcharge" on multi-millionaires and billionaires." She will also fight for measures like the Buffett Rule, so that wealthier individuals pay their fair share of taxes, she says. She also looks to close up any loopholes which benefit Wall Street, cut taxes for small businesses, and "provide tax relief to working families from the rising costs they face." A Clinton Administration will look to tax high-frequency trading on Wall Street.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="dtrump"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/donald-trump2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Taxes</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="dt-positions">Trump believes lower taxes will help the economy. In particular, he believes that business taxes are too high, and that they need to be lowered so that they are competitive with the rest of the world. He believes that a simplified tax system will help. Like many Democrats, Trump believes in closing the carried interest loophole. </span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="gjohnson"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/gary-johnson2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Taxes</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="gj-positions">Johnson proposes getting rid of tax loopholes, as well as double taxes on small businesses. He favors "the replacement of all income and payroll taxes with a single consumption tax that determines your tax burden by how much you spend, not how much you earn."</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="jstein"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/jill-stein2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Taxes</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="js-candidates">Stein wants Wall Street corporations to pay their fair share in taxes. Also believes in a tax on companies that pollute. She believes in higher taxes for the wealthy, and lower taxes for the poor and middle class.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <h1>&nbsp;</h1> <h1>National Debt</h1> <div id="hclinton"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/hillary-clinton2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">National Debt</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="hc-positions">"From the Democratic Party Platform: ""We believe that by making those at the top and the largest corporations pay their fair share we can pay for ambitious progressive investments that create good-paying jobs and offer security to working families without adding to the debt."""</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="dtrump"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/donald-trump2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">National Debt</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="dt-positions">"You never have to default because you print the money," Trump said at one time. He has also suggested at times that borrowing is not a problem and that the U.S. could renegotiate its debt. </span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="gjohnson"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/gary-johnson2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">National Debt</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="gj-positions">Johnson plans to veto any bill which results in deficit spending. He also touts his record of vetoing many bills as governor of New Mexico, vetos he said helped balance New Mexico's budget. </span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="jstein"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/jill-stein2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">National Debt</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="js-candidates">Stein said on her campaign website in 2012 that she would reduce "the budget deficit by restoring full employment, cutting the bloated military budget, and cutting private health insurance waste."</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <!-- CLEAR --> <h1>&nbsp;</h1> <h1>Trade</h1> <div id="hclinton"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/hillary-clinton2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Trade</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="hc-positions">Clinton has moved in her support for trade deals, and has a new rubric for them, saying they must provide jobs for Americans, not sacrifice U.S. security, and be good for American national and international priorities. She supported NAFTA in the past, but admits to troubling outcomes for American jobs, and after supporting the Trans-Pacific Partnership as it was in development, she has come out against the version put forward by the Obama Administration. On trade, she says she's held deals to "the same test. Will they create jobs in America? Will they raise incomes in America? And are they good for our national security?" </span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="dtrump"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/donald-trump2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Trade</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="dt-positions">Trump has campaigned vocally against NAFTA, other past trade deals, and TPP. His vews on trade and the United States is best reflected in what he said at the Republican National Convention--"Americanism, not globalism, will be our credo."</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="gjohnson"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/gary-johnson2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Trade</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="gj-positions">Johnson generally supports NAFTA, TPP, and any other free trade agreements. He believes that any jobs lost to NAFTA while he was Governor of New Mexico were jobs that New Mexico didn't want anyway.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="jstein"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/jill-stein2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Trade</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="js-candidates">Stein believes that NAFTA and other similar agreements takes away jobs, hurts wages, and overall has negative economic impacts on Americans. She wants to "enact fair trade laws that benefits local workers and communities."</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <!-- CLEAR --> <h1>&nbsp;</h1> <h1>Immigration</h1> <div id="hclinton"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/hillary-clinton2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Immigration</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="hc-positions">There are two major facets to Clinton's immigration plan: protect families and provide a pathway to citizenship. She says that comprehensive immigration reform is desperately needed.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="dtrump"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/donald-trump2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Immigration</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="dt-positions">Trump promises no amnesty to undocumented immigrants and promises mass deportations, though at times he has appeared to soften some of his stances. His major campaign promise is to end illegal immigration and to institute "extreme vetting" of individuals, especially refugees, seeking entrance into the country. He talks about having a secure border and promises to build a wall along the southern border that he promises Mexico will pay for. He has also questioned birthright citizenship.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="gjohnson"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/gary-johnson2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Immigration</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="gj-positions">Johnson desn't believe that immigration is as simple as building a wall. "We should focus on creating a more efficient system of providing work visas, conducting background checks, and incentivizing non-citizens to pay their taxes, obtain proof of employment, and otherwise assimilate with our diverse society," his website says. </span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="jstein"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/jill-stein2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Immigration</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="js-candidates">"Create a welcoming path to citizenship for immigrants" is posted on Stein's website. Past policy positions also indicates that she is not in favor of the mass deportation of people which has happened under President Obama and promised to a greater degree by Trump.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <!-- CLEAR --> <h1>&nbsp;</h1> <h1>Health Care</h1> <div id="hclinton"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/hillary-clinton2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Health Care</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="hc-positions">Clinton wants to defend, tweak, and expand, but not repeal, Obamacare. She praises how many more people have become insured, but she wants to get costs down.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="dtrump"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/donald-trump2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Health Care</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="dt-positions">Trump promises to repeal Obamacare, and replace it with something far better. He says health care companies must be allowed to sell policies across state lines. He also wants transparency with health care costs and providers, and to "allow individuals to fully deduct health insurance premium payments from their tax returns under the current tax system." He argues for increased competitive, not government regulation of health care. Trump has also said that everyone deserves health care.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="gjohnson"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/gary-johnson2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Health Care</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="gj-positions">Generally speaking, Johnson is in favor of repealing Obamacare. He believes that free market competition will do the best job of covering health care for people.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="jstein"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/jill-stein2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Health Care</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="js-candidates">Stein believes in a Medicare for All system.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <!-- CLEAR --> <h1>&nbsp;</h1> <h1>The Environment</h1> <div id="hclinton"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/hillary-clinton2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">The Environment</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="hc-positions">Clinton will encourage clean energy: "Launch a $60 billion Clean Energy Challenge to partner with states, cities, and rural communities to cut carbon pollution and expand clean energy, including for low-income families." "Invest in clean energy infrastructure, innovation, manufacturing and workforce development to make the U.S. economy more competitive and create good-paying jobs and careers." </span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="dtrump"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/donald-trump2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">The Environment</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="dt-positions">Trump does not discuss the environment much. He has called climate change a hoax. And, he believes that the Environmental Protection Agency has too many regulations.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="gjohnson"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/gary-johnson2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">The Environment</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="gj-positions">Johnson places emphasis on protection of National Parks and wants the Environmental Protection Agency to "focus on its true mission." He also believes in regulations to protect from pollutors, but also believes that the government meddles too much in deciding which companies determine the future of clean energy.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="jstein"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/jill-stein2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">The Environment</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="js-candidates">Stein and the Green Party are, historically, especially focused on the environment. The Green New Deal looks to have the U.S. be on 100% clean energy by 2030. Stein wants to end use of fossil fuels and any support thereof. She places a special emphasis on protecting ecosystems, and strengthening environmental justice laws.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <!-- CLEAR --> <h1>&nbsp;</h1> <h1>Foreign Policy</h1> <div id="hclinton"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/hillary-clinton2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Foreign Policy</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="hc-positions">Clinton believes that the United States should defend its allies, push for diplomacy whenever possible, and be firm but not overaggressive with rivals such as China, Russia, and Iran. She is known as an interventionist, but has also spent time negotiating peace deals as Secretary of State. Her vote in favor of the Iraq War as a U.S. Senator is one that she has long been criticized for and has herself called a mistake.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="dtrump"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/donald-trump2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Foreign Policy</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="dt-positions">Trump has an "America First" foreign policy, based on protecting the interests of the United States above all else, not meddling in other countries' affairs, protecting American security and jobs, seemingly no matter what it takes to do so. Trump has promised an aggressive approach with Mexico and illegal immigration, China and currency manipulation, and the Middle East and wars in the region. Trump has been criticized and questioned for an apparent coziness with Vladimir Putin of Russia, which he has denied.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="gjohnson"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/gary-johnson2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Foreign Policy</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="gj-positions">Johnson believes that the U.S. meddles too much in foreign affairs and wars, and that needs to stop. He believes in fixing the problems that exist at home, while at the same time building relationships with allies abroad. Johnson has struggled with discussing foreign affairs on the campaign trail.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="jstein"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/jill-stein2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Foreign Policy</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="js-candidates">Stein wants to focus on diplomacy whenever possible, but also the punishment of abusers of human rights. Those human rights abusers include Egypt, Saudi Arabia, and Israel, she says.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <!-- CLEAR --> <h1>&nbsp;</h1> <h1>Combatting ISIS</h1> <div id="hclinton"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/hillary-clinton2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">ISIS</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="hc-positions">Clinton looks to support counter-terrorism law enformcement with the tools they need, and an increase of the airstrike campaign against ISIS in the Middle East. She has called for an "intelligence surge" to help the U.S. in its efforts against ISIS and other foreign threats.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="dtrump"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/donald-trump2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">ISIS</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="dt-positions">Generally speaking, Trump calls for a very aggressive military approach to ISIS, at times using expletives to explain his plan to bomb its forces and strongholds. He has repeatedly called for destroying oil fields that ISIS may have access to. But it is unclear to what extent he will pursue these strategies because he has not released as many plans regarding ISIS. Trump says U.S. leaders are foolish in telegraphing their military plans and that he will not divulge his. He has repeatedly insulted both U.S. political and military leaders.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="gjohnson"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/gary-johnson2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">ISIS</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="gj-positions">Johnson believes that the "meddling" of past administrations, Republican and Democrat, have created the monster that is ISIS. He has not shown a particular adeptness at discussing foreign affairs or presenting a plan to help eliminate threats from ISIS.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="jstein"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/jill-stein2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">ISIS</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="js-candidates">Stein says little about ISIS, but overall she is calling for the U.S. to not be engaged in war and foreign intervention.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <!-- CLEAR --> <h1>&nbsp;</h1> <h1>Gun Control</h1> <div id="hclinton"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/hillary-clinton2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Gun Control</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="hc-positions">Clinton has made gun control a focus of her campaign; calling for expanding background checks, and keeping "guns out of the hands of domestic abusers, other violent criminals, and the severely mentally ill." Clinton has said she believes in the Second Amendment and responsible gun ownership, but that she wants to do more to keep guns out of the wrong hands.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="dtrump"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/donald-trump2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Gun Control</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="dt-positions">Trump is pro-gun ownership and has promised to defend the Second Amendment. He believes that current gun regulations are a failure, and that background checks need to be fixed because it seems like criminals don't go through background checks. </span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="gjohnson"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/gary-johnson2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Gun Control</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="gj-positions">Johnson does not believe in increasing gun regulations. He is of the mind that if you take guns away only outlaws and criminals will have guns.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="jstein"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/jill-stein2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Gun Control</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="js-candidates">Stein believes that the ownership of guns should be regulated for the sake of public safety.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <!-- CLEAR --> <h1>&nbsp;</h1> <h1>Justice Reform</h1> <div id="hclinton"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/hillary-clinton2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Justice Reform</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="hc-positions">Clinton supports legislation to end any form of racial profiling. She wants law enforcement to focus on violent crimes and not petty ones like possession of marijuana. National guidelines should be brought in on use of force, she says, and body cameras should be provided to every police department in the United States. She has regularly spoken about the need to improve community-police relationships and about incidents of police brutality against people of color. And, she believes in ending the use of private prisons.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="dtrump"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/donald-trump2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Justice Reform</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="dt-positions">Trump calls himself the "Law and Order candidate," though as to what that means in terms of policy is unclear, though he has advocated for a robust stop-and-frisk policy nationwide based on what he sees as its success in New York City. Trump often talks about the need to support and respect police.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="gjohnson"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/gary-johnson2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Justice Reform</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="gj-positions">Johnson believes that all unnecessary laws should be taken out so that not as many things are criminalized. He also believes that there should be an end to the "War on Drugs."</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="jstein"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/jill-stein2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Justice Reform</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="js-candidates">Stein wants to end police brutality and de-militarize the police. She, like Johnson, wants to end the War on Drugs. She also proposes that drug addictions are treated like a health problem, not a criminal one.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <!-- CLEAR --> <h1>&nbsp;</h1> <h1>Education</h1> <div id="hclinton"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/hillary-clinton2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Education</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="hc-positions">Clinton supports the Common Core learning standards. She also believes in universal pre-kindergarten, college education that is debt free, and free tuition at all community colleges. She also looks to end overly punitive policies against students at schools and has discussed doing more for English Language Learners.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="dtrump"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/donald-trump2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Education</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="dt-positions">Trump rejects Common Core and believes that education decisions, as a whole, should be left up to states. He therefore wants to completely abolish the Department of Education.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="gjohnson"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/gary-johnson2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Education</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="gj-positions">Johnson rejects Common Core and believes that education decisions should be left to the states. He also wants to abolish the Department of Education because he believes that the federal government has no right to be involved with education decisions.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="jstein"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/jill-stein2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Education</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="js-candidates">Stein is not supportive of Common Core or standardized testing (and thinks curricula should be designed by educators). She prefers evaluation of teachers done by fellow professionals. She supports tuition-free, and debt-free, education through all four years of college. </span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <!-- CLEAR --> <h1>&nbsp;</h1> <h1>LGBTQ Rights</h1> <div id="hclinton"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/hillary-clinton2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">LGBTQ Rights</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="hc-positions">Clinton pushes for full rights for LGBTQ people, in the United States and around the world. Clinton has 'evolved' fairly quickly on related issues, like marriage equality.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="dtrump"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/donald-trump2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">LGBTQ Rights</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="dt-positions">Trump vows to protect LGBTQ citizens and has had several particularly significant moments, including at the Republican National Convention, around promoting and protecting LGBTQ rights. He has not stated personal support for same-sex marriage, but says that it is the law of the land and that it should be protected as such.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="gjohnson"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/gary-johnson2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">LGBTQ Rights</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="gj-positions">Johnson believes that the government should not be in the business of telling people who to marry. He therefore does not look to restrict same-sex marriage, and in fact he cites this non-government interference idea as a major reason why he supported same-sex marriage before many liberals did the same.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="jstein"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/jill-stein2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">LGBTQ Rights</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="js-candidates">Stein says that she will seek to end all forms of discrimination against the LGBTQ community.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <!-- CLEAR --> <h1>&nbsp;</h1> <h1>Abortion</h1> <div id="hclinton"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/hillary-clinton2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Abortion</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="hc-positions">Clinton looks to protect the reproductive rights of all women and protecting a woman's right to choose to have an abortion. She is also proud of her endorsement from Planned Parenthood.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="dtrump"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/donald-trump2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Abortion</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="dt-positions">Trump calls himself "pro-life" and at times has called for the defunding of Planned Parenthood. However he has at times touted a number of services that Planned Parenthood provides, and earlier in his life he considered himself "pro-choice." He has explained an 'evolution' on the issue. Trump has said that if he appoints several Supreme Court justices it is likely that Roe v. Wade is overturned.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="gjohnson"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/gary-johnson2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Abortion</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="gj-positions">Johnson believes that abortion is a deeply personal choice, and that as such the governnment should not be in the business of deciding who does or does not get abortions. </span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="jstein"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/jill-stein2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Abortion</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="js-candidates">Stein views reproductive freedom as a key facet of tackling women's rights issues. She also wants to expand access to the "morning after" pill.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <!-- CLEAR --> <h1>&nbsp;</h1> <h1>Supreme Court Vacancies</h1> <div id="hclinton"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/hillary-clinton2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Supreme Court Vacancies</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="hc-positions">The Supreme Court, in Clinton's eyes, should help protect women's rights and LGBTQ rights, and overturn the Citizens United case. She has not committed to renominate President Obama's SCOTUS pick, Merrick Garland, for the currently vacant seat.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="dtrump"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/donald-trump2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Supreme Court Vacancies</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="dt-positions">Trump has stressed that the Supreme Court must protect the Second Amendment in particular, as it would be under threat, he says, if Clinton is elected President. Trump's SCOTUS nominees would be pro-life and more conservative in nature, he has said, pointing to recently-deceased Justice Antonin Scalia as a model.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="gjohnson"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/gary-johnson2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Supreme Court Vacancies</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="gj-positions">Johnson would use potential nominees' positions on cases such as Kelo v. City of New London (a 2005 case on the issue of eminent domain) and others related to key issues for Libertarians to determine who he might nominate to the SCOTUS.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="jstein"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/jill-stein2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Supreme Court Vacancies</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="js-candidates">Stein would nominate justices to the SCOTUS who would overturn Citizens United and help restrict the flow of corporate money into politics.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <!-- CLEAR --> <h1>&nbsp;</h1> <h1>Campaign Finance Reform</h1> <div id="hclinton"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/hillary-clinton2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Campaign Finance Reform</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="hc-positions">Clinton supports an overturn of Citizens United to limit the impact of money in politics. She also wants legislation which will "require outside groups to publicly disclose significant political spending." Her other piece of suggested reform is to start a "small-donor matching system for presidential and congressional elections to give small donors greater influence."</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="dtrump"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/donald-trump2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Campaign Finance Reform</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="dt-positions">Trump has described Political Action Committees (PACs) as a "horrible thing" because he feels that PACs lack transparency. Trump has also claimed that politicians do favors for donors, citing his own experience as a donor. He does not promote, though, public financing of campaigns.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="gjohnson"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/gary-johnson2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Campaign Finance Reform</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="gj-positions">Johnson believes that spending in campaigns, including from unions and corporations, is perfectly allowable. Any restrictions on campaign finance would be a limit to free speech, in Johnson's opinion.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="jstein"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/jill-stein2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Campaign Finance Reform</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="js-candidates">Stein wants an overturn of the 2010 Citizens United Supreme Court case. She believes that corporations should not be allowed to fund political campaigns, but believes that there should instead be public funding of campaigns.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <!-- CLEAR --> <div>***<br />by Brendan Birth and Ben Max<br /><a href="https://twitter.com/GothamGazette" target="_blank">@GothamGazette</a></div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div>Feedback? Email Ben at bmax@gothamgazette.com</div> <!-- CLEAR --> </div> </article> </section> A Budget for the City of Immigrants 2016-05-24T15:21:53+00:00 2016-05-24T15:21:53+00:00 http://www.gothamgazette.com/?id=6353:a-budget-for-the-city-of-immigrants Aaron Holmes <p>&nbsp;<img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/images/graphics/2015/adult-lit-classes-12.jpg" width="600" height="450" alt="adult lit classes 12" /></p> <p>Students of an adult literacy class (photo: Make the Road New York)</p> <hr /> <p>In recent years, New York City has taken major strides forward in its engagement with immigrant communities. Under the leadership of Mayor Bill de Blasio, City Council Speaker Melissa Mark-Viverito, and the Council as a whole, our city has adopted and invested in new initiatives to welcome and protect immigrants and embrace their tremendous economic, cultural, and political contributions.</p> <p>Now, with the 2017 budget process in final negotiations, our leaders have a key opportunity to further address the barriers to opportunity and equity that immigrant communities continue to face. That’s why today, five leading immigrant organizations are releasing a new report, “<a href="http://www.maketheroad.org/report.php?ID=4279" target="_blank">A Budget for the City of Immigrants</a>,” which identifies key policy areas in which immigrant communities need further investment.</p> <p>Despite path-breaking initiatives like IDNYC (the municipal identification card program), ActionNYC (one of the nation’s first large-scale municipal navigation and outreach programs to connect people to free immigration legal screenings), and the New York Immigrant Family Unity Project (the nation’s first program to guarantee counsel to low-income immigrants facing deportation), immigrants still face enormous challenges in accessing public services, getting the support to succeed in the workforce, and being informed of their rights.</p> <p>The new report highlights key priorities across various issue areas, ranging from adult education to youth programs to health care access, but a few priorities bear particular mention.</p> <p>First, our City must expand its investment in adult literacy to a baselined $16 million per year.</p> <p>Adult newcomers who have come here to work and support their families often struggle with limited English proficiency (LEP). Despite enormous demand for adult literacy classes, supply has lagged—less than three percent of those in need can access community-based adult education programs. A recent Make the Road New York and Center for Popular Democracy report, “<a href="http://www.maketheroad.org/report.php?ID=4259" target="_blank">Teaching Toward Equity</a>: The Importance of English Classes to Reducing Economic Inequality in New York,” highlights how meeting the language needs of LEP New Yorkers would both further immigrant integration and generate billions of dollars in new earnings. New York City can lead again by making sure that adult immigrants can learn English and develop the tools they need to thrive.</p> <p>Second, our city must direct $13.5 million for immigration legal services for complex cases.</p> <p>Currently, New York City provides few resources for complex immigration legal cases where an individual is facing imminent deportation yet cannot be served under most existing funding streams. This leaves thousands of immigrants on waiting lists. A survey by the New York Immigration Coalition of the city's legal services providers noted that 60% of immigrants seeking their services had complex cases that need intensive representation. Further resources must focus on these complex immigration cases—especially for families who are on the verge of being torn apart without adequate legal representation.</p> <p>Third, our city must expand its investment in Access Health NYC to $5 million.</p> <p>This new City Council initiative has shown tremendous promise by working with community organizations like the Coalition for Asian American Children and Families to educate immigrants about health care options and enroll them for coverage, wherever possible. Health care access is another area where our city has shown leadership, and it should expand its commitment in this budget year.</p> <p>Fourth, our city must move forward with the investment of $868 million in capital funding for the construction of new classrooms and schools to combat overcrowding and pursue additional means to meet the more than 100,000 school seats needed citywide.</p> <p>The 2017 budget must include strong investment to address this widespread problem, while our leaders explore further action in future years to fix it once and for all.</p> <p>Finally, New York City must take further steps to strengthen the landscape of grassroots, immigrant-led nonprofit organizations that are the backbone of our communities yet often struggle, as the Asian American Federation and the Federation of Protestant Welfare Agencies have noted, to operate on a level playing field with larger organizations.</p> <p>By increasing the Nonprofit Stabilization Fund to $5 million and amending municipal contracting policies to open new opportunities for these smaller organizations, the city can go a long way to strengthening immigrant communities as well.</p> <p>The priorities outlined in A Budget for the City of Immigrants, of which these are just a few, show concrete opportunities to consolidate the progress our city has made with respect to immigrant communities and ensure that we continue to move forward. With immigrant communities at the heart of our global city, we must use this budget cycle to continue to lead the way in welcoming and protecting immigrants.</p> <p>What is good for immigrant communities is good for New York City, the city of immigrants.</p> <p>***<br /><em>Javier H. Valdés is the Co-Executive Director of Make the Road New York. Steve Choi is the Executive Director of the New York Immigration Coalition. On Twitter: <a href="http://twitter.com/maketheroadny" target="_blank">@MaketheRoadNY</a> &amp; <a href="http://twitter.com/thenyic" target="_blank">@thenyic</a>.</em></p> <p>

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<p>&nbsp;<img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/images/graphics/2015/adult-lit-classes-12.jpg" width="600" height="450" alt="adult lit classes 12" /></p> <p>Students of an adult literacy class (photo: Make the Road New York)</p> <hr /> <p>In recent years, New York City has taken major strides forward in its engagement with immigrant communities. Under the leadership of Mayor Bill de Blasio, City Council Speaker Melissa Mark-Viverito, and the Council as a whole, our city has adopted and invested in new initiatives to welcome and protect immigrants and embrace their tremendous economic, cultural, and political contributions.</p> <p>Now, with the 2017 budget process in final negotiations, our leaders have a key opportunity to further address the barriers to opportunity and equity that immigrant communities continue to face. That’s why today, five leading immigrant organizations are releasing a new report, “<a href="http://www.maketheroad.org/report.php?ID=4279" target="_blank">A Budget for the City of Immigrants</a>,” which identifies key policy areas in which immigrant communities need further investment.</p> <p>Despite path-breaking initiatives like IDNYC (the municipal identification card program), ActionNYC (one of the nation’s first large-scale municipal navigation and outreach programs to connect people to free immigration legal screenings), and the New York Immigrant Family Unity Project (the nation’s first program to guarantee counsel to low-income immigrants facing deportation), immigrants still face enormous challenges in accessing public services, getting the support to succeed in the workforce, and being informed of their rights.</p> <p>The new report highlights key priorities across various issue areas, ranging from adult education to youth programs to health care access, but a few priorities bear particular mention.</p> <p>First, our City must expand its investment in adult literacy to a baselined $16 million per year.</p> <p>Adult newcomers who have come here to work and support their families often struggle with limited English proficiency (LEP). Despite enormous demand for adult literacy classes, supply has lagged—less than three percent of those in need can access community-based adult education programs. A recent Make the Road New York and Center for Popular Democracy report, “<a href="http://www.maketheroad.org/report.php?ID=4259" target="_blank">Teaching Toward Equity</a>: The Importance of English Classes to Reducing Economic Inequality in New York,” highlights how meeting the language needs of LEP New Yorkers would both further immigrant integration and generate billions of dollars in new earnings. New York City can lead again by making sure that adult immigrants can learn English and develop the tools they need to thrive.</p> <p>Second, our city must direct $13.5 million for immigration legal services for complex cases.</p> <p>Currently, New York City provides few resources for complex immigration legal cases where an individual is facing imminent deportation yet cannot be served under most existing funding streams. This leaves thousands of immigrants on waiting lists. A survey by the New York Immigration Coalition of the city's legal services providers noted that 60% of immigrants seeking their services had complex cases that need intensive representation. Further resources must focus on these complex immigration cases—especially for families who are on the verge of being torn apart without adequate legal representation.</p> <p>Third, our city must expand its investment in Access Health NYC to $5 million.</p> <p>This new City Council initiative has shown tremendous promise by working with community organizations like the Coalition for Asian American Children and Families to educate immigrants about health care options and enroll them for coverage, wherever possible. Health care access is another area where our city has shown leadership, and it should expand its commitment in this budget year.</p> <p>Fourth, our city must move forward with the investment of $868 million in capital funding for the construction of new classrooms and schools to combat overcrowding and pursue additional means to meet the more than 100,000 school seats needed citywide.</p> <p>The 2017 budget must include strong investment to address this widespread problem, while our leaders explore further action in future years to fix it once and for all.</p> <p>Finally, New York City must take further steps to strengthen the landscape of grassroots, immigrant-led nonprofit organizations that are the backbone of our communities yet often struggle, as the Asian American Federation and the Federation of Protestant Welfare Agencies have noted, to operate on a level playing field with larger organizations.</p> <p>By increasing the Nonprofit Stabilization Fund to $5 million and amending municipal contracting policies to open new opportunities for these smaller organizations, the city can go a long way to strengthening immigrant communities as well.</p> <p>The priorities outlined in A Budget for the City of Immigrants, of which these are just a few, show concrete opportunities to consolidate the progress our city has made with respect to immigrant communities and ensure that we continue to move forward. With immigrant communities at the heart of our global city, we must use this budget cycle to continue to lead the way in welcoming and protecting immigrants.</p> <p>What is good for immigrant communities is good for New York City, the city of immigrants.</p> <p>***<br /><em>Javier H. Valdés is the Co-Executive Director of Make the Road New York. Steve Choi is the Executive Director of the New York Immigration Coalition. On Twitter: <a href="http://twitter.com/maketheroadny" target="_blank">@MaketheRoadNY</a> &amp; <a href="http://twitter.com/thenyic" target="_blank">@thenyic</a>.</em></p> <p>

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Clarity on the City's Investment in Health + Hospitals 2016-05-13T04:00:00+00:00 2016-05-13T04:00:00+00:00 http://www.gothamgazette.com/?id=6333:clarity-on-the-city-s-investment-in-health-hospitals Ben Max <p><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/images/Health_and_Hospitals_facebook.jpg" alt="Health and Hospitals facebook" height="400" width="600" /></p> <p>(photo via Health + Hospitals on Facebook)</p> <hr /> <p>New York City Health + Hospitals is a model public system, the country’s oldest and largest commitment to safety-net health care. Yet Mayor Bill de Blasio’s recent plan to shore up finances at Health + Hospitals has led to consternation from those who would have us believe that H+H is an oversized and outdated system.</p> <p>In <a href="http://m.nydailynews.com/opinion/errol-louis-price-rescue-public-hospitals-article-1.2622198" target="_blank">a recent New York Daily News column</a>, Errol Louis made this argument while saying that the burden of undocumented immigrants is a key flaw in Health + Hospitals’ current structure. Misunderstandings and misrepresentations of this structure and Health + Hospitals’ role in today’s health care landscape and within the city budget are, unfortunately, becoming more widespread.</p> <p>Concerns about the financial standing of such a critical community institution are merited. The solution, however, is to promote policies that support quality, cost-effective care at Health + Hospitals, starting with Mayor de Blasio’s budget proposal.</p> <p>The suggestion that H+H is unable to keep up with the health care system’s changing tide away from hospital-based care and toward preventive, community-based services overlooks the fact that Health + Hospitals is already providing comprehensive and culturally competent services across the care spectrum, from primary care in more than 30 community healthcare centers and 25 school-based health centers, to its better-known network of 11 hospitals providing acute and ambulatory care.</p> <p>H+H has a diverse staff that represents the culturally and linguistically diverse communities it serves. In recent years H+H has responded to almost 700,000 patient requests for interpreter services.</p> <p>In his column, Mr. Louis cites a 2014 report that one-quarter of hospital admissions are avoidable. He is right, but this is a problem of health care in general, not of NYC Health + Hospitals specifically. New York State’s Delivery System Reform Incentive Payment (DSRIP) Program is currently providing health systems across the state $8 billion in incentive payments to better coordinate care and reduce avoidable hospitalizations by 25% by 2020. The largest of the state’s 25 DSRIP systems is spearheaded by none other than Health + Hospitals. Whether DSRIP is successful remains to be seen, but there is no doubt that Health + Hospitals is at the forefront of system change.</p> <p>As a public network, Health + Hospitals provides care to anyone who needs it, regardless of ability to pay or immigration status. It is an important provider of care to the city’s 375,000 undocumented immigrants, who face daunting restrictions in access to both public and private insurance. Mr. Louis uses this fact to support his unfounded claim that undocumented immigrants crowd emergency rooms because they have nowhere else to go for their basic health needs.</p> <p>The truth, demonstrated in rigorous public health studies, is that undocumented immigrants use health care services, including emergency rooms, at lower rates than U.S. citizens and other immigrants. Because Health + Hospitals provides comprehensive and coordinated services, undocumented immigrants do indeed use the public (read: primary care) system for “routine health needs,” as Mr. Louis says – exactly as they should.</p> <p>Contributions to the tax base should not be a prerequisite for receiving health care in a modern, humane society, but it is worth noting that undocumented immigrants in New York state, about 70 percent of whom live in New York City, contributed $1.1 billion to the state’s economy in 2012, according to the Institute on Taxation &amp; Economic Policy. They are hardly free-riders.</p> <p>In the true spirit of the safety net, Health + Hospitals provides care for uninsured patients, citizens and immigrants alike, without being reimbursed for it. This is a fundamental problem for the system’s finances. The solution is not to reconsider the mission of Health + Hospitals but to support policies that reduce unreimbursed care by promoting federal and state funding for health systems and increasing access to health coverage for those who remain uninsured. These are real, meaningful steps to ensure that health care providers are adequately reimbursed for services.</p> <p>Mr. Louis casts the financial needs of the city’s public health system as a threat to education, transportation, and housing. Pitting public services against one another in this way is unfair and does not recognize that preservation of health is the foundation upon which New Yorkers take advantage of educational opportunity and lead rewarding, productive lives.</p> <p>A city that abandons its obligation to fill the gaps in the frayed federal and state health care safety net does itself and its residents a disservice. New York City doesn’t need a smaller or less generous public Health + Hospitals system; it needs a system that is recognized for the value it provides to our communities and that is supported accordingly.</p> <p>***<br />Max Hadler is the health advocacy specialist for the New York Immigration Coalition. On Twitter <a href="https://twitter.com/thenyic" target="_blank">@theNYIC</a>.</p> <p>

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<p><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/images/Health_and_Hospitals_facebook.jpg" alt="Health and Hospitals facebook" height="400" width="600" /></p> <p>(photo via Health + Hospitals on Facebook)</p> <hr /> <p>New York City Health + Hospitals is a model public system, the country’s oldest and largest commitment to safety-net health care. Yet Mayor Bill de Blasio’s recent plan to shore up finances at Health + Hospitals has led to consternation from those who would have us believe that H+H is an oversized and outdated system.</p> <p>In <a href="http://m.nydailynews.com/opinion/errol-louis-price-rescue-public-hospitals-article-1.2622198" target="_blank">a recent New York Daily News column</a>, Errol Louis made this argument while saying that the burden of undocumented immigrants is a key flaw in Health + Hospitals’ current structure. Misunderstandings and misrepresentations of this structure and Health + Hospitals’ role in today’s health care landscape and within the city budget are, unfortunately, becoming more widespread.</p> <p>Concerns about the financial standing of such a critical community institution are merited. The solution, however, is to promote policies that support quality, cost-effective care at Health + Hospitals, starting with Mayor de Blasio’s budget proposal.</p> <p>The suggestion that H+H is unable to keep up with the health care system’s changing tide away from hospital-based care and toward preventive, community-based services overlooks the fact that Health + Hospitals is already providing comprehensive and culturally competent services across the care spectrum, from primary care in more than 30 community healthcare centers and 25 school-based health centers, to its better-known network of 11 hospitals providing acute and ambulatory care.</p> <p>H+H has a diverse staff that represents the culturally and linguistically diverse communities it serves. In recent years H+H has responded to almost 700,000 patient requests for interpreter services.</p> <p>In his column, Mr. Louis cites a 2014 report that one-quarter of hospital admissions are avoidable. He is right, but this is a problem of health care in general, not of NYC Health + Hospitals specifically. New York State’s Delivery System Reform Incentive Payment (DSRIP) Program is currently providing health systems across the state $8 billion in incentive payments to better coordinate care and reduce avoidable hospitalizations by 25% by 2020. The largest of the state’s 25 DSRIP systems is spearheaded by none other than Health + Hospitals. Whether DSRIP is successful remains to be seen, but there is no doubt that Health + Hospitals is at the forefront of system change.</p> <p>As a public network, Health + Hospitals provides care to anyone who needs it, regardless of ability to pay or immigration status. It is an important provider of care to the city’s 375,000 undocumented immigrants, who face daunting restrictions in access to both public and private insurance. Mr. Louis uses this fact to support his unfounded claim that undocumented immigrants crowd emergency rooms because they have nowhere else to go for their basic health needs.</p> <p>The truth, demonstrated in rigorous public health studies, is that undocumented immigrants use health care services, including emergency rooms, at lower rates than U.S. citizens and other immigrants. Because Health + Hospitals provides comprehensive and coordinated services, undocumented immigrants do indeed use the public (read: primary care) system for “routine health needs,” as Mr. Louis says – exactly as they should.</p> <p>Contributions to the tax base should not be a prerequisite for receiving health care in a modern, humane society, but it is worth noting that undocumented immigrants in New York state, about 70 percent of whom live in New York City, contributed $1.1 billion to the state’s economy in 2012, according to the Institute on Taxation &amp; Economic Policy. They are hardly free-riders.</p> <p>In the true spirit of the safety net, Health + Hospitals provides care for uninsured patients, citizens and immigrants alike, without being reimbursed for it. This is a fundamental problem for the system’s finances. The solution is not to reconsider the mission of Health + Hospitals but to support policies that reduce unreimbursed care by promoting federal and state funding for health systems and increasing access to health coverage for those who remain uninsured. These are real, meaningful steps to ensure that health care providers are adequately reimbursed for services.</p> <p>Mr. Louis casts the financial needs of the city’s public health system as a threat to education, transportation, and housing. Pitting public services against one another in this way is unfair and does not recognize that preservation of health is the foundation upon which New Yorkers take advantage of educational opportunity and lead rewarding, productive lives.</p> <p>A city that abandons its obligation to fill the gaps in the frayed federal and state health care safety net does itself and its residents a disservice. New York City doesn’t need a smaller or less generous public Health + Hospitals system; it needs a system that is recognized for the value it provides to our communities and that is supported accordingly.</p> <p>***<br />Max Hadler is the health advocacy specialist for the New York Immigration Coalition. On Twitter <a href="https://twitter.com/thenyic" target="_blank">@theNYIC</a>.</p> <p>

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Major City Issues at Play in Politically Charged, Post-Budget Legislative Session 2016-04-06T22:49:29+00:00 2016-04-06T22:49:29+00:00 http://www.gothamgazette.com/?id=6267:major-city-issues-at-play-in-politically-charged-post-budget-legislative-session Super User <p><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/images/26096555691_00e0f8bb7b_z.jpg" alt="cuomo budget paid leave pic" height="400" width="600" /></p> <p><span style="font-size: 10pt;">Gov. Cuomo announces the budget deal (photo via The Governor's Office)</span></p> <hr /> <p>Governor Andrew Cuomo dismissed the idea of extending state government's legislative session this year to tackle ethics reform during an appearance in Binghamton on Wednesday. "We have a relatively light agenda because we did so much work in the budget," the governor said. "We passed the minimum wage increase, we passed paid family leave, we passed a great package for the middle class, we passed a great package for upstate New York, more education funding than ever before."</p> <p>It's a concerning statement for some advocates and elected officials who see the session full of unresolved issues - including, but beyond ethics - especially ones that impact New York City, issues that the governor himself tackled during his January State of the State speech or has since brought to the table. Some advocates take the governor's statement as an acknowledgement that he traded away issues Senate Republicans oppose to get a minimum wage increase, and not only in the budget, but for the rest of the legislative session that has just begun and is scheduled to end in June.</p> <p>All-important control of the State Senate will be up for grabs again in November, but a key battle in the overall war will be decided on April 19 in the contest to fill the seat vacated by former Senate Majority Leader Dean Skelos, recently convicted on federal corruption charges. The April special and impending November elections mean legislators are anxious to get back to their districts while avoiding political landmines.</p> <p>Ethics reforms are one of the many issues jettisoned from budget talks that lawmakers say were dominated by minimum wage negotiations. Major issues of particular importance to New York City yet to be addressed this year include mayoral control of schools; a multitude of criminal justice reforms, some of which were introduced by Cuomo; housing programs, including a replacement for the 421-a property tax credit aimed at spurring affordable housing development; and two education matters that have been linked in the past: The DREAM Act and the education investment tax credit.</p> <p><strong>Mayoral Control</strong><br />Senate Majority Leader John Flanagan and his conference have used Mayor Bill de Blasio as a progressive boogieman since the mayor tried to help Democrats win control of the chamber in 2014. Last year Flanagan successfully beat back the mayor's push for a seven-year extension of mayoral control, getting his negotiating partners to settle on one year. He again maneuvered discussion of renewal out of this year's budget discussions and before a spending deal was even announced, he <a href="http://www.gothamgazette.com:8080/index.php/government/6241-senate-schedules-de-blasio-for-two-hearings-on-mayoral-control-of-city-schools" target="_blank">scheduled hearings on mayoral control</a> for May 4 in Albany and May 19 in New York City. Mayoral control is due to sunset on June 30.</p> <p>Many Democrats expect Senate Republicans to delay actually acting on mayoral control until as late as possible in order to keep de Blasio "in check." With no other sensible alternative, de Blasio has been gracious about the situation so far, saying he plans to attend the hearings "personally" and welcomes the chance for "dialogue" on the issue.</p> <p><strong>Criminal Justice Reforms</strong><br />Gov. Cuomo has supported <a href="http://www.gothamgazette.com/index.php/government/6249-criminal-justice-reform-again-given-little-attention-in-budget-negotiations" target="_blank">three major criminal justice reforms</a> over the last two years: Raise the Age, an effort to end New York's practice of treating 16- and 17-year-olds as adults in the criminal justice system; an effort to create independent review of police killings of civilians; and a program to increase data reporting of the race and ethnicity of individuals involved in police interactions. Unable to deliver on the first two last year, Cuomo took executive action. He moved 16- and 17-year-olds out of adult prisons and gave Attorney General Eric Schneiderman's office the discretion to look into police killings of civilians. Advocates were pleased, but acknowledged both issues still needed to be addressed in law.</p> <p>This year Cuomo has proposed a bill that would give his office the ability to convene an investigation into police killings of civilians but only if certain criteria is met. He has continued to push for Raise the Age but not with the urgency supporters would like. They point out that even being held in separate facilities from older inmates, 16- and 17-year-olds are still treated as adults when arrested and tried, which make negative outcomes and criminal records more likely.</p> <p>On Tuesday, supporters of a bill that would mandate the state collect data on police interactions with the public gathered in Albany to push Senate Republicans and Cuomo to act on an issue they call "common sense."</p> <p>The bill, sponsored by Assembly Member Joseph Lentol and state Senator Daniel Squadron, both Brooklyn Democrats, would require the state to collect and report data on the number of tickets and misdemeanor arrests across the state; the number of civilian deaths in police custody or during an arrest; the race, ethnicity, and sex of those charged with misdemeanors and violations; and the geographic location of enforcement-related activity and arrest-related deaths. Lentol said the bill is not "anti-police" but a "transparency" and "open government" tool to improve relations between police and communities across the state. Lentol prodded Gov. Cuomo to act, noting that Cuomo has a similar bill that has failed to garner support.</p> <p>"Yet again, communities of color were left behind in New York State budget negotiations, with no meaningful advancement of any criminal justice reforms," said Alyssa Aguilera, co-executive director of VOCAL-NY. "Passing the STAT Act this legislative session provides an opportunity for Governor Cuomo and the New York State Legislature to show they value the safety and dignity of all New Yorkers."</p> <p>Squadron told Gotham Gazette that the bill is one that Senate Republicans "put in a black box, a dark room," never to be seen again. "This isn't something we have debated. We haven't heard their argument against it, it just disappears." Lentol, however, said that he believes police unions are using their influence to block the bill.</p> <p>Assembly Member Jeffrion Aubry, Democrat of Queens, supports Lentol's bill and said that he feels his constituents and advocates are growing frustrated that the Senate fails to vote on criminal justice reforms year after year. "I think the governor is really going to have to move on some of these bills and not just wave his hands in the air and say 'It's the Republicans'" Aubry said. "We know he can get what he wants. He has an election coming up and he's got to deliver for these communities."</p> <p>A spokesperson for the governor, Dani Lever, said in a statement that&nbsp;"The governor has and continues to push for comprehensive criminal justice reform to address the treatment of juveniles in the system and the prosecution of fatality cases involving law enforcement. Despite the legislature's failure to agree on these reforms, the governor has taken bold action and issued executive orders appointing a special prosecutor in police cases (the first of its kind in the country) and removing juveniles from adult state prisons. Until the legislature passes real reforms, the governor's executive orders will remain in effect."</p> <p><strong>Housing</strong><br />Last year in an unprecedented move, Cuomo put the fate of the 421-a tax abatement program in the hands of the two stakeholder industries - real estate developers and construction unions. Whatever deal they reached on wages in new housing developments utilizing 421-a was to be enacted into law with other reforms to the program, but if they failed, 421-a would sunset. <a href="http://www.gothamgazette.com/index.php/government/6038-negotiations-to-extend-important-affordable-housing-tax-break-said-to-reach-impasse" target="_blank">Negotiations floundered</a> and 421-a is dead.</p> <p>The program is thought to be essential to affordable housing production in New York City, making it profitable for developers to build new rental housing with some affordable units included. When Cuomo rejected compromise legislation crafted by de Blasio last June, it was one of the final straws to break de Blasio's back (along with the mayoral control compromise and more), <a href="http://www.gothamgazette.com/index.php/government/6098-de-blasio-calls-for-albany-to-make-right-on-program-at-center-of-rift-with-governor" target="_blank">leading to his now-infamous tirade</a> against the governor on June 30. De Blasio's affordable housing goals rely on 421-a-related production.</p> <p>On Monday, Cuomo <a href="http://www.ny1.com/nyc/all-boroughs/albany-newsmakers/2016/04/4/ny1-online--governor-cuomo-breaks-down-state-budget.html" target="_blank">told NY1's Errol Louis</a> that he is looking for a replacement. "You can have a fair program that pays a fair rate to the unions and also a fair rate of profit to the developers," Cuomo said. "I believe there is that balance to be struck. But they have to strike that balance. We're still trying, but the Legislature is not going to approve a plan that kicks the labor unions out of the affordable housing business."</p> <p>Bill Murrow, the governor's top aide, followed up those comments on Tuesday during a Crain's New York Business breakfast event, indicating that labor and real estate are indeed negotiating again. "The developers, REBNY, and the construction trades...they'll find some common ground. I am hopeful that sometime between now and June that something will actually happen," Mulrow <a href="http://www.capitalnewyork.com/article/albany/2016/04/8595747/cuomo-administration-hopeful-about-421-successor?top-featured-image" target="_blank">said</a>.</p> <p>On Tuesday, tenant advocates gathered in Albany to demand that negotiations on 421-a or something like must also include strengthening rent regulations. Delsenia Glover, campaign manager for the Alliance for Tenant Power opened the press conference by condemning the deal that renewed the rent laws last year. "We pretty much got nothing," she said. "At the time Governor Cuomo said they were the 'strongest rent laws in history.' It's not true, we got nothing." Members of the crowd shouted "He lied!"</p> <p>Glover said she has been disturbed to hear "lamentations" that 421-a is dead, saying she was glad a "giveaway to luxury developers" and "$1.1 billion tax suck" was dead and that assertions that developers won't be able to build affordable housing without it is patently false.</p> <p>"Our demand," said Glover, "is this: If 421-a or anything that looks like 421-a is revived or created then the rent laws must be reopened, we get rid of vacancy bonus, fix preferential rents, and then maybe we can have a conversation."</p> <p>A number of legislators who spoke after Glover pushed against the idea of any 421-a renewal. Assembly Member Walter Mosley of Brooklyn said he doesn't use the term '421-a' because "We don't want nothin' like 421-a to resurface, but ultimately we understand if anything like 421-a comes to the floor then we reopen the rent laws. Without that we have no discussion."</p> <p>Assembly Housing Chair Keith Wright, who introduced a plan of something of a 421-a alternative earlier this year to a tepid response, brought up his proposal in front of the audience that was openly hostile to any replacement. Wright's plan would utilize the state's abandoned property fund to give a subsidy of $100,000 per affordable unit at a cost of about $200 million per year, compared to 421-a's 25-year property tax break and $1 billion annual tax revenue price tag.</p> <p>"The plan was not...people were intrigued by the idea," Wright told the crowd, seeming to catch himself in an effort to promote the measure, "but listen anything in Albany takes a minute to work up to, but we are still pushing that plan, but we are still under siege."</p> <p>Wright is a close ally of Cuomo and many expect that his plan was the first shot fired in an effort to restore a 421-a plan. The fact that Cuomo and Wright are openly pushing a replacement and that Senate Republicans are likely to want to deliver for real estate developers makes many advocates think it is a question of "when" not "if" a 421-a replacement comes to the floor of both houses. They hope to keep up public pressure to win some sort of concessions when it takes place.</p> <p><strong>Other Education Issues</strong><br />Last year Cuomo tried to connect the DREAM Act that would allow the undocumented access to college tuition assistance and the education tax credit that would give benefits to those who donate to private schools. The DREAM Act has massive support in the Assembly, which has passed the measure repeatedly over the last few years and the education tax credit is a favorite of Senate Republicans. Cuomo's bid at linkage failed last year (he did not attempt to link them again this year, but did include both in his executive budget), but both issues remain on the table and the fact that they were left out of the budget has rankled a number of lawmakers.</p> <p>Sen. Simcha Felder, a Democrat from Brooklyn who caucuses with Republicans, was said to be so upset that Republicans didn't demand the education tax credit be part of the budget that he didn't conference with them during budget negotiations (he was then the lone Senate "no" vote on the minimum wage and education budget bill). Meanwhile, DREAM supporters like Sen. Jose Peralta, a Democrat from Queens, railed against its exclusion during the late-night budget debate.</p> <p>For supporters of each measure the problem seems to be that opposition to the other measure has become a litmus test for some in their party's base. Senate Republicans have included language touting the disinclusion of the DREAM Act in the budget on the Senate website, listing it as an accomplishment:</p> <p>"Rejecting the Use of Taxpayer Dollars to Fund College Tuition for Illegal Immigrants:</p> <p>"The final budget rejects an Executive Budget proposal that would have cost state taxpayers $27 million and reward people who are here illegally by giving them free college tuition. The measure would have extended all other criteria, exemptions or opportunities found within the education law - including all scholarship and tuition assistance programs funded with state tax dollars - to illegal immigrants while hardworking middle-class families are already being forced to take out massive college loans to pay for higher education."</p> <p>Meanwhile, public school advocates are entrenched against the education tax credit, saying that it is a taxpayer giveaway to millionaires who will flood their favored schools with donations using up the credit before average families can utilize it. The Alliance for Quality Education, a teachers union-aligned group, has held press conferences and briefings against the policy this year.</p> <p><strong>Albany Tradition</strong><br />If the past is indeed prologue than it is a safe bet that many of these issues will not come to a vote in both houses this year. With an important special election, a presidential race, and the entire Legislature up for (re)election, leaders will likely be looking to rest on the work they did in the budget and get back to their districts. While there will be a lot of noise made by the media and good government groups around ethics reform, no one who knows Albany is holding their breath.</p> <p>Mayoral control of city schools is the only key policy related to New York City facing an expiration date and <a href="http://www.gothamgazette.com:8080/index.php/government/6241-senate-schedules-de-blasio-for-two-hearings-on-mayoral-control-of-city-schools" target="_blank">all-but-sure to see action</a>. The questions are what Senate Republicans demand in exchange for extension, how long it is extended for, and how much they make de Blasio sweat in the process.</p> <p>Including Wednesday, April 6, there are currently 25 session days remaining until <a href="http://assembly.state.ny.us/leg/calendar/" target="_blank">its scheduled</a> end on June 16.</p> <p>

***
by David King, Albany editor, Gotham Gazette
     

Read more by this writer.

</p>
<p><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/images/26096555691_00e0f8bb7b_z.jpg" alt="cuomo budget paid leave pic" height="400" width="600" /></p> <p><span style="font-size: 10pt;">Gov. Cuomo announces the budget deal (photo via The Governor's Office)</span></p> <hr /> <p>Governor Andrew Cuomo dismissed the idea of extending state government's legislative session this year to tackle ethics reform during an appearance in Binghamton on Wednesday. "We have a relatively light agenda because we did so much work in the budget," the governor said. "We passed the minimum wage increase, we passed paid family leave, we passed a great package for the middle class, we passed a great package for upstate New York, more education funding than ever before."</p> <p>It's a concerning statement for some advocates and elected officials who see the session full of unresolved issues - including, but beyond ethics - especially ones that impact New York City, issues that the governor himself tackled during his January State of the State speech or has since brought to the table. Some advocates take the governor's statement as an acknowledgement that he traded away issues Senate Republicans oppose to get a minimum wage increase, and not only in the budget, but for the rest of the legislative session that has just begun and is scheduled to end in June.</p> <p>All-important control of the State Senate will be up for grabs again in November, but a key battle in the overall war will be decided on April 19 in the contest to fill the seat vacated by former Senate Majority Leader Dean Skelos, recently convicted on federal corruption charges. The April special and impending November elections mean legislators are anxious to get back to their districts while avoiding political landmines.</p> <p>Ethics reforms are one of the many issues jettisoned from budget talks that lawmakers say were dominated by minimum wage negotiations. Major issues of particular importance to New York City yet to be addressed this year include mayoral control of schools; a multitude of criminal justice reforms, some of which were introduced by Cuomo; housing programs, including a replacement for the 421-a property tax credit aimed at spurring affordable housing development; and two education matters that have been linked in the past: The DREAM Act and the education investment tax credit.</p> <p><strong>Mayoral Control</strong><br />Senate Majority Leader John Flanagan and his conference have used Mayor Bill de Blasio as a progressive boogieman since the mayor tried to help Democrats win control of the chamber in 2014. Last year Flanagan successfully beat back the mayor's push for a seven-year extension of mayoral control, getting his negotiating partners to settle on one year. He again maneuvered discussion of renewal out of this year's budget discussions and before a spending deal was even announced, he <a href="http://www.gothamgazette.com:8080/index.php/government/6241-senate-schedules-de-blasio-for-two-hearings-on-mayoral-control-of-city-schools" target="_blank">scheduled hearings on mayoral control</a> for May 4 in Albany and May 19 in New York City. Mayoral control is due to sunset on June 30.</p> <p>Many Democrats expect Senate Republicans to delay actually acting on mayoral control until as late as possible in order to keep de Blasio "in check." With no other sensible alternative, de Blasio has been gracious about the situation so far, saying he plans to attend the hearings "personally" and welcomes the chance for "dialogue" on the issue.</p> <p><strong>Criminal Justice Reforms</strong><br />Gov. Cuomo has supported <a href="http://www.gothamgazette.com/index.php/government/6249-criminal-justice-reform-again-given-little-attention-in-budget-negotiations" target="_blank">three major criminal justice reforms</a> over the last two years: Raise the Age, an effort to end New York's practice of treating 16- and 17-year-olds as adults in the criminal justice system; an effort to create independent review of police killings of civilians; and a program to increase data reporting of the race and ethnicity of individuals involved in police interactions. Unable to deliver on the first two last year, Cuomo took executive action. He moved 16- and 17-year-olds out of adult prisons and gave Attorney General Eric Schneiderman's office the discretion to look into police killings of civilians. Advocates were pleased, but acknowledged both issues still needed to be addressed in law.</p> <p>This year Cuomo has proposed a bill that would give his office the ability to convene an investigation into police killings of civilians but only if certain criteria is met. He has continued to push for Raise the Age but not with the urgency supporters would like. They point out that even being held in separate facilities from older inmates, 16- and 17-year-olds are still treated as adults when arrested and tried, which make negative outcomes and criminal records more likely.</p> <p>On Tuesday, supporters of a bill that would mandate the state collect data on police interactions with the public gathered in Albany to push Senate Republicans and Cuomo to act on an issue they call "common sense."</p> <p>The bill, sponsored by Assembly Member Joseph Lentol and state Senator Daniel Squadron, both Brooklyn Democrats, would require the state to collect and report data on the number of tickets and misdemeanor arrests across the state; the number of civilian deaths in police custody or during an arrest; the race, ethnicity, and sex of those charged with misdemeanors and violations; and the geographic location of enforcement-related activity and arrest-related deaths. Lentol said the bill is not "anti-police" but a "transparency" and "open government" tool to improve relations between police and communities across the state. Lentol prodded Gov. Cuomo to act, noting that Cuomo has a similar bill that has failed to garner support.</p> <p>"Yet again, communities of color were left behind in New York State budget negotiations, with no meaningful advancement of any criminal justice reforms," said Alyssa Aguilera, co-executive director of VOCAL-NY. "Passing the STAT Act this legislative session provides an opportunity for Governor Cuomo and the New York State Legislature to show they value the safety and dignity of all New Yorkers."</p> <p>Squadron told Gotham Gazette that the bill is one that Senate Republicans "put in a black box, a dark room," never to be seen again. "This isn't something we have debated. We haven't heard their argument against it, it just disappears." Lentol, however, said that he believes police unions are using their influence to block the bill.</p> <p>Assembly Member Jeffrion Aubry, Democrat of Queens, supports Lentol's bill and said that he feels his constituents and advocates are growing frustrated that the Senate fails to vote on criminal justice reforms year after year. "I think the governor is really going to have to move on some of these bills and not just wave his hands in the air and say 'It's the Republicans'" Aubry said. "We know he can get what he wants. He has an election coming up and he's got to deliver for these communities."</p> <p>A spokesperson for the governor, Dani Lever, said in a statement that&nbsp;"The governor has and continues to push for comprehensive criminal justice reform to address the treatment of juveniles in the system and the prosecution of fatality cases involving law enforcement. Despite the legislature's failure to agree on these reforms, the governor has taken bold action and issued executive orders appointing a special prosecutor in police cases (the first of its kind in the country) and removing juveniles from adult state prisons. Until the legislature passes real reforms, the governor's executive orders will remain in effect."</p> <p><strong>Housing</strong><br />Last year in an unprecedented move, Cuomo put the fate of the 421-a tax abatement program in the hands of the two stakeholder industries - real estate developers and construction unions. Whatever deal they reached on wages in new housing developments utilizing 421-a was to be enacted into law with other reforms to the program, but if they failed, 421-a would sunset. <a href="http://www.gothamgazette.com/index.php/government/6038-negotiations-to-extend-important-affordable-housing-tax-break-said-to-reach-impasse" target="_blank">Negotiations floundered</a> and 421-a is dead.</p> <p>The program is thought to be essential to affordable housing production in New York City, making it profitable for developers to build new rental housing with some affordable units included. When Cuomo rejected compromise legislation crafted by de Blasio last June, it was one of the final straws to break de Blasio's back (along with the mayoral control compromise and more), <a href="http://www.gothamgazette.com/index.php/government/6098-de-blasio-calls-for-albany-to-make-right-on-program-at-center-of-rift-with-governor" target="_blank">leading to his now-infamous tirade</a> against the governor on June 30. De Blasio's affordable housing goals rely on 421-a-related production.</p> <p>On Monday, Cuomo <a href="http://www.ny1.com/nyc/all-boroughs/albany-newsmakers/2016/04/4/ny1-online--governor-cuomo-breaks-down-state-budget.html" target="_blank">told NY1's Errol Louis</a> that he is looking for a replacement. "You can have a fair program that pays a fair rate to the unions and also a fair rate of profit to the developers," Cuomo said. "I believe there is that balance to be struck. But they have to strike that balance. We're still trying, but the Legislature is not going to approve a plan that kicks the labor unions out of the affordable housing business."</p> <p>Bill Murrow, the governor's top aide, followed up those comments on Tuesday during a Crain's New York Business breakfast event, indicating that labor and real estate are indeed negotiating again. "The developers, REBNY, and the construction trades...they'll find some common ground. I am hopeful that sometime between now and June that something will actually happen," Mulrow <a href="http://www.capitalnewyork.com/article/albany/2016/04/8595747/cuomo-administration-hopeful-about-421-successor?top-featured-image" target="_blank">said</a>.</p> <p>On Tuesday, tenant advocates gathered in Albany to demand that negotiations on 421-a or something like must also include strengthening rent regulations. Delsenia Glover, campaign manager for the Alliance for Tenant Power opened the press conference by condemning the deal that renewed the rent laws last year. "We pretty much got nothing," she said. "At the time Governor Cuomo said they were the 'strongest rent laws in history.' It's not true, we got nothing." Members of the crowd shouted "He lied!"</p> <p>Glover said she has been disturbed to hear "lamentations" that 421-a is dead, saying she was glad a "giveaway to luxury developers" and "$1.1 billion tax suck" was dead and that assertions that developers won't be able to build affordable housing without it is patently false.</p> <p>"Our demand," said Glover, "is this: If 421-a or anything that looks like 421-a is revived or created then the rent laws must be reopened, we get rid of vacancy bonus, fix preferential rents, and then maybe we can have a conversation."</p> <p>A number of legislators who spoke after Glover pushed against the idea of any 421-a renewal. Assembly Member Walter Mosley of Brooklyn said he doesn't use the term '421-a' because "We don't want nothin' like 421-a to resurface, but ultimately we understand if anything like 421-a comes to the floor then we reopen the rent laws. Without that we have no discussion."</p> <p>Assembly Housing Chair Keith Wright, who introduced a plan of something of a 421-a alternative earlier this year to a tepid response, brought up his proposal in front of the audience that was openly hostile to any replacement. Wright's plan would utilize the state's abandoned property fund to give a subsidy of $100,000 per affordable unit at a cost of about $200 million per year, compared to 421-a's 25-year property tax break and $1 billion annual tax revenue price tag.</p> <p>"The plan was not...people were intrigued by the idea," Wright told the crowd, seeming to catch himself in an effort to promote the measure, "but listen anything in Albany takes a minute to work up to, but we are still pushing that plan, but we are still under siege."</p> <p>Wright is a close ally of Cuomo and many expect that his plan was the first shot fired in an effort to restore a 421-a plan. The fact that Cuomo and Wright are openly pushing a replacement and that Senate Republicans are likely to want to deliver for real estate developers makes many advocates think it is a question of "when" not "if" a 421-a replacement comes to the floor of both houses. They hope to keep up public pressure to win some sort of concessions when it takes place.</p> <p><strong>Other Education Issues</strong><br />Last year Cuomo tried to connect the DREAM Act that would allow the undocumented access to college tuition assistance and the education tax credit that would give benefits to those who donate to private schools. The DREAM Act has massive support in the Assembly, which has passed the measure repeatedly over the last few years and the education tax credit is a favorite of Senate Republicans. Cuomo's bid at linkage failed last year (he did not attempt to link them again this year, but did include both in his executive budget), but both issues remain on the table and the fact that they were left out of the budget has rankled a number of lawmakers.</p> <p>Sen. Simcha Felder, a Democrat from Brooklyn who caucuses with Republicans, was said to be so upset that Republicans didn't demand the education tax credit be part of the budget that he didn't conference with them during budget negotiations (he was then the lone Senate "no" vote on the minimum wage and education budget bill). Meanwhile, DREAM supporters like Sen. Jose Peralta, a Democrat from Queens, railed against its exclusion during the late-night budget debate.</p> <p>For supporters of each measure the problem seems to be that opposition to the other measure has become a litmus test for some in their party's base. Senate Republicans have included language touting the disinclusion of the DREAM Act in the budget on the Senate website, listing it as an accomplishment:</p> <p>"Rejecting the Use of Taxpayer Dollars to Fund College Tuition for Illegal Immigrants:</p> <p>"The final budget rejects an Executive Budget proposal that would have cost state taxpayers $27 million and reward people who are here illegally by giving them free college tuition. The measure would have extended all other criteria, exemptions or opportunities found within the education law - including all scholarship and tuition assistance programs funded with state tax dollars - to illegal immigrants while hardworking middle-class families are already being forced to take out massive college loans to pay for higher education."</p> <p>Meanwhile, public school advocates are entrenched against the education tax credit, saying that it is a taxpayer giveaway to millionaires who will flood their favored schools with donations using up the credit before average families can utilize it. The Alliance for Quality Education, a teachers union-aligned group, has held press conferences and briefings against the policy this year.</p> <p><strong>Albany Tradition</strong><br />If the past is indeed prologue than it is a safe bet that many of these issues will not come to a vote in both houses this year. With an important special election, a presidential race, and the entire Legislature up for (re)election, leaders will likely be looking to rest on the work they did in the budget and get back to their districts. While there will be a lot of noise made by the media and good government groups around ethics reform, no one who knows Albany is holding their breath.</p> <p>Mayoral control of city schools is the only key policy related to New York City facing an expiration date and <a href="http://www.gothamgazette.com:8080/index.php/government/6241-senate-schedules-de-blasio-for-two-hearings-on-mayoral-control-of-city-schools" target="_blank">all-but-sure to see action</a>. The questions are what Senate Republicans demand in exchange for extension, how long it is extended for, and how much they make de Blasio sweat in the process.</p> <p>Including Wednesday, April 6, there are currently 25 session days remaining until <a href="http://assembly.state.ny.us/leg/calendar/" target="_blank">its scheduled</a> end on June 16.</p> <p>

***
by David King, Albany editor, Gotham Gazette
     

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The Right Model to Follow for Diversity at Specialized High Schools 2016-03-10T23:43:09+00:00 2016-03-10T23:43:09+00:00 http://www.gothamgazette.com/?id=6218:the-right-model-to-follow-for-diversity-at-specialized-high-schools Super User <p><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/images/debaters_nyc_schools.jpg" alt="debaters nyc schools" width="600" height="400" /></p> <p>Student debaters (photo: @NYCschools)</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <hr /> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Last week, 5,000 eighth graders got the exciting news that they were offered admission to one of the city's eight test-in Specialized High Schools, which offer a quality public school education unmatched in the country. But while the vast majority come from poor, working class and immigrant families, as has always been the case, once again far too few come from the black and Latino communities.</p> <p>Black and Latino students comprise a large majority in the city's public school system and should be better represented among those offered admission to its top high schools. Unfortunately, this year about 500 fewer black and Latino students sat for the test compared to last year, and the percentage of these students offered admission declined as well.</p> <p>The school system, like the city it serves, is heavily segregated, but this lack of racial and ethnic diversity in our test-in schools is unacceptable for many reasons. Still, doing away with the test as the sole criteria for deciding admission and switching to inherently subjective multiple criteria would do little to ameliorate the imbalance and could make it worse according to last year's study by NYU's Institute for Education and Social Policy.</p> <p>The city must instead invest the resources – both financial and intellectual – and take proactive steps on both a long-term and an immediate basis in order to diversify admissions to our best schools.</p> <p>A program of enriched educational opportunity must be instituted in every neighborhood to permit all children to have a fair chance of success on the test and in life. Gifted and Talented Programs must exist in every district. Enriched education, especially in math and English language courses, must be available in every middle school in the city. When 53 percent of the students at test-in schools come from only 15 percent of middle schools, the fundamental answer to the problem of underrepresentation is clear.</p> <p>Immediate actions must be taken to increase the numbers of students from underrepresented communities sitting for the test. And, increased attention must be paid to better preparing underrepresented students to do well enough on the test to gain admission. There is no fixed passing grade on the test. "Passing" is simply a function of scoring high enough to rank among the 5,000 highest scoring students to qualify for admission to one of the schools.</p> <p>The Brooklyn Tech Alumni Foundation, which I head, with the support of National Grid, has worked with Brooklyn Tech to run an innovative pilot STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Math) Pipeline program for the past three years that reaches out to underrepresented middle schools, identifies children of promise and provides them with accelerated coursework and test prep. The program starts with rising seventh graders and offers them an intensive two year experience with classes during the summers and on Saturdays during the school year.</p> <p>We have had good success during the first two years that students in the program have sat for the test. This year, students received offers from Brooklyn Tech, Stuyvesant, and Brooklyn Latin, all specialized schools. Half of last year's students in the program – and nearly two-thirds this year – offered admission to Tech are black or Latino.</p> <p>We are encouraged by the support for diversity at specialized high schools shown by Albany legislators in both chambers who are proposing dedicating funds to create similar pipeline programs in every test-in school. This would cost less than $1.3 million a year, or $2.5 million over two years, and enable all eight specialized high schools to run outreach and test preparation programs in underrepresented middle schools throughout the city.</p> <p>While Mayor de Blasio is committed to combatting educational and economic inequality, it is still the case that a child's chances of educational success are closely correlated to where he or she grows up. Because test-in schools should serve students from every neighborhood, there is a special obligation to give all promising students tools to succeed.</p> <p>The answer is not to do away with an admissions test, but to make that promise of social equality real by committing resources and intellectual firepower so that every academically promising child, regardless of their neighborhood, has a fair chance of succeeding on the test, and beyond.</p> <p>***<br />Larry Cary is president of the Brooklyn Tech Alumni Foundation.</p> <p>

***
Have an op-ed idea or submission for Gotham Gazette? Email opinion@gothamgazette.com

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<p><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/images/debaters_nyc_schools.jpg" alt="debaters nyc schools" width="600" height="400" /></p> <p>Student debaters (photo: @NYCschools)</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <hr /> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Last week, 5,000 eighth graders got the exciting news that they were offered admission to one of the city's eight test-in Specialized High Schools, which offer a quality public school education unmatched in the country. But while the vast majority come from poor, working class and immigrant families, as has always been the case, once again far too few come from the black and Latino communities.</p> <p>Black and Latino students comprise a large majority in the city's public school system and should be better represented among those offered admission to its top high schools. Unfortunately, this year about 500 fewer black and Latino students sat for the test compared to last year, and the percentage of these students offered admission declined as well.</p> <p>The school system, like the city it serves, is heavily segregated, but this lack of racial and ethnic diversity in our test-in schools is unacceptable for many reasons. Still, doing away with the test as the sole criteria for deciding admission and switching to inherently subjective multiple criteria would do little to ameliorate the imbalance and could make it worse according to last year's study by NYU's Institute for Education and Social Policy.</p> <p>The city must instead invest the resources – both financial and intellectual – and take proactive steps on both a long-term and an immediate basis in order to diversify admissions to our best schools.</p> <p>A program of enriched educational opportunity must be instituted in every neighborhood to permit all children to have a fair chance of success on the test and in life. Gifted and Talented Programs must exist in every district. Enriched education, especially in math and English language courses, must be available in every middle school in the city. When 53 percent of the students at test-in schools come from only 15 percent of middle schools, the fundamental answer to the problem of underrepresentation is clear.</p> <p>Immediate actions must be taken to increase the numbers of students from underrepresented communities sitting for the test. And, increased attention must be paid to better preparing underrepresented students to do well enough on the test to gain admission. There is no fixed passing grade on the test. "Passing" is simply a function of scoring high enough to rank among the 5,000 highest scoring students to qualify for admission to one of the schools.</p> <p>The Brooklyn Tech Alumni Foundation, which I head, with the support of National Grid, has worked with Brooklyn Tech to run an innovative pilot STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Math) Pipeline program for the past three years that reaches out to underrepresented middle schools, identifies children of promise and provides them with accelerated coursework and test prep. The program starts with rising seventh graders and offers them an intensive two year experience with classes during the summers and on Saturdays during the school year.</p> <p>We have had good success during the first two years that students in the program have sat for the test. This year, students received offers from Brooklyn Tech, Stuyvesant, and Brooklyn Latin, all specialized schools. Half of last year's students in the program – and nearly two-thirds this year – offered admission to Tech are black or Latino.</p> <p>We are encouraged by the support for diversity at specialized high schools shown by Albany legislators in both chambers who are proposing dedicating funds to create similar pipeline programs in every test-in school. This would cost less than $1.3 million a year, or $2.5 million over two years, and enable all eight specialized high schools to run outreach and test preparation programs in underrepresented middle schools throughout the city.</p> <p>While Mayor de Blasio is committed to combatting educational and economic inequality, it is still the case that a child's chances of educational success are closely correlated to where he or she grows up. Because test-in schools should serve students from every neighborhood, there is a special obligation to give all promising students tools to succeed.</p> <p>The answer is not to do away with an admissions test, but to make that promise of social equality real by committing resources and intellectual firepower so that every academically promising child, regardless of their neighborhood, has a fair chance of succeeding on the test, and beyond.</p> <p>***<br />Larry Cary is president of the Brooklyn Tech Alumni Foundation.</p> <p>

***
Have an op-ed idea or submission for Gotham Gazette? Email opinion@gothamgazette.com

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