Gotham Gazette Gotham Gazette is an online publication covering New York policy and politics as well as news on public safety, transportation, education, finance and more. http://www.gothamgazette.com/component/tags/tag/libertarian-party 2018-09-22T17:34:31+00:00 Webmaster webmaster@gothamgazette.com Making the Libertarian Party Viable in New York City 2018-06-28T04:00:00+00:00 2018-06-28T04:00:00+00:00 http://www.gothamgazette.com/?id=7776:making-the-libertarian-party-viable-in-new-york-city Ben Max <p><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/images/graphics/2018/rockway-ferry.jpg" alt="rockway ferry" width="600" /></p> <p>(photo: Benjamin Kanter/Mayoral Photo Office)</p> <hr /> <p>New Yorkers are constantly complaining about the two-party political system. Democratic domination of New York City politics means Democratic primary elections are more impactful than general elections. Republican domination of the national political system means New Yorkers’ progressive cultural values are rarely reflected in national politics. At the state level, Democrats and Republicans seem to have a stable alliance built on maintaining one of the most <a href="https://fivethirtyeight.com/features/ranking-the-states-from-most-to-least-corrupt/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">corrupt state governments in the country</a>.</p> <p>Clearly the two largest political parties aren’t working for us, so what about the third: the Libertarian Party, which is has over 500,000 members nationwide? The Libertarian Party is more than twice the size of the fourth largest party, the Green Party, and more than 10 times the size the Democratic Socialists of America. Around <a href="http://polling.reuters.com/#!response/TM547Y15/type/smallest/dates/20150410-20150424/collapsed/false" target="_blank" rel="noopener">20% of Americans self-identify as “libertarian.”</a></p> <p>The strength of the National Libertarian Party and the popularity of libertarian sentiment is not reflected in New York politics, where the Libertarian Party has failed to achieve official party status, which requires getting 50,000 votes for its gubernatorial candidate. While it’s likely that Larry Sharpe’s gubernatorial campaign will earn the New York Libertarian Party official status this election cycle, the size of party in New York City will still be miniscule, at around 100 dues-paying members (which is approximately .01 percent of self-identified libertarians).</p> <p>The lack of Libertarians in New York City presents New Yorkers with a massive opportunity: to build a new local political party that can have instant national reach, national operational infrastructure, and a rapidly growing base of support in increasingly relevant western battleground states. This party wouldn’t and shouldn’t look like Libertarian parties in suburban and rural communities but something new: culturally progressive with a can-do, data-driven, startup-style, open-source attitude towards solving our city’s biggest problems. If the rural Libertarians think we’re not “real” Libertarians, then they can move to New York City and defeat us in county elections.</p> <p>I don’t say this as an outsider, but as the chair of the Brooklyn Libertarian Party and the 2017 Libertarian candidate for New York City Public Advocate who earned more votes than any other Libertarian candidate in that city election cycle.</p> <p>My plan for a relevant Libertarian Party in New York City rests on three concepts: <strong>social tolerance, open and participatory governance, and municipalism.</strong></p> <p>Each of these concepts is consistent with National Libertarian Party ideology and with the interests of urban voters. If we can fuse the two together, we can create a new political coalition to challenge the authoritarianism coming out of Washington, D.C. and the corruption pervading our two party system.</p> <p><strong>Social Tolerance</strong><br />Many people think that libertarian culture and big city culture are at odds because libertarianism is so often framed as a philosophy rooted in rugged self-reliance and individual autonomy, but that’s mostly myth. In reality, libertarians are much more interested in well-functioning markets and how complex, interdependent systems produce so much abundance. If you don’t believe me, read “<a href="https://fee.org/resources/i-pencil/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">I, Pencil</a>.”</p> <p>New Yorkers know better than anyone that people can successfully organize themselves through market activity because that’s how our lives are possible. We rely on complex systems for everything: food, water, transit, employment. Yes, that means we also rely on government-produced systems, and that’s fine because the “big city libertarianism” I’m arguing for respects regional autonomy. More on that later.</p> <p>The single, unifying, core principle of libertarianism is that individuals should be free to do as they please as long as they don’t harm others. Sometimes this is called the non-aggression principle. Other times it’s referred to as just plain old “tolerance and acceptance.” New Yorkers embody this spirit more than any other place I’ve been in America. We love diversity and it’s myriad of benefits. We also can tolerate crowded, sweaty trains filled with strangers from all over world, and we’re constantly teaching visitors and new residents to do the same. That’s what becoming a New Yorker is all about: learning tolerance for (and even love of) diverse lifestyles, races, genders, ethnicities, cultures, philosophies, religions, et al, -- because if we don’t have it our cities simply couldn’t function.</p> <p>Everyone is tolerant when it’s popular, but people are surprised to learn that, at a national level, the Libertarian Party has walked the walk: nominating the first female presidential candidate in the 1970s, supporting gay rights in the 1980s, leading the fight against the drug war and mass incarceration in the 1990s, and opposing the war in Iraq in the 2000s, Obama’s drone wars in the 2010s, and Trump immigration policies today. The New York City Libertarians can and should lead on issues of mass incarceration and police militarization, and offer something no political party has yet -- a powerful solution: ending the drug war.</p> <p><strong>Open and Participatory Governance</strong><br />Our political and governmental operating systems are outdated, and need to be redeveloped for the era of the internet. Both the Democrats and the Republicans are too invested in the old system to be able to produce any substantial reforms. If we look around globally, we’ll find that some of the most aggressive and successful reforms came from the Occupy-style movements that spread throughout the world around 2010-2014. While Occupy was framed as a leftist movement in the United States, in other places it was much more obviously an anti-corruption movement that used anarchist organizing principles. In many places alumni of these movements have taken power.</p> <p>Examples include Madrid, where movement activists won elections and embedded themselves in the city government and implemented an ambitious e-governance system that enables the public to control the legislature through a direct-democracy style app. Another example is in Taiwan, where activists took over the national parliament for a month during the “Sunflower” movement, won concessions from the government, and have implemented a nationwide participatory democracy program that is the envy of the world.</p> <p>What these movements have shown is that there are solutions to the question of democracy: but those solutions will destroy the politics of patronage, where politicians acquire resources from taxpayers and distribute them to their constituents, and instead require a politics of participation, where politicians use technology to convene stakeholders, determine public sentiment and then perform the will of the people, even if that means suppressing their own opinions and interests. That’s a different job description for which many existing politicians would not apply.</p> <p>The other major trend in internet-enabled government is the spread of “digital services organizations” and their uniquely effective method of bureaucracy reform. By using open source technologies, lean development principles, service design methodologies and other “startup-style” tools, DSOs are implementing technical systems that will, ultimately, radically transform how government is administered: reduce the need for certain types of skill sets, automating processes and making services faster, better, and cheaper.</p> <p>The political establishment and agency bureaucracies have been extremely hesitant to resource these DSOs because their work is shifting power from closed bureaucracies to open systems. As such, neither establishment party can give DSOs the support they deserve. But Libertarians can! We want government to operate faster, better and cheaper -- and if that means government workers lose their jobs in the process, that’s fine. Give them a universal basic income and let's move on.</p> <p><strong><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/images/graphics/2018/balkin-libertarian.png" alt="balkin libertarian" width="274" height="385" style="margin: 10px; float: left;" />Municipalism</strong><br />With Trump as president, many city residents have awoken to the fact that there are many layers of government -- and these various layers don’t always agree or collaborate with each other. They’re realizing that they’d much prefer a structure where the federal government has less power and municipal governments have a lot more. This “municipalism” is entirely consistent with libertarianism for two reasons. First, it localizes power and decreases the number of people each politician represents, making politicians and government more accountable. Second, it reduces the size and scope of the federal government, which is something every Libertarian supports.</p> <p>By advocating at the national level for more local control, we align ourselves with a political program that spans the nation: urban and rural, progressive and conservative. Local control shouldn’t simply mean more policies are determined at local levels (although this is obviously a part of it), but should result in restructuring the tax system to shift the destination of tax revenue from the federal government to state and local governments.</p> <p>I call this “flipping the pyramid.”</p> <p>Currently, the federal government gets most of the tax money, then states, and lastly municipalities. This status quo should be flipped on its head so that the federal government receives the least amount of tax revenue, allowing states and local governments to gain significantly more.</p> <p>In circumstances where rural and suburban communities don’t want or need big local governments, they will pay significantly lower taxes. Meanwhile, people in cities who do want lots of government services can increase their local taxes to pay for those services, without increasing the total amount of taxes they pay. Don’t want to pay taxes? Leave the city! This act of voting with one's feet is the oldest type of democracy, and the idea that people should actually get up and move from places that don’t share their values to places that do should be embraced (and maybe even subsidized).</p> <p>We’ve seen what happens when we try a “one-size-fits all” model of federal policy: Washington, D.C. has been gridlocked for over a decade, the culture war is nastier than ever, Donald Trump is president, and it seems only the mega-rich are getting what they want from the political process. Instead, let’s allow for the “regional differentiation” that will naturally arise when localities have more power to determine their overall tax rate.</p> <p>Maybe some cities will become hotbeds of socialist policy, and some rural communities will devolve into total anarchy. While that might sound drastic or raise the spectre of places becoming truly inhospitable to certain types of people in ways that they currently are not, we should recognize that (a) this process is already well underway for middle and upper class people who can afford to move, (b) our nation’s structural resistance to regional differentiation has led to our current political climate and (c) this approach will encourage and incentivize politically-minded people to shift their attention from the national political circus and get involved in local and state politics.</p> <p>I am not advocating for the federal government to stop performing any of its constitutionally mandated or critical functions such as upholding the civil and human rights of U.S. citizens, investigating corruption of state and local officials, regulating interstate commerce, helping with disaster relief, and organizing national defense.</p> <p>Rather, I’m advocating for a visioning process where we redraw the appropriate scope of local, city, regional, state, and federal powers.</p> <p>While working to implement this new vision, we should also be investing our time and resources into upgrading the capacities of local, state, and regional governments so they’ll be able to absorb new responsibilities. Anyone involved with local politics knows that it can be just as corrupt as national politics, if not more so. That’s why our strategy must also include a movement to transform local governments into open, transparent and participatory institutions that good people want to lead. We can have that battle on our home turf instead of D.C.</p> <p>New Yorkers, and urban residents throughout the country, deserve a culturally progressive, entrepreneur-friendly, open-source political party, and the Libertarian Party can be just that. There are no Libertarians in New York City interested in stopping us. I’m the chair of the Brooklyn Party, we’re collaborating actively with the Manhattan Party, and this weekend we’ll be taking our plan to the Libertarian National Convention in New Orleans to find allies and develop a more nuanced understanding of potential opposition to our plans.</p> <p>In politics, opportunities can come from where you least expect them: maybe that’s the Libertarian Party in America’s big cities. Come find out by attending our monthly <a href="https://www.meetup.com/libertarian-328/events/xtgtvpyxkbwb/" target="_blank" rel="noopener" data-saferedirecturl="https://www.google.com/url?hl=en&amp;q=https://www.meetup.com/libertarian-328/events/xtgtvpyxkbwb/&amp;source=gmail&amp;ust=1530319254845000&amp;usg=AFQjCNH2wGdeu0OTJAGEwI_RVygPWKZVMA">meeting</a> in Brooklyn and the meetings of <a href="http://nyclibertarians.org/" target="_blank" rel="noopener" data-saferedirecturl="https://www.google.com/url?hl=en&amp;q=http://nyclibertarians.org/&amp;source=gmail&amp;ust=1530319254845000&amp;usg=AFQjCNEKC2tb9LA8fXN2BHDN5eFw6LHZeQ">other chapters around the city</a>.</p> <p>***<br />Devin Balkind is the chair of the Brooklyn Libertarian Party. He was the 2017 Libertarian candidate for Public Advocate. On Twitter <a href="https://twitter.com/DevinBalkind" target="_blank" rel="noopener">@DevinBalkind</a>.</p> <p>

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</p>
<p><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/images/graphics/2018/rockway-ferry.jpg" alt="rockway ferry" width="600" /></p> <p>(photo: Benjamin Kanter/Mayoral Photo Office)</p> <hr /> <p>New Yorkers are constantly complaining about the two-party political system. Democratic domination of New York City politics means Democratic primary elections are more impactful than general elections. Republican domination of the national political system means New Yorkers’ progressive cultural values are rarely reflected in national politics. At the state level, Democrats and Republicans seem to have a stable alliance built on maintaining one of the most <a href="https://fivethirtyeight.com/features/ranking-the-states-from-most-to-least-corrupt/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">corrupt state governments in the country</a>.</p> <p>Clearly the two largest political parties aren’t working for us, so what about the third: the Libertarian Party, which is has over 500,000 members nationwide? The Libertarian Party is more than twice the size of the fourth largest party, the Green Party, and more than 10 times the size the Democratic Socialists of America. Around <a href="http://polling.reuters.com/#!response/TM547Y15/type/smallest/dates/20150410-20150424/collapsed/false" target="_blank" rel="noopener">20% of Americans self-identify as “libertarian.”</a></p> <p>The strength of the National Libertarian Party and the popularity of libertarian sentiment is not reflected in New York politics, where the Libertarian Party has failed to achieve official party status, which requires getting 50,000 votes for its gubernatorial candidate. While it’s likely that Larry Sharpe’s gubernatorial campaign will earn the New York Libertarian Party official status this election cycle, the size of party in New York City will still be miniscule, at around 100 dues-paying members (which is approximately .01 percent of self-identified libertarians).</p> <p>The lack of Libertarians in New York City presents New Yorkers with a massive opportunity: to build a new local political party that can have instant national reach, national operational infrastructure, and a rapidly growing base of support in increasingly relevant western battleground states. This party wouldn’t and shouldn’t look like Libertarian parties in suburban and rural communities but something new: culturally progressive with a can-do, data-driven, startup-style, open-source attitude towards solving our city’s biggest problems. If the rural Libertarians think we’re not “real” Libertarians, then they can move to New York City and defeat us in county elections.</p> <p>I don’t say this as an outsider, but as the chair of the Brooklyn Libertarian Party and the 2017 Libertarian candidate for New York City Public Advocate who earned more votes than any other Libertarian candidate in that city election cycle.</p> <p>My plan for a relevant Libertarian Party in New York City rests on three concepts: <strong>social tolerance, open and participatory governance, and municipalism.</strong></p> <p>Each of these concepts is consistent with National Libertarian Party ideology and with the interests of urban voters. If we can fuse the two together, we can create a new political coalition to challenge the authoritarianism coming out of Washington, D.C. and the corruption pervading our two party system.</p> <p><strong>Social Tolerance</strong><br />Many people think that libertarian culture and big city culture are at odds because libertarianism is so often framed as a philosophy rooted in rugged self-reliance and individual autonomy, but that’s mostly myth. In reality, libertarians are much more interested in well-functioning markets and how complex, interdependent systems produce so much abundance. If you don’t believe me, read “<a href="https://fee.org/resources/i-pencil/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">I, Pencil</a>.”</p> <p>New Yorkers know better than anyone that people can successfully organize themselves through market activity because that’s how our lives are possible. We rely on complex systems for everything: food, water, transit, employment. Yes, that means we also rely on government-produced systems, and that’s fine because the “big city libertarianism” I’m arguing for respects regional autonomy. More on that later.</p> <p>The single, unifying, core principle of libertarianism is that individuals should be free to do as they please as long as they don’t harm others. Sometimes this is called the non-aggression principle. Other times it’s referred to as just plain old “tolerance and acceptance.” New Yorkers embody this spirit more than any other place I’ve been in America. We love diversity and it’s myriad of benefits. We also can tolerate crowded, sweaty trains filled with strangers from all over world, and we’re constantly teaching visitors and new residents to do the same. That’s what becoming a New Yorker is all about: learning tolerance for (and even love of) diverse lifestyles, races, genders, ethnicities, cultures, philosophies, religions, et al, -- because if we don’t have it our cities simply couldn’t function.</p> <p>Everyone is tolerant when it’s popular, but people are surprised to learn that, at a national level, the Libertarian Party has walked the walk: nominating the first female presidential candidate in the 1970s, supporting gay rights in the 1980s, leading the fight against the drug war and mass incarceration in the 1990s, and opposing the war in Iraq in the 2000s, Obama’s drone wars in the 2010s, and Trump immigration policies today. The New York City Libertarians can and should lead on issues of mass incarceration and police militarization, and offer something no political party has yet -- a powerful solution: ending the drug war.</p> <p><strong>Open and Participatory Governance</strong><br />Our political and governmental operating systems are outdated, and need to be redeveloped for the era of the internet. Both the Democrats and the Republicans are too invested in the old system to be able to produce any substantial reforms. If we look around globally, we’ll find that some of the most aggressive and successful reforms came from the Occupy-style movements that spread throughout the world around 2010-2014. While Occupy was framed as a leftist movement in the United States, in other places it was much more obviously an anti-corruption movement that used anarchist organizing principles. In many places alumni of these movements have taken power.</p> <p>Examples include Madrid, where movement activists won elections and embedded themselves in the city government and implemented an ambitious e-governance system that enables the public to control the legislature through a direct-democracy style app. Another example is in Taiwan, where activists took over the national parliament for a month during the “Sunflower” movement, won concessions from the government, and have implemented a nationwide participatory democracy program that is the envy of the world.</p> <p>What these movements have shown is that there are solutions to the question of democracy: but those solutions will destroy the politics of patronage, where politicians acquire resources from taxpayers and distribute them to their constituents, and instead require a politics of participation, where politicians use technology to convene stakeholders, determine public sentiment and then perform the will of the people, even if that means suppressing their own opinions and interests. That’s a different job description for which many existing politicians would not apply.</p> <p>The other major trend in internet-enabled government is the spread of “digital services organizations” and their uniquely effective method of bureaucracy reform. By using open source technologies, lean development principles, service design methodologies and other “startup-style” tools, DSOs are implementing technical systems that will, ultimately, radically transform how government is administered: reduce the need for certain types of skill sets, automating processes and making services faster, better, and cheaper.</p> <p>The political establishment and agency bureaucracies have been extremely hesitant to resource these DSOs because their work is shifting power from closed bureaucracies to open systems. As such, neither establishment party can give DSOs the support they deserve. But Libertarians can! We want government to operate faster, better and cheaper -- and if that means government workers lose their jobs in the process, that’s fine. Give them a universal basic income and let's move on.</p> <p><strong><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/images/graphics/2018/balkin-libertarian.png" alt="balkin libertarian" width="274" height="385" style="margin: 10px; float: left;" />Municipalism</strong><br />With Trump as president, many city residents have awoken to the fact that there are many layers of government -- and these various layers don’t always agree or collaborate with each other. They’re realizing that they’d much prefer a structure where the federal government has less power and municipal governments have a lot more. This “municipalism” is entirely consistent with libertarianism for two reasons. First, it localizes power and decreases the number of people each politician represents, making politicians and government more accountable. Second, it reduces the size and scope of the federal government, which is something every Libertarian supports.</p> <p>By advocating at the national level for more local control, we align ourselves with a political program that spans the nation: urban and rural, progressive and conservative. Local control shouldn’t simply mean more policies are determined at local levels (although this is obviously a part of it), but should result in restructuring the tax system to shift the destination of tax revenue from the federal government to state and local governments.</p> <p>I call this “flipping the pyramid.”</p> <p>Currently, the federal government gets most of the tax money, then states, and lastly municipalities. This status quo should be flipped on its head so that the federal government receives the least amount of tax revenue, allowing states and local governments to gain significantly more.</p> <p>In circumstances where rural and suburban communities don’t want or need big local governments, they will pay significantly lower taxes. Meanwhile, people in cities who do want lots of government services can increase their local taxes to pay for those services, without increasing the total amount of taxes they pay. Don’t want to pay taxes? Leave the city! This act of voting with one's feet is the oldest type of democracy, and the idea that people should actually get up and move from places that don’t share their values to places that do should be embraced (and maybe even subsidized).</p> <p>We’ve seen what happens when we try a “one-size-fits all” model of federal policy: Washington, D.C. has been gridlocked for over a decade, the culture war is nastier than ever, Donald Trump is president, and it seems only the mega-rich are getting what they want from the political process. Instead, let’s allow for the “regional differentiation” that will naturally arise when localities have more power to determine their overall tax rate.</p> <p>Maybe some cities will become hotbeds of socialist policy, and some rural communities will devolve into total anarchy. While that might sound drastic or raise the spectre of places becoming truly inhospitable to certain types of people in ways that they currently are not, we should recognize that (a) this process is already well underway for middle and upper class people who can afford to move, (b) our nation’s structural resistance to regional differentiation has led to our current political climate and (c) this approach will encourage and incentivize politically-minded people to shift their attention from the national political circus and get involved in local and state politics.</p> <p>I am not advocating for the federal government to stop performing any of its constitutionally mandated or critical functions such as upholding the civil and human rights of U.S. citizens, investigating corruption of state and local officials, regulating interstate commerce, helping with disaster relief, and organizing national defense.</p> <p>Rather, I’m advocating for a visioning process where we redraw the appropriate scope of local, city, regional, state, and federal powers.</p> <p>While working to implement this new vision, we should also be investing our time and resources into upgrading the capacities of local, state, and regional governments so they’ll be able to absorb new responsibilities. Anyone involved with local politics knows that it can be just as corrupt as national politics, if not more so. That’s why our strategy must also include a movement to transform local governments into open, transparent and participatory institutions that good people want to lead. We can have that battle on our home turf instead of D.C.</p> <p>New Yorkers, and urban residents throughout the country, deserve a culturally progressive, entrepreneur-friendly, open-source political party, and the Libertarian Party can be just that. There are no Libertarians in New York City interested in stopping us. I’m the chair of the Brooklyn Party, we’re collaborating actively with the Manhattan Party, and this weekend we’ll be taking our plan to the Libertarian National Convention in New Orleans to find allies and develop a more nuanced understanding of potential opposition to our plans.</p> <p>In politics, opportunities can come from where you least expect them: maybe that’s the Libertarian Party in America’s big cities. Come find out by attending our monthly <a href="https://www.meetup.com/libertarian-328/events/xtgtvpyxkbwb/" target="_blank" rel="noopener" data-saferedirecturl="https://www.google.com/url?hl=en&amp;q=https://www.meetup.com/libertarian-328/events/xtgtvpyxkbwb/&amp;source=gmail&amp;ust=1530319254845000&amp;usg=AFQjCNH2wGdeu0OTJAGEwI_RVygPWKZVMA">meeting</a> in Brooklyn and the meetings of <a href="http://nyclibertarians.org/" target="_blank" rel="noopener" data-saferedirecturl="https://www.google.com/url?hl=en&amp;q=http://nyclibertarians.org/&amp;source=gmail&amp;ust=1530319254845000&amp;usg=AFQjCNEKC2tb9LA8fXN2BHDN5eFw6LHZeQ">other chapters around the city</a>.</p> <p>***<br />Devin Balkind is the chair of the Brooklyn Libertarian Party. He was the 2017 Libertarian candidate for Public Advocate. On Twitter <a href="https://twitter.com/DevinBalkind" target="_blank" rel="noopener">@DevinBalkind</a>.</p> <p>

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Could ‘Third Party’ Candidates Swing the Presidential Election? 2016-08-01T04:00:00+00:00 2016-08-01T04:00:00+00:00 http://www.gothamgazette.com/?id=6464:could-third-party-candidates-swing-the-presidential-election Ben Max <p><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/images/graphics/2014/03/Jill_Stein.jpg" alt="Jill Stein" width="600" height="579" /></p> <p dir="ltr">Green Party candidate Jill Stein (photo via Facebook)</p> <hr /> <p dir="ltr">With the Republican and Democratic parties having nominated presidential candidates with record-high unfavorability ratings, this election cycle is turning out to be a choice between a rock and a hard place for many voters. Some, though, are looking elsewhere and still-early polling shows that this November could yield near-record voting for so-called &ldquo;third party&rdquo; candidates.</p> <p dir="ltr">Those who oppose Democratic nominee Hillary Clinton say she&rsquo;s an untrustworthy, calculating politician with cozy ties to corporate interests and Washington insiders; opponents of Donald Trump, the Republican nominee, see him as a sexist, fear-mongering, racist xenophobe with authoritarian tendencies. Though the United States has a political system dominated by two parties, Clinton and Trump aren&rsquo;t the only choices, much to the relief of a number of voters. What that number winds up being could determine the election, the next President, and much of the future of the country and the world.</p> <p dir="ltr">The third-party candidates in the 2016 race for the White House are the Libertarian Party&rsquo;s nominee Gary Johnson and the Green Party&rsquo;s candidate Dr. Jill Stein, both of whom ran in 2012 and are now going all out to woo those disaffected voters who believe that neither Clinton nor Trump is a viable choice for President of the United States. While no expert would argue that either Johnson or Stein will be the next President, voters choosing one or the other on November 8 could determine whether the next President is Trump or Clinton.</p> <p dir="ltr">This year&rsquo;s presidential election is likely to once again come down to several key swing states, and polls in some of those states, like Ohio and Florida, show a close race between the two leading candidates. (In at least one national poll, Johnson, former governor of New Mexico, polled in <a href="http://www.cbsnews.com/news/campaign-2016-did-hillary-clinton-get-a-post-convention-bump/">double digits</a>, but in other polls both he and Stein were in single digits - a candidate needs to hit an average of <a href="http://www.debates.org/index.php?mact=News,cntnt01,detail,0&amp;cntnt01articleid=58&amp;cntnt01origid=27&amp;cntnt01detailtemplate=newspage&amp;cntnt01returnid=80">15 percent</a> in five national polls to be invited to a debate.) There is concern for some that one or both of the third-party candidates could be a spoiler for Clinton in a swing state or two and skew the election in Trump&rsquo;s favor. While the likelihood is minimal, experts say, it not entirely implausible.</p> <p dir="ltr">A <a href="http://www.realclearpolitics.com/epolls/2016/president/us/general_election_trump_vs_clinton_vs_johnson_vs_stein-5952.html">Real Clear Politics poll average</a> has Trump at 41.5 percent in Florida, against Clinton&rsquo;s 41.3 percent while Johnson takes 4.5 percent and Stein takes 2.5 percent of the vote. In 2012, President Obama beat Mitt Romney by just 74,309 votes or 0.88 percentage points in Florida. In Ohio, Clinton bests Trump by 1.4 points on average thus far; Johnson gets 6.4 percent and Stein gets 3 percent. In 2012, Obama won by 2.98 points in the state. In New Hampshire, a four-way contest has Clinton and Trump tied at 37 percent according to a <a href="https://cola.unh.edu/sites/cola.unh.edu/files/research_publications/gsp2016_summer_presrace072116.pdf">WMUR Granite State poll</a>; with Johnson at 10 percent and Stein at 5 percent. Obama won the state in 2012 with 52 percent of the vote, against Romney&rsquo;s 46.4 percent.</p> <p dir="ltr">Both Stein and Johnson have been encouraged by the high unfavorable ratings of Clinton and Trump. A <a href="http://www.gallup.com/opinion/polling-matters/194000/first-time-trump-image-par-clinton.aspx">Gallup poll</a> conducted July 18-25 found that Clinton and Trump had equal favorability marks: 37% favorable and 58% unfavorable. Some believe the 2016 dynamics could create a situation similar to the 2000 presidential election, when famous third-party candidate Ralph Nader took votes away from Al Gore in Florida, the state which gave George W. Bush the presidency with a razor thin margin.</p> <p dir="ltr">Nader addressed those concerns in a recent interview with the <a href="http://www.nydailynews.com/news/politics/ralph-nader-third-party-candidates-don-stand-chance-article-1.2728436">New York Daily News</a>, insisting that a third-party candidate shouldn&rsquo;t unjustly be termed a &ldquo;spoiler&rdquo; and laying the blame instead on the media, the voters, and the candidates themselves. A Florida-like situation is exactly what former New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg said he was trying to avoid when he abandoned plans of running for president as an independent earlier this year. He didn&rsquo;t want to run the risk of helping elect Trump, he said, something he affirmed by speaking at the Democratic National Convention in favor of Hillary Clinton and calling upon independents to vote for her.</p> <p dir="ltr">The most recent CBS News poll had Clinton at 41 percent and Trump at 36 percent, with Johnson receiving 10 percent of the vote. Stein was not mentioned in the poll. Among independents, however, Clinton trailed Trump by 2 points, and Johnson received 15 percent of the vote.</p> <p dir="ltr">A new CNN/ORC poll taken after the close of the Democratic National Convention shows independents favoring Clinton, with a 37% plurality, Trump with 33% of independents, Johnson wiht 16% of independents, and Stein with 8% of independents. &nbsp;</p> <p dir="ltr"><a href="http://www.gallup.com/poll/15370/party-affiliation.aspx">Gallup polling</a> shows that 42 percent of registered voters identify as independents. While at this juncture in the election cycle about one-third of independents may say they favor a &lsquo;third-party&rsquo; candidate, support for such candidates tends to drop as the general election gets closer. (The latest <a href="http://www.realclearpolitics.com/epolls/2016/president/us/general_election_trump_vs_clinton_vs_johnson_vs_stein-5952.html">Real Clear Politics</a> polling data averages put Johnson at 7 percent and Stein at 3.2 percent.)</p> <p dir="ltr">&ldquo;One primary struggle in a year like this,&rdquo; said John Hudak, senior fellow in governance studies at the Brookings Institution, &ldquo;is not that voters are in love with third-party candidates. They&rsquo;ve fallen out of love with the major party candidates.&rdquo; Hudak contrasted Ross Perot&rsquo;s insurgent candidacy in 1992, when he ran as an independent. &ldquo;Perot did quite well because people liked his message. He was inspiring people. Stein and Johnson are not providing any inspiration for voters.&rdquo;</p> <p dir="ltr">Hudak doesn&rsquo;t expect that the third-party candidates will have a significant influence and that people disillusioned with Clinton and Trump will more likely stay home on Election Day than vote for Stein or Johnson. Even in swing states he said the effects of a third-party candidate would be difficult to attribute and would likely have minimal impact on the outcome.</p> <p dir="ltr">No one discounts, however, the strong possibility that third-party candidates will get a higher vote share this year than past elections. Stein appeals to Democratic voters, particularly former Bernie Sanders supporters who felt betrayed when the Vermont senator dropped out of the race and endorsed Clinton. Last week, outside the Democratic National Convention, she made attempts to win over &lsquo;Bernie or Bust&rsquo; protesters who had walked out of the main arena. She has proposed a &ldquo;<a href="http://gpus.org/organizing-tools/the-green-new-deal/">Green New Deal</a>,&rdquo; a platform that skews closely to Sanders&rsquo;. It includes single-payer health care, forgiving student loan debt, transitioning away from fossil fuels to renewable and sustainable energy, breaking up the big banks, and fighting income inequality, to name a few main planks. Stein has also built some name recognition. She ran in 2012 and received about 469,000 votes, which she&rsquo;s hoping to build on this year. There were a few more than 129 million votes cast that year.</p> <p dir="ltr"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/images/graphics/2014/03/IMG_6715.JPG" alt="Gary Johnson" width="350" height="545" style="margin: 5px; float: left;" />Although Libertarian Gary Johnson (pictured) has been seen as more of a threat to Trump, on social issues his policies correlate closely with Sanders, again perhaps offering a home for voters supportive of Sanders but not attracted to Clinton. Johnson, who also visited Philadelphia during the DNC, favors legalizing marijuana, is pro-choice on abortion, and supports marriage equality. In a <a href="http://www.politico.com/story/2016/06/off-message-podcast-gary-johnson-223917">recent interview</a> with Politico&rsquo;s Glenn Thrush, Johnson said of Sanders, &ldquo;On the social side, we&rsquo;re simpatico.&rdquo; Johnson has also received more media attention than Stein and has a record as former (Republican) governor of New Mexico. When he ran for president in 2012, he received about 1.28 million votes.</p> <p dir="ltr">Johnson&rsquo;s other policies are far flung for Democrats. As a Libertarian, he wants smaller government that has a minimal role in people&rsquo;s lives, not just on social issues like marriage and abortion. He wants to get rid of the entire tax code and institute a consumption tax nationwide. He wants to cut the Department of Education.</p> <p dir="ltr">Nicholas Sarwark, chair of the Libertarian National Committee, told Gotham Gazette that Johnson is an easy choice for voters as the &ldquo;honest guy&rdquo; running against a &ldquo;bigot&rdquo; (Trump) and a &ldquo;liar&rdquo; (Clinton) who are historically unpopular. He&rsquo;s not concerned that Johnson could pull votes from Clinton and hand Trump swing states. Although if that should happen, he said it falls at the feet of the voters and not the third-party candidate. &ldquo;You&rsquo;re supposed to vote for who is best for the office,&rdquo; he said. &ldquo;Not who you hate more or less.&rdquo;</p> <p dir="ltr">Part of the struggle for both Johnson and Stein, neither of whom was made available for an interview for this article, will be getting on the debate stage, which is crucial for third-party candidates to build name recognition and get media attention. The Commission on Presidential Debates, however, only allows candidates polling 15 percent in national polls to participate in the debates. So far, Johnson seems more likely to hit the mark. &ldquo;They&rsquo;re going to have a very hard time getting sufficient attention to register with voters,&rdquo; said Micah Sifry, executive director of Civic Hall and an expert on third-party candidacies, in a phone interview.</p> <p dir="ltr">Sifry doesn&rsquo;t think the election will be as close as the 2000 race and doesn&rsquo;t see a high likelihood that a third-party candidate could give the election to either Trump or Clinton. At best, he said, Stein and Johnson will split 6 percent of the vote between them. He does see Johnson receiving votes from disaffected Republicans and from the 10 percent of Sanders supporters who &ldquo;were probably never Democrats in the first place.&rdquo; He also said Stein could do better in strong &ldquo;blue&rdquo; states, which are overwhelmingly Democratic and &ldquo;where people feel it&rsquo;s a safe protest vote.&rdquo;</p> <p dir="ltr">Gene Healy, vice president of the Cato Institute, echoed Sifry&rsquo;s views on the debates. &ldquo;The name recognition on the national stage that access to the debates provides can be transformative,&rdquo; he said, pointing out that Ross Perot in 1992 had only 7 percent of the vote in the polls before the debates and jumped to nearly 19 percent. Perot was added to the debate roster because George H.W. Bush&rsquo;s campaign insisted on it, which Healy said was in hopes of tilting votes in Bush&rsquo;s favor. &ldquo;It can really rocket a former unknown into contender territory,&rdquo; Healy said.</p> <p dir="ltr">Healy said it was &ldquo;certainly plausible&rdquo; that third-party candidates could affect swing states since Trump and Clinton, &ldquo;are the most widely reviled major party candidates in the history of polling.&rdquo;</p> <p>Should Johnson and Stein make themselves better known between now and November, they may at least drive voter turnout and encourage alternative discussion of issues on the campaign trail. &ldquo;That&rsquo;s part of a healthy phenomenon,&rdquo; said Sifry. &ldquo;You want people to have more choices. You want the major parties to fight for their votes. They shouldn&rsquo;t take people for granted.&rdquo;</p> <p>

***
by Samar Khurshid, City government reporter, Gotham Gazette
     

Read more by this writer.

</p>
<p><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/images/graphics/2014/03/Jill_Stein.jpg" alt="Jill Stein" width="600" height="579" /></p> <p dir="ltr">Green Party candidate Jill Stein (photo via Facebook)</p> <hr /> <p dir="ltr">With the Republican and Democratic parties having nominated presidential candidates with record-high unfavorability ratings, this election cycle is turning out to be a choice between a rock and a hard place for many voters. Some, though, are looking elsewhere and still-early polling shows that this November could yield near-record voting for so-called &ldquo;third party&rdquo; candidates.</p> <p dir="ltr">Those who oppose Democratic nominee Hillary Clinton say she&rsquo;s an untrustworthy, calculating politician with cozy ties to corporate interests and Washington insiders; opponents of Donald Trump, the Republican nominee, see him as a sexist, fear-mongering, racist xenophobe with authoritarian tendencies. Though the United States has a political system dominated by two parties, Clinton and Trump aren&rsquo;t the only choices, much to the relief of a number of voters. What that number winds up being could determine the election, the next President, and much of the future of the country and the world.</p> <p dir="ltr">The third-party candidates in the 2016 race for the White House are the Libertarian Party&rsquo;s nominee Gary Johnson and the Green Party&rsquo;s candidate Dr. Jill Stein, both of whom ran in 2012 and are now going all out to woo those disaffected voters who believe that neither Clinton nor Trump is a viable choice for President of the United States. While no expert would argue that either Johnson or Stein will be the next President, voters choosing one or the other on November 8 could determine whether the next President is Trump or Clinton.</p> <p dir="ltr">This year&rsquo;s presidential election is likely to once again come down to several key swing states, and polls in some of those states, like Ohio and Florida, show a close race between the two leading candidates. (In at least one national poll, Johnson, former governor of New Mexico, polled in <a href="http://www.cbsnews.com/news/campaign-2016-did-hillary-clinton-get-a-post-convention-bump/">double digits</a>, but in other polls both he and Stein were in single digits - a candidate needs to hit an average of <a href="http://www.debates.org/index.php?mact=News,cntnt01,detail,0&amp;cntnt01articleid=58&amp;cntnt01origid=27&amp;cntnt01detailtemplate=newspage&amp;cntnt01returnid=80">15 percent</a> in five national polls to be invited to a debate.) There is concern for some that one or both of the third-party candidates could be a spoiler for Clinton in a swing state or two and skew the election in Trump&rsquo;s favor. While the likelihood is minimal, experts say, it not entirely implausible.</p> <p dir="ltr">A <a href="http://www.realclearpolitics.com/epolls/2016/president/us/general_election_trump_vs_clinton_vs_johnson_vs_stein-5952.html">Real Clear Politics poll average</a> has Trump at 41.5 percent in Florida, against Clinton&rsquo;s 41.3 percent while Johnson takes 4.5 percent and Stein takes 2.5 percent of the vote. In 2012, President Obama beat Mitt Romney by just 74,309 votes or 0.88 percentage points in Florida. In Ohio, Clinton bests Trump by 1.4 points on average thus far; Johnson gets 6.4 percent and Stein gets 3 percent. In 2012, Obama won by 2.98 points in the state. In New Hampshire, a four-way contest has Clinton and Trump tied at 37 percent according to a <a href="https://cola.unh.edu/sites/cola.unh.edu/files/research_publications/gsp2016_summer_presrace072116.pdf">WMUR Granite State poll</a>; with Johnson at 10 percent and Stein at 5 percent. Obama won the state in 2012 with 52 percent of the vote, against Romney&rsquo;s 46.4 percent.</p> <p dir="ltr">Both Stein and Johnson have been encouraged by the high unfavorable ratings of Clinton and Trump. A <a href="http://www.gallup.com/opinion/polling-matters/194000/first-time-trump-image-par-clinton.aspx">Gallup poll</a> conducted July 18-25 found that Clinton and Trump had equal favorability marks: 37% favorable and 58% unfavorable. Some believe the 2016 dynamics could create a situation similar to the 2000 presidential election, when famous third-party candidate Ralph Nader took votes away from Al Gore in Florida, the state which gave George W. Bush the presidency with a razor thin margin.</p> <p dir="ltr">Nader addressed those concerns in a recent interview with the <a href="http://www.nydailynews.com/news/politics/ralph-nader-third-party-candidates-don-stand-chance-article-1.2728436">New York Daily News</a>, insisting that a third-party candidate shouldn&rsquo;t unjustly be termed a &ldquo;spoiler&rdquo; and laying the blame instead on the media, the voters, and the candidates themselves. A Florida-like situation is exactly what former New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg said he was trying to avoid when he abandoned plans of running for president as an independent earlier this year. He didn&rsquo;t want to run the risk of helping elect Trump, he said, something he affirmed by speaking at the Democratic National Convention in favor of Hillary Clinton and calling upon independents to vote for her.</p> <p dir="ltr">The most recent CBS News poll had Clinton at 41 percent and Trump at 36 percent, with Johnson receiving 10 percent of the vote. Stein was not mentioned in the poll. Among independents, however, Clinton trailed Trump by 2 points, and Johnson received 15 percent of the vote.</p> <p dir="ltr">A new CNN/ORC poll taken after the close of the Democratic National Convention shows independents favoring Clinton, with a 37% plurality, Trump with 33% of independents, Johnson wiht 16% of independents, and Stein with 8% of independents. &nbsp;</p> <p dir="ltr"><a href="http://www.gallup.com/poll/15370/party-affiliation.aspx">Gallup polling</a> shows that 42 percent of registered voters identify as independents. While at this juncture in the election cycle about one-third of independents may say they favor a &lsquo;third-party&rsquo; candidate, support for such candidates tends to drop as the general election gets closer. (The latest <a href="http://www.realclearpolitics.com/epolls/2016/president/us/general_election_trump_vs_clinton_vs_johnson_vs_stein-5952.html">Real Clear Politics</a> polling data averages put Johnson at 7 percent and Stein at 3.2 percent.)</p> <p dir="ltr">&ldquo;One primary struggle in a year like this,&rdquo; said John Hudak, senior fellow in governance studies at the Brookings Institution, &ldquo;is not that voters are in love with third-party candidates. They&rsquo;ve fallen out of love with the major party candidates.&rdquo; Hudak contrasted Ross Perot&rsquo;s insurgent candidacy in 1992, when he ran as an independent. &ldquo;Perot did quite well because people liked his message. He was inspiring people. Stein and Johnson are not providing any inspiration for voters.&rdquo;</p> <p dir="ltr">Hudak doesn&rsquo;t expect that the third-party candidates will have a significant influence and that people disillusioned with Clinton and Trump will more likely stay home on Election Day than vote for Stein or Johnson. Even in swing states he said the effects of a third-party candidate would be difficult to attribute and would likely have minimal impact on the outcome.</p> <p dir="ltr">No one discounts, however, the strong possibility that third-party candidates will get a higher vote share this year than past elections. Stein appeals to Democratic voters, particularly former Bernie Sanders supporters who felt betrayed when the Vermont senator dropped out of the race and endorsed Clinton. Last week, outside the Democratic National Convention, she made attempts to win over &lsquo;Bernie or Bust&rsquo; protesters who had walked out of the main arena. She has proposed a &ldquo;<a href="http://gpus.org/organizing-tools/the-green-new-deal/">Green New Deal</a>,&rdquo; a platform that skews closely to Sanders&rsquo;. It includes single-payer health care, forgiving student loan debt, transitioning away from fossil fuels to renewable and sustainable energy, breaking up the big banks, and fighting income inequality, to name a few main planks. Stein has also built some name recognition. She ran in 2012 and received about 469,000 votes, which she&rsquo;s hoping to build on this year. There were a few more than 129 million votes cast that year.</p> <p dir="ltr"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/images/graphics/2014/03/IMG_6715.JPG" alt="Gary Johnson" width="350" height="545" style="margin: 5px; float: left;" />Although Libertarian Gary Johnson (pictured) has been seen as more of a threat to Trump, on social issues his policies correlate closely with Sanders, again perhaps offering a home for voters supportive of Sanders but not attracted to Clinton. Johnson, who also visited Philadelphia during the DNC, favors legalizing marijuana, is pro-choice on abortion, and supports marriage equality. In a <a href="http://www.politico.com/story/2016/06/off-message-podcast-gary-johnson-223917">recent interview</a> with Politico&rsquo;s Glenn Thrush, Johnson said of Sanders, &ldquo;On the social side, we&rsquo;re simpatico.&rdquo; Johnson has also received more media attention than Stein and has a record as former (Republican) governor of New Mexico. When he ran for president in 2012, he received about 1.28 million votes.</p> <p dir="ltr">Johnson&rsquo;s other policies are far flung for Democrats. As a Libertarian, he wants smaller government that has a minimal role in people&rsquo;s lives, not just on social issues like marriage and abortion. He wants to get rid of the entire tax code and institute a consumption tax nationwide. He wants to cut the Department of Education.</p> <p dir="ltr">Nicholas Sarwark, chair of the Libertarian National Committee, told Gotham Gazette that Johnson is an easy choice for voters as the &ldquo;honest guy&rdquo; running against a &ldquo;bigot&rdquo; (Trump) and a &ldquo;liar&rdquo; (Clinton) who are historically unpopular. He&rsquo;s not concerned that Johnson could pull votes from Clinton and hand Trump swing states. Although if that should happen, he said it falls at the feet of the voters and not the third-party candidate. &ldquo;You&rsquo;re supposed to vote for who is best for the office,&rdquo; he said. &ldquo;Not who you hate more or less.&rdquo;</p> <p dir="ltr">Part of the struggle for both Johnson and Stein, neither of whom was made available for an interview for this article, will be getting on the debate stage, which is crucial for third-party candidates to build name recognition and get media attention. The Commission on Presidential Debates, however, only allows candidates polling 15 percent in national polls to participate in the debates. So far, Johnson seems more likely to hit the mark. &ldquo;They&rsquo;re going to have a very hard time getting sufficient attention to register with voters,&rdquo; said Micah Sifry, executive director of Civic Hall and an expert on third-party candidacies, in a phone interview.</p> <p dir="ltr">Sifry doesn&rsquo;t think the election will be as close as the 2000 race and doesn&rsquo;t see a high likelihood that a third-party candidate could give the election to either Trump or Clinton. At best, he said, Stein and Johnson will split 6 percent of the vote between them. He does see Johnson receiving votes from disaffected Republicans and from the 10 percent of Sanders supporters who &ldquo;were probably never Democrats in the first place.&rdquo; He also said Stein could do better in strong &ldquo;blue&rdquo; states, which are overwhelmingly Democratic and &ldquo;where people feel it&rsquo;s a safe protest vote.&rdquo;</p> <p dir="ltr">Gene Healy, vice president of the Cato Institute, echoed Sifry&rsquo;s views on the debates. &ldquo;The name recognition on the national stage that access to the debates provides can be transformative,&rdquo; he said, pointing out that Ross Perot in 1992 had only 7 percent of the vote in the polls before the debates and jumped to nearly 19 percent. Perot was added to the debate roster because George H.W. Bush&rsquo;s campaign insisted on it, which Healy said was in hopes of tilting votes in Bush&rsquo;s favor. &ldquo;It can really rocket a former unknown into contender territory,&rdquo; Healy said.</p> <p dir="ltr">Healy said it was &ldquo;certainly plausible&rdquo; that third-party candidates could affect swing states since Trump and Clinton, &ldquo;are the most widely reviled major party candidates in the history of polling.&rdquo;</p> <p>Should Johnson and Stein make themselves better known between now and November, they may at least drive voter turnout and encourage alternative discussion of issues on the campaign trail. &ldquo;That&rsquo;s part of a healthy phenomenon,&rdquo; said Sifry. &ldquo;You want people to have more choices. You want the major parties to fight for their votes. They shouldn&rsquo;t take people for granted.&rdquo;</p> <p>

***
by Samar Khurshid, City government reporter, Gotham Gazette
     

Read more by this writer.

</p>