Gotham Gazette Gotham Gazette is an online publication covering New York policy and politics as well as news on public safety, transportation, education, finance and more. http://www.gothamgazette.com/component/tags/tag/supreme-court 2017-12-16T13:11:05+00:00 Webmaster webmaster@gothamgazette.com The Supreme Court Case De Blasio Is Relying On To Defy Trump 2016-11-28T05:00:00+00:00 2016-11-28T05:00:00+00:00 http://www.gothamgazette.com/?id=6641:the-supreme-court-case-de-blasio-is-relying-on-to-defy-trump Ben Max <p><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/images/30893762102_f1e27ba9fd_z.jpg" alt="de blasio trump tower" width="600" height="450" /></p> <p>De Blasio emerges from Trump Tower (photo: Ben Max)</p> <hr /> <p>Since Donald Trump’s election as the next President, Mayor Bill de Blasio has had to face the reality of a threat he outlined as dire during the campaign. In doing so, de Blasio has met with Trump, spoken of being open-minded about the president-elect, and declared actions his city administration is ready to take if Trump attempts to follow through on some of his most extreme campaign promises.</p> <p>The most clear threat from Trump to New York City was his pledge to cut off federal funding to so-called sanctuary cities, which are those like New York that welcome and protect undocumented immigrants. While de Blasio gave a speech explaining specific acts of defiance the city is prepared to take against Trump, if federal funding to the city was eliminated, it would cost New York roughly $8 billion, the amount it receives through Washington, D.C. toward its current operating budget of about $83 billion.</p> <p>However, de Blasio has repeatedly said that, thanks to a United States Supreme Court decision, it wouldn’t be so simple if Trump does attempt to follow through on this threat. While de Blasio is probably right, the court’s 1987 ruling in <em>South Dakota v. Dole</em> does not mean de Blasio has an easy path to beating back federal attempts to cut funding to the city.</p> <p>Asked about the possibility of federal defunding during his <a href="http://www.wnyc.org/story/ask-mayor-election-2016" target="_blank">November 18 appearance</a> on WNYC’s The Brian Lehrer Show, de Blasio said, “I think the first thing is to recognize that from what I know so far, because of a decision by the Supreme Court, no President is in position to cut off funding across the board. It has to be very specific to the matter at hand. If we disagree in one particular policy area, you know, there may be opportunities for the federal government to say ‘well we’re not going to fund you in that policy area,’ but not across the board. And I think it’s easier said than done.”</p> <p>At a press conference a few days later, on November 22, de Blasio was asked for more detail on how he would handle “retaliatory cuts to federal funding.”</p> <p>The mayor said, in part, “as we’ve talked about before, the last Supreme Court decision constrained the ability of the federal government to cut funding. There are some areas where the federal government can tie funding to certain conditions, but not across the board, not all areas of federal funding. It equates to specific lines of federal funding.”</p> <p>The mayor hasn’t named the case he’s referred to, but when asked, a de Blasio spokesperson indicated it was <em>South Dakota v. Dole</em>, in which the Supreme Court ruled against South Dakota’s attempt to negate limits on federal funding tied to state policy, but also laid out terms on which Washington could tie appropriations to policy.</p> <p>In citing <em>South Dakota v. Dole</em>, de Blasio does appear to be on to something. In essence, the court ruled that federal funding decisions tied to specific policies must have a rational and direct connection. As Erin Ryan <a href="https://www.acslaw.org/acsblog/spending-power-bargaining-after-obamacare" target="_blank">wrote in 2012</a> for American Constitution Society, “In South Dakota v. Dole, the Court famously upheld spending power bargaining, so long as the conditions are unambiguous, reasonably related to the federal interest, promote general welfare, and do not induce Constitutional violations.”</p> <p>Though attempts by a President Trump and like-minded Congress to in one fell swoop eliminate all federal funding to the city would likely be struck down in court, Trump and Congress may be able to systematically eliminate much of what comes to New York while still abiding by the Supreme Court’s <em>South Dakota v. Dole</em> ruling.</p> <p>Trump and Congress would have to provide justification regarding conditions attached to individual spending appropriations, not blanket reasoning across the board. This would mean the federal government tying sanctuary city policies, like not cooperating with federal efforts to deport undocumented immigrants, to major budget allocations one by one. Big federal dollars currently go to city programs related to education, homelessness, poverty, and law enforcement -- it is not unreasonable to think of connections that can be made in each area. A key aspect of <em>South Dakota v. Dole</em> was the degree to which federal highway funds and the drinking age were related -- the majority saw them as related enough, while the dissenting opinion argued that they were not.</p> <p>According to a new “initial analysis” of what federal defunding of the city could look like, city Comptroller Scott Stringer’s office said, “cutting off all Federal funds would have a devastating impact on the City’s budget,” especially with regard to agencies and programs that serve “the most vulnerable among us.”</p> <p>Eleven city agencies,&nbsp;<a href="http://comptroller.nyc.gov/newsroom/as-president-elect-trump-prepares-to-take-office-comptroller-stringer-releases-initial-analysis-of-federal-funding-to-nyc/" target="_blank">Stringer's analysis</a> explains, that account for 59 percent of all city spending, receive 92 percent of all federal grant money to the city. “Those agencies include the Department of Homeless Services and the Administration for Children’s Services, among others,” the report states. “The NYPD budget for intelligence and counter-terrorism would also be at risk.”</p> <p>As de Blasio indicated in a speech on Monday, November 21, New York City will be prepared to fight the Trump administration in court. If the next president and Congress do attempt to defund the city over its local policies, it’s likely that the fight would end up in court and be subject to interpretation of the Supreme Court’s ruling in <em>South Dakota v. Dole</em> as it applies to whatever actions the federal government is taking and the city’s relevant policies.</p> <p>Aides to the mayor did not provide more information when asked how de Blasio became aware of <em>South Dakota v. Dole</em>, whether the Law Department has briefed the mayor on it, and how concerned the mayor is about case-by-case elimination of most federal aid to New York City.</p> <p>“The mayor will stand tall in the face of any attempt by the president to cut vital services in New York City,” said de Blasio spokesperson Freddi Goldstein in a statement to Gotham Gazette. “We’re preparing cautiously and we’ll respond aggressively, but at this point it’s all speculation.”</p> <p>A spokesperson for the Law Department said that it is “fully aware of the case.”</p> <p>De Blasio and others have repeatedly stressed that it is unclear exactly what agenda Trump will pursue. The president-elect is known for altering his stances on issues and he is still filling out his cabinet, members of which will be pivotal in shaping federal policy in the coming months and years. There is little evidence that Trump is backing away from his campaign promises, though he has made more moderate comments in interviews when asked about certain agenda items.</p> <p>In <em>South Dakota v. Dole</em>, the state challenged 1984 federal legislation that ordered “the Secretary of Transportation to withhold five percent of federal highway funds from states that did not adopt a 21-year-old minimum drinking age,” according to <a href="https://www.oyez.org/cases/1986/86-260" target="_blank">a summary</a> from the Chicago-Kent College of Law. At the time, South Dakota allowed those 19 years of age and older to purchase alcohol and filed suit, naming then Transportation Secretary Elizabeth Dole as the defendant, and calling the legislation unconstitutional.</p> <p>The court ruled seven to two against South Dakota. But in its ruling, it laid out key terms for federal grants to states that are applicable to Trump’s campaign promise and de Blasio’s response. Namely, that conditional federal grants must themselves be constitutional, and that the conditions must relate to the program(s) in question. In <em>South Dakota v. Dole</em>, the Court ruled that federal highway funds and state drinking ages fit the criteria.</p> <p>During his November 21 speech on New York values, <a href="http://www.gothamgazette.com/index.php/city/6634-7-things-de-blasio-asked-new-yorkers-to-do-in-the-face-of-trump-s-election" target="_blank">what New Yorkers should do now</a>, and what the city will do if Trump follows through on certain campaign pledges, de Blasio said, “Our constitution says it – that so much of what is decided in the governance of our people is decided at the local level, according to the values of the people who are governed.”</p> <p>“[W]e will fight anything we see as undermining our values,” de Blasio said. “And here is my promise to you as your mayor – we will use all the tools at our disposal to stand up for our people.” He then pledged, among other things, to “take legal action to block” any federal requirement that Muslims register; to “step in” if the federal government “tries to deport law-abiding New Yorkers who have no representation,” and to “not comply” if the Justice Department “orders local police to resume [unconstitutional practice of] stop and frisk.”</p> <p>

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by Ben Max, Gotham Gazette
     

Read more by this writer.

</p>
<p><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/images/30893762102_f1e27ba9fd_z.jpg" alt="de blasio trump tower" width="600" height="450" /></p> <p>De Blasio emerges from Trump Tower (photo: Ben Max)</p> <hr /> <p>Since Donald Trump’s election as the next President, Mayor Bill de Blasio has had to face the reality of a threat he outlined as dire during the campaign. In doing so, de Blasio has met with Trump, spoken of being open-minded about the president-elect, and declared actions his city administration is ready to take if Trump attempts to follow through on some of his most extreme campaign promises.</p> <p>The most clear threat from Trump to New York City was his pledge to cut off federal funding to so-called sanctuary cities, which are those like New York that welcome and protect undocumented immigrants. While de Blasio gave a speech explaining specific acts of defiance the city is prepared to take against Trump, if federal funding to the city was eliminated, it would cost New York roughly $8 billion, the amount it receives through Washington, D.C. toward its current operating budget of about $83 billion.</p> <p>However, de Blasio has repeatedly said that, thanks to a United States Supreme Court decision, it wouldn’t be so simple if Trump does attempt to follow through on this threat. While de Blasio is probably right, the court’s 1987 ruling in <em>South Dakota v. Dole</em> does not mean de Blasio has an easy path to beating back federal attempts to cut funding to the city.</p> <p>Asked about the possibility of federal defunding during his <a href="http://www.wnyc.org/story/ask-mayor-election-2016" target="_blank">November 18 appearance</a> on WNYC’s The Brian Lehrer Show, de Blasio said, “I think the first thing is to recognize that from what I know so far, because of a decision by the Supreme Court, no President is in position to cut off funding across the board. It has to be very specific to the matter at hand. If we disagree in one particular policy area, you know, there may be opportunities for the federal government to say ‘well we’re not going to fund you in that policy area,’ but not across the board. And I think it’s easier said than done.”</p> <p>At a press conference a few days later, on November 22, de Blasio was asked for more detail on how he would handle “retaliatory cuts to federal funding.”</p> <p>The mayor said, in part, “as we’ve talked about before, the last Supreme Court decision constrained the ability of the federal government to cut funding. There are some areas where the federal government can tie funding to certain conditions, but not across the board, not all areas of federal funding. It equates to specific lines of federal funding.”</p> <p>The mayor hasn’t named the case he’s referred to, but when asked, a de Blasio spokesperson indicated it was <em>South Dakota v. Dole</em>, in which the Supreme Court ruled against South Dakota’s attempt to negate limits on federal funding tied to state policy, but also laid out terms on which Washington could tie appropriations to policy.</p> <p>In citing <em>South Dakota v. Dole</em>, de Blasio does appear to be on to something. In essence, the court ruled that federal funding decisions tied to specific policies must have a rational and direct connection. As Erin Ryan <a href="https://www.acslaw.org/acsblog/spending-power-bargaining-after-obamacare" target="_blank">wrote in 2012</a> for American Constitution Society, “In South Dakota v. Dole, the Court famously upheld spending power bargaining, so long as the conditions are unambiguous, reasonably related to the federal interest, promote general welfare, and do not induce Constitutional violations.”</p> <p>Though attempts by a President Trump and like-minded Congress to in one fell swoop eliminate all federal funding to the city would likely be struck down in court, Trump and Congress may be able to systematically eliminate much of what comes to New York while still abiding by the Supreme Court’s <em>South Dakota v. Dole</em> ruling.</p> <p>Trump and Congress would have to provide justification regarding conditions attached to individual spending appropriations, not blanket reasoning across the board. This would mean the federal government tying sanctuary city policies, like not cooperating with federal efforts to deport undocumented immigrants, to major budget allocations one by one. Big federal dollars currently go to city programs related to education, homelessness, poverty, and law enforcement -- it is not unreasonable to think of connections that can be made in each area. A key aspect of <em>South Dakota v. Dole</em> was the degree to which federal highway funds and the drinking age were related -- the majority saw them as related enough, while the dissenting opinion argued that they were not.</p> <p>According to a new “initial analysis” of what federal defunding of the city could look like, city Comptroller Scott Stringer’s office said, “cutting off all Federal funds would have a devastating impact on the City’s budget,” especially with regard to agencies and programs that serve “the most vulnerable among us.”</p> <p>Eleven city agencies,&nbsp;<a href="http://comptroller.nyc.gov/newsroom/as-president-elect-trump-prepares-to-take-office-comptroller-stringer-releases-initial-analysis-of-federal-funding-to-nyc/" target="_blank">Stringer's analysis</a> explains, that account for 59 percent of all city spending, receive 92 percent of all federal grant money to the city. “Those agencies include the Department of Homeless Services and the Administration for Children’s Services, among others,” the report states. “The NYPD budget for intelligence and counter-terrorism would also be at risk.”</p> <p>As de Blasio indicated in a speech on Monday, November 21, New York City will be prepared to fight the Trump administration in court. If the next president and Congress do attempt to defund the city over its local policies, it’s likely that the fight would end up in court and be subject to interpretation of the Supreme Court’s ruling in <em>South Dakota v. Dole</em> as it applies to whatever actions the federal government is taking and the city’s relevant policies.</p> <p>Aides to the mayor did not provide more information when asked how de Blasio became aware of <em>South Dakota v. Dole</em>, whether the Law Department has briefed the mayor on it, and how concerned the mayor is about case-by-case elimination of most federal aid to New York City.</p> <p>“The mayor will stand tall in the face of any attempt by the president to cut vital services in New York City,” said de Blasio spokesperson Freddi Goldstein in a statement to Gotham Gazette. “We’re preparing cautiously and we’ll respond aggressively, but at this point it’s all speculation.”</p> <p>A spokesperson for the Law Department said that it is “fully aware of the case.”</p> <p>De Blasio and others have repeatedly stressed that it is unclear exactly what agenda Trump will pursue. The president-elect is known for altering his stances on issues and he is still filling out his cabinet, members of which will be pivotal in shaping federal policy in the coming months and years. There is little evidence that Trump is backing away from his campaign promises, though he has made more moderate comments in interviews when asked about certain agenda items.</p> <p>In <em>South Dakota v. Dole</em>, the state challenged 1984 federal legislation that ordered “the Secretary of Transportation to withhold five percent of federal highway funds from states that did not adopt a 21-year-old minimum drinking age,” according to <a href="https://www.oyez.org/cases/1986/86-260" target="_blank">a summary</a> from the Chicago-Kent College of Law. At the time, South Dakota allowed those 19 years of age and older to purchase alcohol and filed suit, naming then Transportation Secretary Elizabeth Dole as the defendant, and calling the legislation unconstitutional.</p> <p>The court ruled seven to two against South Dakota. But in its ruling, it laid out key terms for federal grants to states that are applicable to Trump’s campaign promise and de Blasio’s response. Namely, that conditional federal grants must themselves be constitutional, and that the conditions must relate to the program(s) in question. In <em>South Dakota v. Dole</em>, the Court ruled that federal highway funds and state drinking ages fit the criteria.</p> <p>During his November 21 speech on New York values, <a href="http://www.gothamgazette.com/index.php/city/6634-7-things-de-blasio-asked-new-yorkers-to-do-in-the-face-of-trump-s-election" target="_blank">what New Yorkers should do now</a>, and what the city will do if Trump follows through on certain campaign pledges, de Blasio said, “Our constitution says it – that so much of what is decided in the governance of our people is decided at the local level, according to the values of the people who are governed.”</p> <p>“[W]e will fight anything we see as undermining our values,” de Blasio said. “And here is my promise to you as your mayor – we will use all the tools at our disposal to stand up for our people.” He then pledged, among other things, to “take legal action to block” any federal requirement that Muslims register; to “step in” if the federal government “tries to deport law-abiding New Yorkers who have no representation,” and to “not comply” if the Justice Department “orders local police to resume [unconstitutional practice of] stop and frisk.”</p> <p>

***
by Ben Max, Gotham Gazette
     

Read more by this writer.

</p>
On the Issues: Presidential Candidate Comparison 2016-10-31T04:00:00+00:00 2016-10-31T04:00:00+00:00 http://www.gothamgazette.com/?id=6601:presidential-candidate-comparison Ben Max <p><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/images/graphics/2016/election-candidates.png" alt="election candidates" width="600" height="399" /></p> <p><strong><a href="http://www.gothamgazette.com/#fullissue" target="_self" style="background-color: #02619c; border-radius: 25px; color: #fff; cursor: pointer; font-weight: bolder; margin: 2px; padding: 5px;" title="Click here to see the full list">Click here to see the full list</a></strong></p> <p> </p> <section> <article> <a id="fullissue"></a> <div id="hidden1" class="issues-list"> <h1>Vice President</h1> <div id="hclinton"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/hillary-clinton2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Vice President</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="hc-positions">Tim Kaine of Virginia. U.S. Senator, former Governor of Virginia, former Mayor of Richmond.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="dtrump"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/donald-trump2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Vice President</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="dt-positions">Mike Pence of Indiana. Governor of Indiana, former member of the United States House of Represenatatives, where he was a leader of the Tea Party movement.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="gjohnson"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/gary-johnson2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Vice President</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="gj-positions">William Weld of Massachusetts. Former Republican governor of Massachusetts 1991, former U.S. Senate candidate.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="jstein"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/jill-stein2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Vice President</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="js-candidates">Ajamu Baraka of Georgia. Human rights activist, founding executive director of the U.S. Human Rights Network.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <!-- CLEAR --> <h1>&nbsp;</h1> <h1>Bio</h1> <div id="hclinton"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/hillary-clinton2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Bio</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="hc-positions">Hillary Clinton, born in 1947, is most notable for serving as First Lady of the United States (1993-2001), a United States Senator from New York (2001-2009), and the United States Secretary of State from 2009 to 2013. She's known for, among other things, her push for national health care reform in 1993-1994 as First Lady.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="dtrump"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/donald-trump2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Bio</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="dt-positions">Donald Trump, born in 1946, is a businessman, real estate mogul, and television personality. He has built further on the buisness empire started by his father and made a national name for his real estate and casino businesses, and as the host of The Apprentice.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="gjohnson"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/gary-johnson2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Bio</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="gj-positions">Gary Johnson, born in 1953, founded what became one of the largest construction companies in New Mexico. Former governor of New Mexico, winning his longshot 1994 bid, serving two terms. Has long-favored small government. Also ran for President as the Libertarian Party nominee in 2012. He got 0.99% of the national vote that year.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="jstein"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/jill-stein2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Bio</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="js-candidates">Jill Stein, born in 1950, is a physician and activist whose biggest focus has been environmental and health issues. She was the Green Party Candidate for Governor of Massachusetts in 2002 and 2010, and the Green Party Candidate for President in 2012. She received 0.36% of the national vote that year.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <!-- CLEAR --> <h1>&nbsp;</h1> <h1>Campaign Websites</h1> <div id="hclinton"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/hillary-clinton2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><span class="header"></span><span id="hc-positions"><a href="https://www.hillaryclinton.com">Campaign Website</a></span></p> <p><a href="https://twitter.com/HillaryClinton">Twitter</a></p> <p><a href="https://www.facebook.com/hillaryclinton">Facebook</a></p> <p><a href="https://www.youtube.com/hillaryclinton">YouTube</a></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="dtrump"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/donald-trump2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><span id="dt-positions"><a href="https://www.donaldjtrump.com">Campaign Website</a></span></p> <p><a href="https://twitter.com/realDonaldTrump">Twitter</a></p> <p><a href="https://www.facebook.com/DonaldTrump">Facebook</a></p> <p><a href="https://www.youtube.com/donaldtrump">YouTube</a></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="gjohnson"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/gary-johnson2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><span id="gj-positions"><a href="https://www.johnsonweld.com">Campaign Website</a></span></p> <p><a href="http://www.twitter.com/govgaryjohnson">Twitter</a></p> <p><a href="http://www.facebook.com/govgaryjohnson">Facebook</a></p> <p><a href="https://www.youtube.com/c/govgaryjohnson">YouTube</a></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="jstein"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/jill-stein2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a href="http://www.jill2016.com/">Campaign Website</a></p> <p><a href="https://twitter.com/drjillstein">Twitter</a></p> <p><a href="https://www.facebook.com/drjillstein">Facebook</a></p> <p><a href="https://www.youtube.com/jill2016">YouTube</a></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <!-- CLEAR --> <h1>&nbsp;</h1> <h1>Jobs</h1> <div id="hclinton"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/hillary-clinton2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Jobs</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="hc-positions">Clinton wants to invest in infrastructure to bolster the economy, including in clean energy. She is also focused on modernizing the economy through manufacturing and technology. She advocates for an increase in the minimum wage to $12 an hour nationally, with room for states to go higher, and she wants equal pay for equal work. </span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="dtrump"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/donald-trump2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Jobs</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="dt-positions">Trump believes that lower taxes and less regulation, as a whole, will bolster the economy. He believes the U.S. has agreed to bad trade deals, which he promises to renegotiate, that have led to lost American jobs to countries like Mexico and China. He promised to keep companies in the U.S. and to make American manufacturing great again.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="gjohnson"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/gary-johnson2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Jobs</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="gj-positions">Johnson generally favors less regulation, though any regulation which reigns in harmful actors will stay, he says. He also believes that out-of-control spending has hurt the U.S. economy, and that this spending needs to be reigned in. He believes smaller and less government will allow the economy to flourish.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="jstein"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/jill-stein2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Jobs</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="js-candidates">Stein believes in "living-wage jobs for every American who needs work." Government would be the last resort employer under this plan. She also believes in a $15 minimum wage and the breaking up of banks that are "too big to fail." Key to Stein's, and the Green Party's, platform is a "Green New Deal," which aims to create jobs through the building of clean energy infrastructure, so that America relies on 100% clean energy by 2030.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <!-- CLEAR --><br /><br /> <h1>Taxes</h1> <div id="hclinton"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/hillary-clinton2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Taxes</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="hc-positions">"Hillary will implement a "fair share surcharge" on multi-millionaires and billionaires." She will also fight for measures like the Buffett Rule, so that wealthier individuals pay their fair share of taxes, she says. She also looks to close up any loopholes which benefit Wall Street, cut taxes for small businesses, and "provide tax relief to working families from the rising costs they face." A Clinton Administration will look to tax high-frequency trading on Wall Street.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="dtrump"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/donald-trump2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Taxes</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="dt-positions">Trump believes lower taxes will help the economy. In particular, he believes that business taxes are too high, and that they need to be lowered so that they are competitive with the rest of the world. He believes that a simplified tax system will help. Like many Democrats, Trump believes in closing the carried interest loophole. </span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="gjohnson"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/gary-johnson2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Taxes</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="gj-positions">Johnson proposes getting rid of tax loopholes, as well as double taxes on small businesses. He favors "the replacement of all income and payroll taxes with a single consumption tax that determines your tax burden by how much you spend, not how much you earn."</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="jstein"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/jill-stein2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Taxes</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="js-candidates">Stein wants Wall Street corporations to pay their fair share in taxes. Also believes in a tax on companies that pollute. She believes in higher taxes for the wealthy, and lower taxes for the poor and middle class.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <h1>&nbsp;</h1> <h1>National Debt</h1> <div id="hclinton"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/hillary-clinton2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">National Debt</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="hc-positions">"From the Democratic Party Platform: ""We believe that by making those at the top and the largest corporations pay their fair share we can pay for ambitious progressive investments that create good-paying jobs and offer security to working families without adding to the debt."""</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="dtrump"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/donald-trump2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">National Debt</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="dt-positions">"You never have to default because you print the money," Trump said at one time. He has also suggested at times that borrowing is not a problem and that the U.S. could renegotiate its debt. </span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="gjohnson"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/gary-johnson2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">National Debt</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="gj-positions">Johnson plans to veto any bill which results in deficit spending. He also touts his record of vetoing many bills as governor of New Mexico, vetos he said helped balance New Mexico's budget. </span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="jstein"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/jill-stein2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">National Debt</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="js-candidates">Stein said on her campaign website in 2012 that she would reduce "the budget deficit by restoring full employment, cutting the bloated military budget, and cutting private health insurance waste."</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <!-- CLEAR --> <h1>&nbsp;</h1> <h1>Trade</h1> <div id="hclinton"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/hillary-clinton2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Trade</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="hc-positions">Clinton has moved in her support for trade deals, and has a new rubric for them, saying they must provide jobs for Americans, not sacrifice U.S. security, and be good for American national and international priorities. She supported NAFTA in the past, but admits to troubling outcomes for American jobs, and after supporting the Trans-Pacific Partnership as it was in development, she has come out against the version put forward by the Obama Administration. On trade, she says she's held deals to "the same test. Will they create jobs in America? Will they raise incomes in America? And are they good for our national security?" </span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="dtrump"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/donald-trump2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Trade</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="dt-positions">Trump has campaigned vocally against NAFTA, other past trade deals, and TPP. His vews on trade and the United States is best reflected in what he said at the Republican National Convention--"Americanism, not globalism, will be our credo."</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="gjohnson"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/gary-johnson2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Trade</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="gj-positions">Johnson generally supports NAFTA, TPP, and any other free trade agreements. He believes that any jobs lost to NAFTA while he was Governor of New Mexico were jobs that New Mexico didn't want anyway.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="jstein"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/jill-stein2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Trade</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="js-candidates">Stein believes that NAFTA and other similar agreements takes away jobs, hurts wages, and overall has negative economic impacts on Americans. She wants to "enact fair trade laws that benefits local workers and communities."</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <!-- CLEAR --> <h1>&nbsp;</h1> <h1>Immigration</h1> <div id="hclinton"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/hillary-clinton2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Immigration</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="hc-positions">There are two major facets to Clinton's immigration plan: protect families and provide a pathway to citizenship. She says that comprehensive immigration reform is desperately needed.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="dtrump"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/donald-trump2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Immigration</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="dt-positions">Trump promises no amnesty to undocumented immigrants and promises mass deportations, though at times he has appeared to soften some of his stances. His major campaign promise is to end illegal immigration and to institute "extreme vetting" of individuals, especially refugees, seeking entrance into the country. He talks about having a secure border and promises to build a wall along the southern border that he promises Mexico will pay for. He has also questioned birthright citizenship.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="gjohnson"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/gary-johnson2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Immigration</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="gj-positions">Johnson desn't believe that immigration is as simple as building a wall. "We should focus on creating a more efficient system of providing work visas, conducting background checks, and incentivizing non-citizens to pay their taxes, obtain proof of employment, and otherwise assimilate with our diverse society," his website says. </span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="jstein"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/jill-stein2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Immigration</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="js-candidates">"Create a welcoming path to citizenship for immigrants" is posted on Stein's website. Past policy positions also indicates that she is not in favor of the mass deportation of people which has happened under President Obama and promised to a greater degree by Trump.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <!-- CLEAR --> <h1>&nbsp;</h1> <h1>Health Care</h1> <div id="hclinton"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/hillary-clinton2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Health Care</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="hc-positions">Clinton wants to defend, tweak, and expand, but not repeal, Obamacare. She praises how many more people have become insured, but she wants to get costs down.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="dtrump"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/donald-trump2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Health Care</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="dt-positions">Trump promises to repeal Obamacare, and replace it with something far better. He says health care companies must be allowed to sell policies across state lines. He also wants transparency with health care costs and providers, and to "allow individuals to fully deduct health insurance premium payments from their tax returns under the current tax system." He argues for increased competitive, not government regulation of health care. Trump has also said that everyone deserves health care.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="gjohnson"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/gary-johnson2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Health Care</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="gj-positions">Generally speaking, Johnson is in favor of repealing Obamacare. He believes that free market competition will do the best job of covering health care for people.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="jstein"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/jill-stein2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Health Care</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="js-candidates">Stein believes in a Medicare for All system.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <!-- CLEAR --> <h1>&nbsp;</h1> <h1>The Environment</h1> <div id="hclinton"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/hillary-clinton2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">The Environment</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="hc-positions">Clinton will encourage clean energy: "Launch a $60 billion Clean Energy Challenge to partner with states, cities, and rural communities to cut carbon pollution and expand clean energy, including for low-income families." "Invest in clean energy infrastructure, innovation, manufacturing and workforce development to make the U.S. economy more competitive and create good-paying jobs and careers." </span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="dtrump"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/donald-trump2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">The Environment</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="dt-positions">Trump does not discuss the environment much. He has called climate change a hoax. And, he believes that the Environmental Protection Agency has too many regulations.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="gjohnson"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/gary-johnson2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">The Environment</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="gj-positions">Johnson places emphasis on protection of National Parks and wants the Environmental Protection Agency to "focus on its true mission." He also believes in regulations to protect from pollutors, but also believes that the government meddles too much in deciding which companies determine the future of clean energy.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="jstein"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/jill-stein2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">The Environment</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="js-candidates">Stein and the Green Party are, historically, especially focused on the environment. The Green New Deal looks to have the U.S. be on 100% clean energy by 2030. Stein wants to end use of fossil fuels and any support thereof. She places a special emphasis on protecting ecosystems, and strengthening environmental justice laws.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <!-- CLEAR --> <h1>&nbsp;</h1> <h1>Foreign Policy</h1> <div id="hclinton"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/hillary-clinton2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Foreign Policy</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="hc-positions">Clinton believes that the United States should defend its allies, push for diplomacy whenever possible, and be firm but not overaggressive with rivals such as China, Russia, and Iran. She is known as an interventionist, but has also spent time negotiating peace deals as Secretary of State. Her vote in favor of the Iraq War as a U.S. Senator is one that she has long been criticized for and has herself called a mistake.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="dtrump"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/donald-trump2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Foreign Policy</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="dt-positions">Trump has an "America First" foreign policy, based on protecting the interests of the United States above all else, not meddling in other countries' affairs, protecting American security and jobs, seemingly no matter what it takes to do so. Trump has promised an aggressive approach with Mexico and illegal immigration, China and currency manipulation, and the Middle East and wars in the region. Trump has been criticized and questioned for an apparent coziness with Vladimir Putin of Russia, which he has denied.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="gjohnson"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/gary-johnson2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Foreign Policy</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="gj-positions">Johnson believes that the U.S. meddles too much in foreign affairs and wars, and that needs to stop. He believes in fixing the problems that exist at home, while at the same time building relationships with allies abroad. Johnson has struggled with discussing foreign affairs on the campaign trail.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="jstein"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/jill-stein2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Foreign Policy</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="js-candidates">Stein wants to focus on diplomacy whenever possible, but also the punishment of abusers of human rights. Those human rights abusers include Egypt, Saudi Arabia, and Israel, she says.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <!-- CLEAR --> <h1>&nbsp;</h1> <h1>Combatting ISIS</h1> <div id="hclinton"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/hillary-clinton2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">ISIS</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="hc-positions">Clinton looks to support counter-terrorism law enformcement with the tools they need, and an increase of the airstrike campaign against ISIS in the Middle East. She has called for an "intelligence surge" to help the U.S. in its efforts against ISIS and other foreign threats.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="dtrump"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/donald-trump2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">ISIS</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="dt-positions">Generally speaking, Trump calls for a very aggressive military approach to ISIS, at times using expletives to explain his plan to bomb its forces and strongholds. He has repeatedly called for destroying oil fields that ISIS may have access to. But it is unclear to what extent he will pursue these strategies because he has not released as many plans regarding ISIS. Trump says U.S. leaders are foolish in telegraphing their military plans and that he will not divulge his. He has repeatedly insulted both U.S. political and military leaders.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="gjohnson"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/gary-johnson2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">ISIS</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="gj-positions">Johnson believes that the "meddling" of past administrations, Republican and Democrat, have created the monster that is ISIS. He has not shown a particular adeptness at discussing foreign affairs or presenting a plan to help eliminate threats from ISIS.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="jstein"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/jill-stein2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">ISIS</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="js-candidates">Stein says little about ISIS, but overall she is calling for the U.S. to not be engaged in war and foreign intervention.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <!-- CLEAR --> <h1>&nbsp;</h1> <h1>Gun Control</h1> <div id="hclinton"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/hillary-clinton2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Gun Control</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="hc-positions">Clinton has made gun control a focus of her campaign; calling for expanding background checks, and keeping "guns out of the hands of domestic abusers, other violent criminals, and the severely mentally ill." Clinton has said she believes in the Second Amendment and responsible gun ownership, but that she wants to do more to keep guns out of the wrong hands.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="dtrump"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/donald-trump2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Gun Control</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="dt-positions">Trump is pro-gun ownership and has promised to defend the Second Amendment. He believes that current gun regulations are a failure, and that background checks need to be fixed because it seems like criminals don't go through background checks. </span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="gjohnson"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/gary-johnson2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Gun Control</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="gj-positions">Johnson does not believe in increasing gun regulations. He is of the mind that if you take guns away only outlaws and criminals will have guns.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="jstein"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/jill-stein2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Gun Control</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="js-candidates">Stein believes that the ownership of guns should be regulated for the sake of public safety.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <!-- CLEAR --> <h1>&nbsp;</h1> <h1>Justice Reform</h1> <div id="hclinton"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/hillary-clinton2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Justice Reform</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="hc-positions">Clinton supports legislation to end any form of racial profiling. She wants law enforcement to focus on violent crimes and not petty ones like possession of marijuana. National guidelines should be brought in on use of force, she says, and body cameras should be provided to every police department in the United States. She has regularly spoken about the need to improve community-police relationships and about incidents of police brutality against people of color. And, she believes in ending the use of private prisons.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="dtrump"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/donald-trump2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Justice Reform</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="dt-positions">Trump calls himself the "Law and Order candidate," though as to what that means in terms of policy is unclear, though he has advocated for a robust stop-and-frisk policy nationwide based on what he sees as its success in New York City. Trump often talks about the need to support and respect police.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="gjohnson"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/gary-johnson2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Justice Reform</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="gj-positions">Johnson believes that all unnecessary laws should be taken out so that not as many things are criminalized. He also believes that there should be an end to the "War on Drugs."</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="jstein"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/jill-stein2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Justice Reform</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="js-candidates">Stein wants to end police brutality and de-militarize the police. She, like Johnson, wants to end the War on Drugs. She also proposes that drug addictions are treated like a health problem, not a criminal one.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <!-- CLEAR --> <h1>&nbsp;</h1> <h1>Education</h1> <div id="hclinton"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/hillary-clinton2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Education</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="hc-positions">Clinton supports the Common Core learning standards. She also believes in universal pre-kindergarten, college education that is debt free, and free tuition at all community colleges. She also looks to end overly punitive policies against students at schools and has discussed doing more for English Language Learners.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="dtrump"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/donald-trump2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Education</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="dt-positions">Trump rejects Common Core and believes that education decisions, as a whole, should be left up to states. He therefore wants to completely abolish the Department of Education.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="gjohnson"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/gary-johnson2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Education</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="gj-positions">Johnson rejects Common Core and believes that education decisions should be left to the states. He also wants to abolish the Department of Education because he believes that the federal government has no right to be involved with education decisions.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="jstein"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/jill-stein2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Education</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="js-candidates">Stein is not supportive of Common Core or standardized testing (and thinks curricula should be designed by educators). She prefers evaluation of teachers done by fellow professionals. She supports tuition-free, and debt-free, education through all four years of college. </span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <!-- CLEAR --> <h1>&nbsp;</h1> <h1>LGBTQ Rights</h1> <div id="hclinton"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/hillary-clinton2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">LGBTQ Rights</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="hc-positions">Clinton pushes for full rights for LGBTQ people, in the United States and around the world. Clinton has 'evolved' fairly quickly on related issues, like marriage equality.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="dtrump"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/donald-trump2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">LGBTQ Rights</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="dt-positions">Trump vows to protect LGBTQ citizens and has had several particularly significant moments, including at the Republican National Convention, around promoting and protecting LGBTQ rights. He has not stated personal support for same-sex marriage, but says that it is the law of the land and that it should be protected as such.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="gjohnson"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/gary-johnson2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">LGBTQ Rights</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="gj-positions">Johnson believes that the government should not be in the business of telling people who to marry. He therefore does not look to restrict same-sex marriage, and in fact he cites this non-government interference idea as a major reason why he supported same-sex marriage before many liberals did the same.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="jstein"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/jill-stein2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">LGBTQ Rights</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="js-candidates">Stein says that she will seek to end all forms of discrimination against the LGBTQ community.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <!-- CLEAR --> <h1>&nbsp;</h1> <h1>Abortion</h1> <div id="hclinton"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/hillary-clinton2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Abortion</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="hc-positions">Clinton looks to protect the reproductive rights of all women and protecting a woman's right to choose to have an abortion. She is also proud of her endorsement from Planned Parenthood.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="dtrump"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/donald-trump2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Abortion</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="dt-positions">Trump calls himself "pro-life" and at times has called for the defunding of Planned Parenthood. However he has at times touted a number of services that Planned Parenthood provides, and earlier in his life he considered himself "pro-choice." He has explained an 'evolution' on the issue. Trump has said that if he appoints several Supreme Court justices it is likely that Roe v. Wade is overturned.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="gjohnson"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/gary-johnson2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Abortion</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="gj-positions">Johnson believes that abortion is a deeply personal choice, and that as such the governnment should not be in the business of deciding who does or does not get abortions. </span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="jstein"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/jill-stein2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Abortion</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="js-candidates">Stein views reproductive freedom as a key facet of tackling women's rights issues. She also wants to expand access to the "morning after" pill.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <!-- CLEAR --> <h1>&nbsp;</h1> <h1>Supreme Court Vacancies</h1> <div id="hclinton"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/hillary-clinton2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Supreme Court Vacancies</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="hc-positions">The Supreme Court, in Clinton's eyes, should help protect women's rights and LGBTQ rights, and overturn the Citizens United case. She has not committed to renominate President Obama's SCOTUS pick, Merrick Garland, for the currently vacant seat.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="dtrump"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/donald-trump2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Supreme Court Vacancies</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="dt-positions">Trump has stressed that the Supreme Court must protect the Second Amendment in particular, as it would be under threat, he says, if Clinton is elected President. Trump's SCOTUS nominees would be pro-life and more conservative in nature, he has said, pointing to recently-deceased Justice Antonin Scalia as a model.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="gjohnson"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/gary-johnson2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Supreme Court Vacancies</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="gj-positions">Johnson would use potential nominees' positions on cases such as Kelo v. City of New London (a 2005 case on the issue of eminent domain) and others related to key issues for Libertarians to determine who he might nominate to the SCOTUS.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="jstein"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/jill-stein2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Supreme Court Vacancies</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="js-candidates">Stein would nominate justices to the SCOTUS who would overturn Citizens United and help restrict the flow of corporate money into politics.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <!-- CLEAR --> <h1>&nbsp;</h1> <h1>Campaign Finance Reform</h1> <div id="hclinton"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/hillary-clinton2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Campaign Finance Reform</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="hc-positions">Clinton supports an overturn of Citizens United to limit the impact of money in politics. She also wants legislation which will "require outside groups to publicly disclose significant political spending." Her other piece of suggested reform is to start a "small-donor matching system for presidential and congressional elections to give small donors greater influence."</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="dtrump"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/donald-trump2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Campaign Finance Reform</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="dt-positions">Trump has described Political Action Committees (PACs) as a "horrible thing" because he feels that PACs lack transparency. Trump has also claimed that politicians do favors for donors, citing his own experience as a donor. He does not promote, though, public financing of campaigns.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="gjohnson"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/gary-johnson2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Campaign Finance Reform</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="gj-positions">Johnson believes that spending in campaigns, including from unions and corporations, is perfectly allowable. Any restrictions on campaign finance would be a limit to free speech, in Johnson's opinion.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="jstein"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/jill-stein2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Campaign Finance Reform</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="js-candidates">Stein wants an overturn of the 2010 Citizens United Supreme Court case. She believes that corporations should not be allowed to fund political campaigns, but believes that there should instead be public funding of campaigns.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <!-- CLEAR --> <div>***<br />by Brendan Birth and Ben Max<br /><a href="https://twitter.com/GothamGazette" target="_blank">@GothamGazette</a></div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div>Feedback? Email Ben at bmax@gothamgazette.com</div> <!-- CLEAR --> </div> </article> </section> <p><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/images/graphics/2016/election-candidates.png" alt="election candidates" width="600" height="399" /></p> <p><strong><a href="http://www.gothamgazette.com/#fullissue" target="_self" style="background-color: #02619c; border-radius: 25px; color: #fff; cursor: pointer; font-weight: bolder; margin: 2px; padding: 5px;" title="Click here to see the full list">Click here to see the full list</a></strong></p> <p> </p> <section> <article> <a id="fullissue"></a> <div id="hidden1" class="issues-list"> <h1>Vice President</h1> <div id="hclinton"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/hillary-clinton2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Vice President</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="hc-positions">Tim Kaine of Virginia. U.S. Senator, former Governor of Virginia, former Mayor of Richmond.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="dtrump"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/donald-trump2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Vice President</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="dt-positions">Mike Pence of Indiana. Governor of Indiana, former member of the United States House of Represenatatives, where he was a leader of the Tea Party movement.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="gjohnson"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/gary-johnson2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Vice President</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="gj-positions">William Weld of Massachusetts. Former Republican governor of Massachusetts 1991, former U.S. Senate candidate.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="jstein"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/jill-stein2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Vice President</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="js-candidates">Ajamu Baraka of Georgia. Human rights activist, founding executive director of the U.S. Human Rights Network.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <!-- CLEAR --> <h1>&nbsp;</h1> <h1>Bio</h1> <div id="hclinton"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/hillary-clinton2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Bio</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="hc-positions">Hillary Clinton, born in 1947, is most notable for serving as First Lady of the United States (1993-2001), a United States Senator from New York (2001-2009), and the United States Secretary of State from 2009 to 2013. She's known for, among other things, her push for national health care reform in 1993-1994 as First Lady.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="dtrump"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/donald-trump2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Bio</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="dt-positions">Donald Trump, born in 1946, is a businessman, real estate mogul, and television personality. He has built further on the buisness empire started by his father and made a national name for his real estate and casino businesses, and as the host of The Apprentice.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="gjohnson"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/gary-johnson2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Bio</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="gj-positions">Gary Johnson, born in 1953, founded what became one of the largest construction companies in New Mexico. Former governor of New Mexico, winning his longshot 1994 bid, serving two terms. Has long-favored small government. Also ran for President as the Libertarian Party nominee in 2012. He got 0.99% of the national vote that year.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="jstein"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/jill-stein2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Bio</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="js-candidates">Jill Stein, born in 1950, is a physician and activist whose biggest focus has been environmental and health issues. She was the Green Party Candidate for Governor of Massachusetts in 2002 and 2010, and the Green Party Candidate for President in 2012. She received 0.36% of the national vote that year.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <!-- CLEAR --> <h1>&nbsp;</h1> <h1>Campaign Websites</h1> <div id="hclinton"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/hillary-clinton2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><span class="header"></span><span id="hc-positions"><a href="https://www.hillaryclinton.com">Campaign Website</a></span></p> <p><a href="https://twitter.com/HillaryClinton">Twitter</a></p> <p><a href="https://www.facebook.com/hillaryclinton">Facebook</a></p> <p><a href="https://www.youtube.com/hillaryclinton">YouTube</a></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="dtrump"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/donald-trump2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><span id="dt-positions"><a href="https://www.donaldjtrump.com">Campaign Website</a></span></p> <p><a href="https://twitter.com/realDonaldTrump">Twitter</a></p> <p><a href="https://www.facebook.com/DonaldTrump">Facebook</a></p> <p><a href="https://www.youtube.com/donaldtrump">YouTube</a></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="gjohnson"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/gary-johnson2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><span id="gj-positions"><a href="https://www.johnsonweld.com">Campaign Website</a></span></p> <p><a href="http://www.twitter.com/govgaryjohnson">Twitter</a></p> <p><a href="http://www.facebook.com/govgaryjohnson">Facebook</a></p> <p><a href="https://www.youtube.com/c/govgaryjohnson">YouTube</a></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="jstein"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/jill-stein2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a href="http://www.jill2016.com/">Campaign Website</a></p> <p><a href="https://twitter.com/drjillstein">Twitter</a></p> <p><a href="https://www.facebook.com/drjillstein">Facebook</a></p> <p><a href="https://www.youtube.com/jill2016">YouTube</a></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <!-- CLEAR --> <h1>&nbsp;</h1> <h1>Jobs</h1> <div id="hclinton"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/hillary-clinton2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Jobs</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="hc-positions">Clinton wants to invest in infrastructure to bolster the economy, including in clean energy. She is also focused on modernizing the economy through manufacturing and technology. She advocates for an increase in the minimum wage to $12 an hour nationally, with room for states to go higher, and she wants equal pay for equal work. </span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="dtrump"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/donald-trump2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Jobs</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="dt-positions">Trump believes that lower taxes and less regulation, as a whole, will bolster the economy. He believes the U.S. has agreed to bad trade deals, which he promises to renegotiate, that have led to lost American jobs to countries like Mexico and China. He promised to keep companies in the U.S. and to make American manufacturing great again.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="gjohnson"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/gary-johnson2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Jobs</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="gj-positions">Johnson generally favors less regulation, though any regulation which reigns in harmful actors will stay, he says. He also believes that out-of-control spending has hurt the U.S. economy, and that this spending needs to be reigned in. He believes smaller and less government will allow the economy to flourish.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="jstein"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/jill-stein2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Jobs</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="js-candidates">Stein believes in "living-wage jobs for every American who needs work." Government would be the last resort employer under this plan. She also believes in a $15 minimum wage and the breaking up of banks that are "too big to fail." Key to Stein's, and the Green Party's, platform is a "Green New Deal," which aims to create jobs through the building of clean energy infrastructure, so that America relies on 100% clean energy by 2030.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <!-- CLEAR --><br /><br /> <h1>Taxes</h1> <div id="hclinton"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/hillary-clinton2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Taxes</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="hc-positions">"Hillary will implement a "fair share surcharge" on multi-millionaires and billionaires." She will also fight for measures like the Buffett Rule, so that wealthier individuals pay their fair share of taxes, she says. She also looks to close up any loopholes which benefit Wall Street, cut taxes for small businesses, and "provide tax relief to working families from the rising costs they face." A Clinton Administration will look to tax high-frequency trading on Wall Street.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="dtrump"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/donald-trump2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Taxes</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="dt-positions">Trump believes lower taxes will help the economy. In particular, he believes that business taxes are too high, and that they need to be lowered so that they are competitive with the rest of the world. He believes that a simplified tax system will help. Like many Democrats, Trump believes in closing the carried interest loophole. </span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="gjohnson"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/gary-johnson2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Taxes</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="gj-positions">Johnson proposes getting rid of tax loopholes, as well as double taxes on small businesses. He favors "the replacement of all income and payroll taxes with a single consumption tax that determines your tax burden by how much you spend, not how much you earn."</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="jstein"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/jill-stein2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Taxes</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="js-candidates">Stein wants Wall Street corporations to pay their fair share in taxes. Also believes in a tax on companies that pollute. She believes in higher taxes for the wealthy, and lower taxes for the poor and middle class.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <h1>&nbsp;</h1> <h1>National Debt</h1> <div id="hclinton"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/hillary-clinton2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">National Debt</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="hc-positions">"From the Democratic Party Platform: ""We believe that by making those at the top and the largest corporations pay their fair share we can pay for ambitious progressive investments that create good-paying jobs and offer security to working families without adding to the debt."""</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="dtrump"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/donald-trump2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">National Debt</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="dt-positions">"You never have to default because you print the money," Trump said at one time. He has also suggested at times that borrowing is not a problem and that the U.S. could renegotiate its debt. </span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="gjohnson"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/gary-johnson2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">National Debt</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="gj-positions">Johnson plans to veto any bill which results in deficit spending. He also touts his record of vetoing many bills as governor of New Mexico, vetos he said helped balance New Mexico's budget. </span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="jstein"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/jill-stein2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">National Debt</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="js-candidates">Stein said on her campaign website in 2012 that she would reduce "the budget deficit by restoring full employment, cutting the bloated military budget, and cutting private health insurance waste."</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <!-- CLEAR --> <h1>&nbsp;</h1> <h1>Trade</h1> <div id="hclinton"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/hillary-clinton2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Trade</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="hc-positions">Clinton has moved in her support for trade deals, and has a new rubric for them, saying they must provide jobs for Americans, not sacrifice U.S. security, and be good for American national and international priorities. She supported NAFTA in the past, but admits to troubling outcomes for American jobs, and after supporting the Trans-Pacific Partnership as it was in development, she has come out against the version put forward by the Obama Administration. On trade, she says she's held deals to "the same test. Will they create jobs in America? Will they raise incomes in America? And are they good for our national security?" </span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="dtrump"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/donald-trump2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Trade</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="dt-positions">Trump has campaigned vocally against NAFTA, other past trade deals, and TPP. His vews on trade and the United States is best reflected in what he said at the Republican National Convention--"Americanism, not globalism, will be our credo."</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="gjohnson"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/gary-johnson2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Trade</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="gj-positions">Johnson generally supports NAFTA, TPP, and any other free trade agreements. He believes that any jobs lost to NAFTA while he was Governor of New Mexico were jobs that New Mexico didn't want anyway.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="jstein"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/jill-stein2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Trade</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="js-candidates">Stein believes that NAFTA and other similar agreements takes away jobs, hurts wages, and overall has negative economic impacts on Americans. She wants to "enact fair trade laws that benefits local workers and communities."</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <!-- CLEAR --> <h1>&nbsp;</h1> <h1>Immigration</h1> <div id="hclinton"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/hillary-clinton2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Immigration</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="hc-positions">There are two major facets to Clinton's immigration plan: protect families and provide a pathway to citizenship. She says that comprehensive immigration reform is desperately needed.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="dtrump"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/donald-trump2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Immigration</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="dt-positions">Trump promises no amnesty to undocumented immigrants and promises mass deportations, though at times he has appeared to soften some of his stances. His major campaign promise is to end illegal immigration and to institute "extreme vetting" of individuals, especially refugees, seeking entrance into the country. He talks about having a secure border and promises to build a wall along the southern border that he promises Mexico will pay for. He has also questioned birthright citizenship.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="gjohnson"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/gary-johnson2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Immigration</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="gj-positions">Johnson desn't believe that immigration is as simple as building a wall. "We should focus on creating a more efficient system of providing work visas, conducting background checks, and incentivizing non-citizens to pay their taxes, obtain proof of employment, and otherwise assimilate with our diverse society," his website says. </span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="jstein"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/jill-stein2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Immigration</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="js-candidates">"Create a welcoming path to citizenship for immigrants" is posted on Stein's website. Past policy positions also indicates that she is not in favor of the mass deportation of people which has happened under President Obama and promised to a greater degree by Trump.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <!-- CLEAR --> <h1>&nbsp;</h1> <h1>Health Care</h1> <div id="hclinton"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/hillary-clinton2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Health Care</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="hc-positions">Clinton wants to defend, tweak, and expand, but not repeal, Obamacare. She praises how many more people have become insured, but she wants to get costs down.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="dtrump"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/donald-trump2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Health Care</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="dt-positions">Trump promises to repeal Obamacare, and replace it with something far better. He says health care companies must be allowed to sell policies across state lines. He also wants transparency with health care costs and providers, and to "allow individuals to fully deduct health insurance premium payments from their tax returns under the current tax system." He argues for increased competitive, not government regulation of health care. Trump has also said that everyone deserves health care.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="gjohnson"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/gary-johnson2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Health Care</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="gj-positions">Generally speaking, Johnson is in favor of repealing Obamacare. He believes that free market competition will do the best job of covering health care for people.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="jstein"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/jill-stein2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Health Care</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="js-candidates">Stein believes in a Medicare for All system.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <!-- CLEAR --> <h1>&nbsp;</h1> <h1>The Environment</h1> <div id="hclinton"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/hillary-clinton2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">The Environment</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="hc-positions">Clinton will encourage clean energy: "Launch a $60 billion Clean Energy Challenge to partner with states, cities, and rural communities to cut carbon pollution and expand clean energy, including for low-income families." "Invest in clean energy infrastructure, innovation, manufacturing and workforce development to make the U.S. economy more competitive and create good-paying jobs and careers." </span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="dtrump"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/donald-trump2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">The Environment</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="dt-positions">Trump does not discuss the environment much. He has called climate change a hoax. And, he believes that the Environmental Protection Agency has too many regulations.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="gjohnson"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/gary-johnson2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">The Environment</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="gj-positions">Johnson places emphasis on protection of National Parks and wants the Environmental Protection Agency to "focus on its true mission." He also believes in regulations to protect from pollutors, but also believes that the government meddles too much in deciding which companies determine the future of clean energy.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="jstein"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/jill-stein2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">The Environment</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="js-candidates">Stein and the Green Party are, historically, especially focused on the environment. The Green New Deal looks to have the U.S. be on 100% clean energy by 2030. Stein wants to end use of fossil fuels and any support thereof. She places a special emphasis on protecting ecosystems, and strengthening environmental justice laws.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <!-- CLEAR --> <h1>&nbsp;</h1> <h1>Foreign Policy</h1> <div id="hclinton"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/hillary-clinton2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Foreign Policy</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="hc-positions">Clinton believes that the United States should defend its allies, push for diplomacy whenever possible, and be firm but not overaggressive with rivals such as China, Russia, and Iran. She is known as an interventionist, but has also spent time negotiating peace deals as Secretary of State. Her vote in favor of the Iraq War as a U.S. Senator is one that she has long been criticized for and has herself called a mistake.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="dtrump"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/donald-trump2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Foreign Policy</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="dt-positions">Trump has an "America First" foreign policy, based on protecting the interests of the United States above all else, not meddling in other countries' affairs, protecting American security and jobs, seemingly no matter what it takes to do so. Trump has promised an aggressive approach with Mexico and illegal immigration, China and currency manipulation, and the Middle East and wars in the region. Trump has been criticized and questioned for an apparent coziness with Vladimir Putin of Russia, which he has denied.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="gjohnson"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/gary-johnson2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Foreign Policy</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="gj-positions">Johnson believes that the U.S. meddles too much in foreign affairs and wars, and that needs to stop. He believes in fixing the problems that exist at home, while at the same time building relationships with allies abroad. Johnson has struggled with discussing foreign affairs on the campaign trail.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="jstein"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/jill-stein2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Foreign Policy</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="js-candidates">Stein wants to focus on diplomacy whenever possible, but also the punishment of abusers of human rights. Those human rights abusers include Egypt, Saudi Arabia, and Israel, she says.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <!-- CLEAR --> <h1>&nbsp;</h1> <h1>Combatting ISIS</h1> <div id="hclinton"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/hillary-clinton2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">ISIS</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="hc-positions">Clinton looks to support counter-terrorism law enformcement with the tools they need, and an increase of the airstrike campaign against ISIS in the Middle East. She has called for an "intelligence surge" to help the U.S. in its efforts against ISIS and other foreign threats.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="dtrump"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/donald-trump2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">ISIS</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="dt-positions">Generally speaking, Trump calls for a very aggressive military approach to ISIS, at times using expletives to explain his plan to bomb its forces and strongholds. He has repeatedly called for destroying oil fields that ISIS may have access to. But it is unclear to what extent he will pursue these strategies because he has not released as many plans regarding ISIS. Trump says U.S. leaders are foolish in telegraphing their military plans and that he will not divulge his. He has repeatedly insulted both U.S. political and military leaders.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="gjohnson"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/gary-johnson2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">ISIS</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="gj-positions">Johnson believes that the "meddling" of past administrations, Republican and Democrat, have created the monster that is ISIS. He has not shown a particular adeptness at discussing foreign affairs or presenting a plan to help eliminate threats from ISIS.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="jstein"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/jill-stein2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">ISIS</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="js-candidates">Stein says little about ISIS, but overall she is calling for the U.S. to not be engaged in war and foreign intervention.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <!-- CLEAR --> <h1>&nbsp;</h1> <h1>Gun Control</h1> <div id="hclinton"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/hillary-clinton2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Gun Control</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="hc-positions">Clinton has made gun control a focus of her campaign; calling for expanding background checks, and keeping "guns out of the hands of domestic abusers, other violent criminals, and the severely mentally ill." Clinton has said she believes in the Second Amendment and responsible gun ownership, but that she wants to do more to keep guns out of the wrong hands.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="dtrump"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/donald-trump2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Gun Control</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="dt-positions">Trump is pro-gun ownership and has promised to defend the Second Amendment. He believes that current gun regulations are a failure, and that background checks need to be fixed because it seems like criminals don't go through background checks. </span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="gjohnson"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/gary-johnson2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Gun Control</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="gj-positions">Johnson does not believe in increasing gun regulations. He is of the mind that if you take guns away only outlaws and criminals will have guns.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="jstein"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/jill-stein2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Gun Control</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="js-candidates">Stein believes that the ownership of guns should be regulated for the sake of public safety.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <!-- CLEAR --> <h1>&nbsp;</h1> <h1>Justice Reform</h1> <div id="hclinton"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/hillary-clinton2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Justice Reform</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="hc-positions">Clinton supports legislation to end any form of racial profiling. She wants law enforcement to focus on violent crimes and not petty ones like possession of marijuana. National guidelines should be brought in on use of force, she says, and body cameras should be provided to every police department in the United States. She has regularly spoken about the need to improve community-police relationships and about incidents of police brutality against people of color. And, she believes in ending the use of private prisons.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="dtrump"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/donald-trump2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Justice Reform</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="dt-positions">Trump calls himself the "Law and Order candidate," though as to what that means in terms of policy is unclear, though he has advocated for a robust stop-and-frisk policy nationwide based on what he sees as its success in New York City. Trump often talks about the need to support and respect police.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="gjohnson"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/gary-johnson2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Justice Reform</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="gj-positions">Johnson believes that all unnecessary laws should be taken out so that not as many things are criminalized. He also believes that there should be an end to the "War on Drugs."</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="jstein"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/jill-stein2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Justice Reform</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="js-candidates">Stein wants to end police brutality and de-militarize the police. She, like Johnson, wants to end the War on Drugs. She also proposes that drug addictions are treated like a health problem, not a criminal one.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <!-- CLEAR --> <h1>&nbsp;</h1> <h1>Education</h1> <div id="hclinton"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/hillary-clinton2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Education</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="hc-positions">Clinton supports the Common Core learning standards. She also believes in universal pre-kindergarten, college education that is debt free, and free tuition at all community colleges. She also looks to end overly punitive policies against students at schools and has discussed doing more for English Language Learners.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="dtrump"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/donald-trump2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Education</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="dt-positions">Trump rejects Common Core and believes that education decisions, as a whole, should be left up to states. He therefore wants to completely abolish the Department of Education.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="gjohnson"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/gary-johnson2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Education</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="gj-positions">Johnson rejects Common Core and believes that education decisions should be left to the states. He also wants to abolish the Department of Education because he believes that the federal government has no right to be involved with education decisions.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="jstein"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/jill-stein2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Education</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="js-candidates">Stein is not supportive of Common Core or standardized testing (and thinks curricula should be designed by educators). She prefers evaluation of teachers done by fellow professionals. She supports tuition-free, and debt-free, education through all four years of college. </span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <!-- CLEAR --> <h1>&nbsp;</h1> <h1>LGBTQ Rights</h1> <div id="hclinton"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/hillary-clinton2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">LGBTQ Rights</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="hc-positions">Clinton pushes for full rights for LGBTQ people, in the United States and around the world. Clinton has 'evolved' fairly quickly on related issues, like marriage equality.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="dtrump"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/donald-trump2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">LGBTQ Rights</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="dt-positions">Trump vows to protect LGBTQ citizens and has had several particularly significant moments, including at the Republican National Convention, around promoting and protecting LGBTQ rights. He has not stated personal support for same-sex marriage, but says that it is the law of the land and that it should be protected as such.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="gjohnson"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/gary-johnson2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">LGBTQ Rights</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="gj-positions">Johnson believes that the government should not be in the business of telling people who to marry. He therefore does not look to restrict same-sex marriage, and in fact he cites this non-government interference idea as a major reason why he supported same-sex marriage before many liberals did the same.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="jstein"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/jill-stein2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">LGBTQ Rights</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="js-candidates">Stein says that she will seek to end all forms of discrimination against the LGBTQ community.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <!-- CLEAR --> <h1>&nbsp;</h1> <h1>Abortion</h1> <div id="hclinton"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/hillary-clinton2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Abortion</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="hc-positions">Clinton looks to protect the reproductive rights of all women and protecting a woman's right to choose to have an abortion. She is also proud of her endorsement from Planned Parenthood.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="dtrump"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/donald-trump2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Abortion</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="dt-positions">Trump calls himself "pro-life" and at times has called for the defunding of Planned Parenthood. However he has at times touted a number of services that Planned Parenthood provides, and earlier in his life he considered himself "pro-choice." He has explained an 'evolution' on the issue. Trump has said that if he appoints several Supreme Court justices it is likely that Roe v. Wade is overturned.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="gjohnson"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/gary-johnson2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Abortion</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="gj-positions">Johnson believes that abortion is a deeply personal choice, and that as such the governnment should not be in the business of deciding who does or does not get abortions. </span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="jstein"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/jill-stein2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Abortion</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="js-candidates">Stein views reproductive freedom as a key facet of tackling women's rights issues. She also wants to expand access to the "morning after" pill.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <!-- CLEAR --> <h1>&nbsp;</h1> <h1>Supreme Court Vacancies</h1> <div id="hclinton"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/hillary-clinton2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Supreme Court Vacancies</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="hc-positions">The Supreme Court, in Clinton's eyes, should help protect women's rights and LGBTQ rights, and overturn the Citizens United case. She has not committed to renominate President Obama's SCOTUS pick, Merrick Garland, for the currently vacant seat.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="dtrump"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/donald-trump2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Supreme Court Vacancies</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="dt-positions">Trump has stressed that the Supreme Court must protect the Second Amendment in particular, as it would be under threat, he says, if Clinton is elected President. Trump's SCOTUS nominees would be pro-life and more conservative in nature, he has said, pointing to recently-deceased Justice Antonin Scalia as a model.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="gjohnson"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/gary-johnson2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Supreme Court Vacancies</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="gj-positions">Johnson would use potential nominees' positions on cases such as Kelo v. City of New London (a 2005 case on the issue of eminent domain) and others related to key issues for Libertarians to determine who he might nominate to the SCOTUS.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="jstein"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/jill-stein2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Supreme Court Vacancies</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="js-candidates">Stein would nominate justices to the SCOTUS who would overturn Citizens United and help restrict the flow of corporate money into politics.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <!-- CLEAR --> <h1>&nbsp;</h1> <h1>Campaign Finance Reform</h1> <div id="hclinton"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/hillary-clinton2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Campaign Finance Reform</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="hc-positions">Clinton supports an overturn of Citizens United to limit the impact of money in politics. She also wants legislation which will "require outside groups to publicly disclose significant political spending." Her other piece of suggested reform is to start a "small-donor matching system for presidential and congressional elections to give small donors greater influence."</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="dtrump"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/donald-trump2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Campaign Finance Reform</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="dt-positions">Trump has described Political Action Committees (PACs) as a "horrible thing" because he feels that PACs lack transparency. Trump has also claimed that politicians do favors for donors, citing his own experience as a donor. He does not promote, though, public financing of campaigns.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="gjohnson"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/gary-johnson2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Campaign Finance Reform</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="gj-positions">Johnson believes that spending in campaigns, including from unions and corporations, is perfectly allowable. Any restrictions on campaign finance would be a limit to free speech, in Johnson's opinion.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="jstein"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 75px; max-height: 129px;"><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/election2016/includes/imgs/jill-stein2.png" alt="" style="margin-right: 8px; width: 75px;" align="left" /></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span class="header">Campaign Finance Reform</span><br style="margin-bottom: 7px;" /> <span id="js-candidates">Stein wants an overturn of the 2010 Citizens United Supreme Court case. She believes that corporations should not be allowed to fund political campaigns, but believes that there should instead be public funding of campaigns.</span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <!-- CLEAR --> <div>***<br />by Brendan Birth and Ben Max<br /><a href="https://twitter.com/GothamGazette" target="_blank">@GothamGazette</a></div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div>Feedback? Email Ben at bmax@gothamgazette.com</div> <!-- CLEAR --> </div> </article> </section> As Teddy Roosevelt Did, 2016 Candidates Drag the Supreme Court Into Presidential Politics 2016-03-06T21:05:42+00:00 2016-03-06T21:05:42+00:00 http://www.gothamgazette.com/?id=6209:as-teddy-roosevelt-did-2016-candidates-drag-the-supreme-court-into-presidential-politics Super User <p><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/images/supreme_court.jpg" alt="supreme court" width="600" height="460" /></p> <p>The Supreme Court (Carol Highsmith, <a href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2011630083/" target="_blank">via Library of Congress</a>)&nbsp;</p> <hr /> <p>The Supreme Court is being drawn against its will into the chaotic 2016 presidential campaign.</p> <p>Republicans Donald Trump and Ted Cruz dislike the court's decisions affirming Obamacare and gay marriage. Democrats Hillary Clinton and Bernard Sanders object to its Citizens United campaign finance decision. Senate Republicans are threatening to block President Obama's nomination to replace recently deceased justice Antonin Scalia, alleging the appointment would be better left to the next president (a Republican, they hope). Donald Trump was (probably) kidding when he said his sister, Federal Court of Appeals Judge Marianne Trump Barry, would make a credible Supreme Court nominee.</p> <p>In a recent speech, Chief Justice John Roberts lamented that partisan extremism is damaging the public's perception of the court as an unbiased interpreter of the law that is above politics. People too often accuse the court of taking sides in an issue but all it is doing is objectively judging constitutional merits, he said. "We have no policy views on the matter at all," Roberts insisted.</p> <p>But dragging the court into presidential politics has a long history.</p> <p>Theodore Roosevelt was the first presidential candidate to assail the court, during the 1912 contest. TR, president 1901-1909, was attempting to gain the Republican presidential nomination and oust the man who had succeeded him, William H. Taft.</p> <p>On a speech-making tour in the West in the fall of 1910, he attacked big business. The nation was in the midst of a struggle "between the men who possess more than they have earned and the men who have earned more than they possess."</p> <p>He lambasted the federal courts for lagging behind the times and criticized them for "a series of negative decisions to create a sphere in which neither nation nor state has effective control."</p> <p>He cited the 1905 U.S. Supreme Court decision in Lochner vs. New York as a prime example. By a vote of 5 to 4, the court had overturned a New York law regulating the hours and working conditions of bakeshop employees on the basis that it violated the provision of the 14th amendment to the Constitution that no state shall "deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law." That amendment, passed in 1868, had been intended to protect the civil rights of newly-liberated African-Americans. But the courts had stretched it so that that "liberty of contract" included the right of employers and employees to work for whatever wages and hours both parties agreed to.</p> <p>The courts had used this broad interpretation of the amendment to strike down a number of state regulatory statutes. TR knew the Lochner case well. As governor of New York, 1899-1901, he had enforced the bakeshop regulations. As president, he had watched the case come up through the New York State court system. In 1904, the State Court of Appeals validated the law in a decision written by its Chief Judge, Alton B. Parker, who later that same year secured the Democratic presidential nomination and ran unsuccessfully against TR. He followed the case in the U.S. Supreme Court the next year and read the decision, which was written by still another New Yorker, Justice Rufus Peckham. But the president made no public comment on it.</p> <p>Roosevelt, in 1910, however, declared that the Lochner decision had been particularly egregious because it had ignored the problems that the bakeshop law was intended to address and exercised "the negative power of not permitting the abuse to be remedied." The court had demonstrated that it was "against popular rights" by asserting that "men must not be deprived of their 'liberty' to work under unhealthy conditions....Such decisions, arbitrarily and irresponsibly limiting the power of the people are of course fundamentally hostile to every species of real popular government."</p> <p>Newspaper editorials and political leaders in both parties expressed outrage at the attack on the court.</p> <p>Roosevelt, undeterred, went on to suggest something even more extreme, allowing voters to recall judges. He advanced a campaign platform filled with liberal proposals, including federal regulation of corporations, a national health service, and insurance for the elderly (similar to Social Security two decades later). His attack on the judiciary seemed menacing and his other proposals were ahead of their time. TR "startled all thoughtful men and women and impressed them with the frightful danger which lies in his political ascendancy," said the New York Times. Roosevelt failed to get the Republican nomination and went on to found a new party, the Progressive Party, but was decisively beaten in the 1912 presidential contest.</p> <p>The Lochner decision was influential and was often cited by the courts in striking down state and federal regulatory statutes until 1937, when it was in effect repudiated in the decision of West Coast Hotel vs. Parrish.</p> <p>Supreme Court Justice Rufus Peckham, in his opinion in the 1905 Lochner case, insisted, a little defensively, that "this is not a question of substituting the judgment of the court for that of the legislature." But TR lambasted the court in 1910 for doing just that. John Roberts, at his confirmation hearing to be Chief Justice in 2005, pointedly disagreed with Peckham's assertion a century earlier. Roberts said that the majority in the Lochner decision was "not interpreting the law, they're making the law...substituting their judgment on a policy matter for what the legislature had said."</p> <p>Roberts was probably right. Theodore Roosevelt would certainly agree.</p> <p>But Roberts probably shouldn't be surprised, then, that 2016 presidential candidates are criticizing his court, following the precedent set by TR back in 1910.<br />They believe the court's objectivity has been tarnished.</p> <p>And, also like TR, they think they see an easy opportunity to score political points.</p> <p>***<br />Dr. Bruce W. Dearstyne's latest book is <a href="http://www.sunypress.edu/p-6054-the-spirit-of-new-york.aspx" target="_blank">The Spirit of New York: Defining Events in the Empire State's History</a>, published in 2015 by SUNY Press.</p> <p><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/images/supreme_court.jpg" alt="supreme court" width="600" height="460" /></p> <p>The Supreme Court (Carol Highsmith, <a href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2011630083/" target="_blank">via Library of Congress</a>)&nbsp;</p> <hr /> <p>The Supreme Court is being drawn against its will into the chaotic 2016 presidential campaign.</p> <p>Republicans Donald Trump and Ted Cruz dislike the court's decisions affirming Obamacare and gay marriage. Democrats Hillary Clinton and Bernard Sanders object to its Citizens United campaign finance decision. Senate Republicans are threatening to block President Obama's nomination to replace recently deceased justice Antonin Scalia, alleging the appointment would be better left to the next president (a Republican, they hope). Donald Trump was (probably) kidding when he said his sister, Federal Court of Appeals Judge Marianne Trump Barry, would make a credible Supreme Court nominee.</p> <p>In a recent speech, Chief Justice John Roberts lamented that partisan extremism is damaging the public's perception of the court as an unbiased interpreter of the law that is above politics. People too often accuse the court of taking sides in an issue but all it is doing is objectively judging constitutional merits, he said. "We have no policy views on the matter at all," Roberts insisted.</p> <p>But dragging the court into presidential politics has a long history.</p> <p>Theodore Roosevelt was the first presidential candidate to assail the court, during the 1912 contest. TR, president 1901-1909, was attempting to gain the Republican presidential nomination and oust the man who had succeeded him, William H. Taft.</p> <p>On a speech-making tour in the West in the fall of 1910, he attacked big business. The nation was in the midst of a struggle "between the men who possess more than they have earned and the men who have earned more than they possess."</p> <p>He lambasted the federal courts for lagging behind the times and criticized them for "a series of negative decisions to create a sphere in which neither nation nor state has effective control."</p> <p>He cited the 1905 U.S. Supreme Court decision in Lochner vs. New York as a prime example. By a vote of 5 to 4, the court had overturned a New York law regulating the hours and working conditions of bakeshop employees on the basis that it violated the provision of the 14th amendment to the Constitution that no state shall "deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law." That amendment, passed in 1868, had been intended to protect the civil rights of newly-liberated African-Americans. But the courts had stretched it so that that "liberty of contract" included the right of employers and employees to work for whatever wages and hours both parties agreed to.</p> <p>The courts had used this broad interpretation of the amendment to strike down a number of state regulatory statutes. TR knew the Lochner case well. As governor of New York, 1899-1901, he had enforced the bakeshop regulations. As president, he had watched the case come up through the New York State court system. In 1904, the State Court of Appeals validated the law in a decision written by its Chief Judge, Alton B. Parker, who later that same year secured the Democratic presidential nomination and ran unsuccessfully against TR. He followed the case in the U.S. Supreme Court the next year and read the decision, which was written by still another New Yorker, Justice Rufus Peckham. But the president made no public comment on it.</p> <p>Roosevelt, in 1910, however, declared that the Lochner decision had been particularly egregious because it had ignored the problems that the bakeshop law was intended to address and exercised "the negative power of not permitting the abuse to be remedied." The court had demonstrated that it was "against popular rights" by asserting that "men must not be deprived of their 'liberty' to work under unhealthy conditions....Such decisions, arbitrarily and irresponsibly limiting the power of the people are of course fundamentally hostile to every species of real popular government."</p> <p>Newspaper editorials and political leaders in both parties expressed outrage at the attack on the court.</p> <p>Roosevelt, undeterred, went on to suggest something even more extreme, allowing voters to recall judges. He advanced a campaign platform filled with liberal proposals, including federal regulation of corporations, a national health service, and insurance for the elderly (similar to Social Security two decades later). His attack on the judiciary seemed menacing and his other proposals were ahead of their time. TR "startled all thoughtful men and women and impressed them with the frightful danger which lies in his political ascendancy," said the New York Times. Roosevelt failed to get the Republican nomination and went on to found a new party, the Progressive Party, but was decisively beaten in the 1912 presidential contest.</p> <p>The Lochner decision was influential and was often cited by the courts in striking down state and federal regulatory statutes until 1937, when it was in effect repudiated in the decision of West Coast Hotel vs. Parrish.</p> <p>Supreme Court Justice Rufus Peckham, in his opinion in the 1905 Lochner case, insisted, a little defensively, that "this is not a question of substituting the judgment of the court for that of the legislature." But TR lambasted the court in 1910 for doing just that. John Roberts, at his confirmation hearing to be Chief Justice in 2005, pointedly disagreed with Peckham's assertion a century earlier. Roberts said that the majority in the Lochner decision was "not interpreting the law, they're making the law...substituting their judgment on a policy matter for what the legislature had said."</p> <p>Roberts was probably right. Theodore Roosevelt would certainly agree.</p> <p>But Roberts probably shouldn't be surprised, then, that 2016 presidential candidates are criticizing his court, following the precedent set by TR back in 1910.<br />They believe the court's objectivity has been tarnished.</p> <p>And, also like TR, they think they see an easy opportunity to score political points.</p> <p>***<br />Dr. Bruce W. Dearstyne's latest book is <a href="http://www.sunypress.edu/p-6054-the-spirit-of-new-york.aspx" target="_blank">The Spirit of New York: Defining Events in the Empire State's History</a>, published in 2015 by SUNY Press.</p> Protecting Freelancers: Policy Innovation at Work 2016-02-25T23:24:12+00:00 2016-02-25T23:24:12+00:00 http://www.gothamgazette.com/?id=6193:city-council-freelancer-protection-policy-innovation-at-work Super User <p><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/images/graphics/2016/Freelancers_Rally.jpg" alt="Freelancers Rally" width="600" height="400" /></p> <p>Freelancers Union rally&nbsp;</p> <hr /> <p>In 2012 when I started bringing cases under the New York Labor Law and the Federal Fair Labor Standards Act the hot area was "independent contractor misclassification." Employers in the "on-demand" economy were (mis)classifying their employees as independent contractors to avoid paying overtime or, in some cases, the minimum wage. Employers did not have to buy unemployment insurance, workers compensation, or pay the employer portion of payroll tax (FICA). Over the next few years, almost every player in the on-demand economy would be sued for employee misclassification.</p> <p>Eventually, companies began to figure out they were better off correctly classifying their workers as employees rather than risking large damage awards. We got our clients a fair deal because we had statutes that provided strong protections in the New York Labor Law (NYLL) and Federal Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA).</p> <p>During the years I was busy with employee misclassification cases, another type of client kept trying to retain me. They were photographers, consultants, writers, website developers and many other professionals, some operating as freelancers and some with small businesses. They were not covered by the NYLL or FLSA because they were independent contractors, not employees. Yet they were the victims of wage theft, too.</p> <p>Their debts were sometimes small ($500) and sometimes quite large ($25,000) but the story was always the same: the freelancer or independent contractor worked, was paid about half their fee, and then the client, sometimes giving excuses, other times just disappearing, never paid the rest. The freelancers who sought me out were not an anomaly: The Freelancers Union estimates that about half of the 54 million freelancers in America in 2014 had trouble getting paid, and that 34% of those who had trouble getting paid were never paid a dime of what they were owed.</p> <p>It became apparent to me that the lack of practical remedies to freelancer wage theft contributed to the problem. Unlike the landlord, utility company, or other vendors who could simply stop service if they were unpaid, freelancers had no real recourse. As a result, they were paid last, and if money ran out, they were the ones left unpaid. Legal action was impracticable because unlike cases brought under the NYLL and the FLSA, there were no additional damages available as a penalty for non-payment, no attorney's fees, and no liability on behalf of the owner of the employer.</p> <p>Lawsuits for unpaid wages under $5,000 needed to be in the Small Claims Part of the New York City Civil Court as breach of contract matters. Breach of contract cases in the civil court (up to $25,000) and in the Supreme Court (above $25,000) were subject to expensive filing and service fees, not to mention myriad requirements meant to assure procedural fairness. The freelancer also needed to enforce the judgment themselves, a time consuming and potentially expensive process. The amount of the loss rarely justified the huge legal fees required.</p> <p>One innovative solution was my new company Indepayment, a comprehensive platform for freelancer debt collection. Indepayment aggregates debts owed to freelancers and independent workers to create a steady stream of cases for commercial collection attorneys and debt collectors who work on volume and collect on contingency. <a href="http://www.indepayment.com" target="_blank">Indepayment</a> operates nationally, and has been growing exponentially since we started collecting debts in June 2015. We're also working with the Freelancers Union to educate freelancers about <a href="https://www.freelancersunion.org/blog/2016/02/04/what-do-if-check-never-arrives/" target="_blank">avoiding non-payment</a>.</p> <p>The New York City Council has put forward another innovative solution, in the form of a bill, <a href="http://legistar.council.nyc.gov/LegislationDetail.aspx?ID=2530972&amp;GUID=61F8754B-80AF-493E-895E-D6D17209776E&amp;Options=&amp;Search=" target="_blank">Intro. 1017</a>. Sponsored by Council Member Brad Lander and now supported by 28 Council members, it creates a statutory remedy for freelancer wage theft that provides for double damages, attorneys' fees, and civil penalties which mirror the remedies available under FLSA and the NYLL. The bill requires that freelancers have a contract, and makes it a violation not to pay or to pay after 30 days unless otherwise agreed. If passed into law, these would be significant new protections for those in the growing freelance economy.</p> <p>Causes of action under the new law could be brought in addition to breach of contract matters in Court. In addition, freelancer wage theft matters are treated as violations of the city Administrative Code adjudicated by the Department of Consumer Affairs (DCA). Establishing a DCA administrative process alleviates some of the procedural complexity, delays, and costs associated with bringing cases in Supreme Court and Civil Court.</p> <p>In addition, because the collectability of court judgments is sometimes difficult, the city's enforcement of violations is an important feature. The administrative process and the provisions of the bill that require reporting to the city of civil actions will allow the city to keep detailed records of wage theft recidivists and understand the scope of the wage theft problem in New York City.</p> <p>Although the bill could go further – for example the NYLL and FLSA have provisions that make the owners of the employers liable for wage theft – it's a great start. Intro. 1017 deserves our support because our innovative and evolving freelance workforce deserves innovative solutions to guard against wage theft and protect its livelihoods.</p> <p>***<br />Jesse Strauss is an attorney based in New York City and Founder and CEO of <a href="http://www.indepayment.com" target="_blank">Indepayment</a>.</p> <p>

***
Have an op-ed idea or submission for Gotham Gazette? Email opinion@gothamgazette.com

</p>
<p><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/images/graphics/2016/Freelancers_Rally.jpg" alt="Freelancers Rally" width="600" height="400" /></p> <p>Freelancers Union rally&nbsp;</p> <hr /> <p>In 2012 when I started bringing cases under the New York Labor Law and the Federal Fair Labor Standards Act the hot area was "independent contractor misclassification." Employers in the "on-demand" economy were (mis)classifying their employees as independent contractors to avoid paying overtime or, in some cases, the minimum wage. Employers did not have to buy unemployment insurance, workers compensation, or pay the employer portion of payroll tax (FICA). Over the next few years, almost every player in the on-demand economy would be sued for employee misclassification.</p> <p>Eventually, companies began to figure out they were better off correctly classifying their workers as employees rather than risking large damage awards. We got our clients a fair deal because we had statutes that provided strong protections in the New York Labor Law (NYLL) and Federal Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA).</p> <p>During the years I was busy with employee misclassification cases, another type of client kept trying to retain me. They were photographers, consultants, writers, website developers and many other professionals, some operating as freelancers and some with small businesses. They were not covered by the NYLL or FLSA because they were independent contractors, not employees. Yet they were the victims of wage theft, too.</p> <p>Their debts were sometimes small ($500) and sometimes quite large ($25,000) but the story was always the same: the freelancer or independent contractor worked, was paid about half their fee, and then the client, sometimes giving excuses, other times just disappearing, never paid the rest. The freelancers who sought me out were not an anomaly: The Freelancers Union estimates that about half of the 54 million freelancers in America in 2014 had trouble getting paid, and that 34% of those who had trouble getting paid were never paid a dime of what they were owed.</p> <p>It became apparent to me that the lack of practical remedies to freelancer wage theft contributed to the problem. Unlike the landlord, utility company, or other vendors who could simply stop service if they were unpaid, freelancers had no real recourse. As a result, they were paid last, and if money ran out, they were the ones left unpaid. Legal action was impracticable because unlike cases brought under the NYLL and the FLSA, there were no additional damages available as a penalty for non-payment, no attorney's fees, and no liability on behalf of the owner of the employer.</p> <p>Lawsuits for unpaid wages under $5,000 needed to be in the Small Claims Part of the New York City Civil Court as breach of contract matters. Breach of contract cases in the civil court (up to $25,000) and in the Supreme Court (above $25,000) were subject to expensive filing and service fees, not to mention myriad requirements meant to assure procedural fairness. The freelancer also needed to enforce the judgment themselves, a time consuming and potentially expensive process. The amount of the loss rarely justified the huge legal fees required.</p> <p>One innovative solution was my new company Indepayment, a comprehensive platform for freelancer debt collection. Indepayment aggregates debts owed to freelancers and independent workers to create a steady stream of cases for commercial collection attorneys and debt collectors who work on volume and collect on contingency. <a href="http://www.indepayment.com" target="_blank">Indepayment</a> operates nationally, and has been growing exponentially since we started collecting debts in June 2015. We're also working with the Freelancers Union to educate freelancers about <a href="https://www.freelancersunion.org/blog/2016/02/04/what-do-if-check-never-arrives/" target="_blank">avoiding non-payment</a>.</p> <p>The New York City Council has put forward another innovative solution, in the form of a bill, <a href="http://legistar.council.nyc.gov/LegislationDetail.aspx?ID=2530972&amp;GUID=61F8754B-80AF-493E-895E-D6D17209776E&amp;Options=&amp;Search=" target="_blank">Intro. 1017</a>. Sponsored by Council Member Brad Lander and now supported by 28 Council members, it creates a statutory remedy for freelancer wage theft that provides for double damages, attorneys' fees, and civil penalties which mirror the remedies available under FLSA and the NYLL. The bill requires that freelancers have a contract, and makes it a violation not to pay or to pay after 30 days unless otherwise agreed. If passed into law, these would be significant new protections for those in the growing freelance economy.</p> <p>Causes of action under the new law could be brought in addition to breach of contract matters in Court. In addition, freelancer wage theft matters are treated as violations of the city Administrative Code adjudicated by the Department of Consumer Affairs (DCA). Establishing a DCA administrative process alleviates some of the procedural complexity, delays, and costs associated with bringing cases in Supreme Court and Civil Court.</p> <p>In addition, because the collectability of court judgments is sometimes difficult, the city's enforcement of violations is an important feature. The administrative process and the provisions of the bill that require reporting to the city of civil actions will allow the city to keep detailed records of wage theft recidivists and understand the scope of the wage theft problem in New York City.</p> <p>Although the bill could go further – for example the NYLL and FLSA have provisions that make the owners of the employers liable for wage theft – it's a great start. Intro. 1017 deserves our support because our innovative and evolving freelance workforce deserves innovative solutions to guard against wage theft and protect its livelihoods.</p> <p>***<br />Jesse Strauss is an attorney based in New York City and Founder and CEO of <a href="http://www.indepayment.com" target="_blank">Indepayment</a>.</p> <p>

***
Have an op-ed idea or submission for Gotham Gazette? Email opinion@gothamgazette.com

</p>
The Week That Was in New York Politics, June 22-26 2015-06-26T16:01:46+00:00 2015-06-26T16:01:46+00:00 http://www.gothamgazette.com/?id=5790:the-week-that-was-in-new-york-politics-june-22-26 Super User <p><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/images/graphics/2014/03/week_in_review_bus_readers.jpg" alt="week in review bus readers" height="409" width="600" /></p> <p><span style="font-size: 10pt;"><a href="http://blog.mcny.org/2012/04/24/a-ride-on-the-subway-in-1946-with-stanley-kubrick/" target="_blank">photo</a>: Stanley Kubrick via Museum of the City of New York</span></p> <hr /> <p>Gotham Gazette's Week in Review, Friday June 26</p> <p><strong>PHOTOS OF THE WEEK: </strong>Gov. Cuomo shakes hands with Sen. Flanagan at their Thursday 'big ugly' announcement (top; <a href="https://www.flickr.com/photos/governorandrewcuomo/19131688556/in/photostream/" target="_blank">via</a> The Governor's Office on flickr); Mayor de Blasio hugs CM Ferreras-Copeland at their Monday budget announcement (middle, via William Alatriste); de Blasio officiates three marriages at City Hall on Friday (bottom, via William Alatriste)</p> <p><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/images/graphics/2014/03/19131688556_25feda1808_z.jpg" alt="Heastie Cuomo Flanagan" height="301" width="450" /><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/images/graphics/2014/03/IMG_2881.JPG" alt="de Blasio ferreras" height="301" width="450" /></p> <p><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/images/graphics/2014/03/marriage_equlity_city_hall.jpg" alt="marriage equlity city hall" height="300" width="450" /></p> <p><strong>TOP FIVE STORIES OF THE WEEK:</strong></p> <p><strong>1. Albany End-of-Session Policy:</strong> The&nbsp;<a href="http://www.gothamgazette.com/index.php/government/5785-cuomo-legislative-leaders-announce-end-of-session-pact" target="_blank">framework</a> for the end of 2015-2016 legislative session deal was announced by Governor Andrew Cuomo, Senate Majority Leader John Flanagan and Assembly Speaker Carl Heastie on Tuesday afternoon; details were negotiated, and the two legislative houses voted the deal through on&nbsp;Thursday evening.</p> <p dir="ltr"><strong>2. New York City Fiscal Year 2016 Budget Agreement:</strong> The City’s <a href="http://www.gothamgazette.com/index.php/government/5784-mayor-a-council-announce-785b-fiscal-2016-budget-deal" target="_blank">$78.5 billion budget agreement</a> for Fiscal Year 2016 was announced by Mayor de Blasio, City Speaker Mark-Viverito, Finance Committee Chair Ferreras-Copeland and Council Members on Monday evening. Highlights include funding for 1,297 additional NYPD officers, six-day library service, seniors centers, and much more, including a new bail fund.</p> <p dir="ltr"><strong>3. New NYPD Plan, "One City: Safe and Fair Everywhere":</strong> On Thursday Mayor de Blasio and NYPD Commissioner Bill Bratton <a href="http://www.capitalnewyork.com/article/city-hall/2015/06/8571026/nypd-unveils-neighborhood-policing-program" target="_blank">announced</a> a new community policing plan, possible due to the upcoming addition of about 1,000 police officers to the NYPD force, aimed to unite “neighbors and residents in the fight against crime.” Police officers will go through the “training necessary to deepen relationships within the communities they serve.”</p> <p dir="ltr"><strong>4. De Blasio’s Other Announcements:</strong></p> <ul> <li dir="ltr">On Tuesday, de Blasio added&nbsp;the Lunar New Year as an official school holiday.</li> <li dir="ltr">On Wednesday, with&nbsp;<a href="http://www1.nyc.gov/assets/home/downloads/pdf/executive-orders/2015/eo_10.pdf" target="_blank">Executive Order No.10</a>,&nbsp;de Blasio established the Commission on Gender Equality.</li> <li dir="ltr">Also on Wednesday, de Blasio <a href="http://www1.nyc.gov/office-of-the-mayor/news/437-15/transcript-mayor-de-blasio-partnership-warby-parker-provide-free-eyeglasses-to" target="_blank">announced</a>&nbsp;a partnership with eyeglass company Warby Parker, which will allow community school students who need eyeglasses to receive them free of charge.</li> </ul> <p dir="ltr"><strong>5. City Council Schedules Hearing on Police Reform Proposals:</strong>&nbsp;On&nbsp;Monday&nbsp;June 29 there will be a <a href="http://legistar.council.nyc.gov/MeetingDetail.aspx?ID=412648&amp;GUID=200C2568-64A2-45D7-80A9-B89A84A61A38&amp;Options=info|&amp;Search=" target="_blank">hearing</a>&nbsp;of the public safety committee on nine police reform proposals, Capital New York <a href="http://www.capitalnewyork.com/article/city-hall/2015/06/8570969/council-schedules-hearing-police-reform-proposals" target="_blank">reported</a>. One of the bills included would outlaw the use of chokeholds by police officers. There is speculation that the hearing was added to the calendar as part of the budget deal during which de Blasio and the Council decided to include funding for 1,297 new police officers for the NYPD force.</p> <p><strong>THIS WEEK'S NUMBERS:</strong></p> <ul> <li dir="ltr"><strong>1,297</strong> NYPD officers will be <a href="http://www.gothamgazette.com/index.php/government/5784-mayor-a-council-announce-785b-fiscal-2016-budget-deal" target="_blank">added</a> to the force per the City’s newly released budget.</li> </ul> <ul> <li dir="ltr"><strong>$78.5 billion</strong> for <a href="http://www.gothamgazette.com/index.php/government/5784-mayor-a-council-announce-785b-fiscal-2016-budget-deal" target="_blank">the city’s 2016 fiscal year budget</a>. The budget is only a $200 million increase from the mayor’s executive budget released in early May. The new budget includes&nbsp;<strong>$52.6 million</strong> in City Council discretionary funds to be allocated by the 51 members, and Speaker Marissa Mark-Viverito has <strong>$16 million</strong> to allocate from her speaker's pot.&nbsp;</li> </ul> <ul> <li dir="ltr"><strong>80</strong> different pre-packaged Whole Foods products were tested by the Department of Consumer Affairs and “all the products had packages with mislabeled weights.” DCA Commissioner Julie Menin <a href="http://www1.nyc.gov/site/dca/media/pr062415.page" target="_blank">announced</a> an investigation on Wednesday.</li> </ul> <ul> <li dir="ltr"><strong>1</strong>&nbsp;year extension&nbsp;<a href="http://observer.com/2015/06/mayoral-control-is-extended-for-just-a-single-year/" target="_blank">for</a>&nbsp;mayoral control of city schools, per the new end-of-session deal in Albany, a major blow to Mayor de Blasio, who had wanted it made permanent.</li> </ul> <p dir="ltr"><strong>THE GLORY AND THE GOAT:</strong></p> <ul> <li dir="ltr"><strong>It was a good week</strong> for the LGBTQ community with the Stonewall Inn voted as a historic landmark on Monday and the U.S. Supreme Court ruling that same-sex marriage is a right on Friday.</li> </ul> <ul> <li dir="ltr"><strong>It was bad week</strong> for Mayor Bill de Blasio with mayoral control of schools only extended for a year, the charter cap essentially increased, and the rent regulation extension not matching his desired outcome.</li> </ul> <p><strong>THE FLASH:</strong></p> <ul> <li><strong>This week in 2011</strong>, the same-sex marriage bill was <a href="http://www.nytimes.com/2011/06/25/nyregion/gay-marriage-approved-by-new-york-senate.html" target="_blank">approved</a> by the State Senate 33-29 and was signed into law by Governor Cuomo at 11:55 p.m. June 24, 2011. Tweet from Andrew Cuomo, in part:&nbsp;<a href="https://twitter.com/NYGovCuomo/status/613833962776076288" target="_blank">@NYGovCuomo</a> “On this day in 2011, New York State proudly passed #MarriageEquality.”</li> <li dir="ltr"> <p dir="ltr"><strong>This week in 1915</strong>, the current New York City flag was<a href="http://blog.nyhistory.org/of-seals-and-rampant-beavers-new-york-citys-flag-on-its-100th-birthday/" target="_blank"> raised</a> for the first time during a flag-raising ceremony.</p> </li> </ul> <p><strong>GOTHAM GAZETTE HIGHLIGHTS OF THE WEEK:</strong></p> <ul> <li dir="ltr"><a href="http://www.gothamgazette.com/index.php/government/5784-mayor-a-council-announce-785b-fiscal-2016-budget-deal" target="_blank">Mayor &amp; City Council Announce $78.5B Fiscal 2016 Budget Deal</a>, by Ben Max</li> <li dir="ltr"><a href="http://www.gothamgazette.com/index.php/government/5788-school-meals-in-the-budget-applause-for-breakfast-groans-for-lunch" target="_blank">School Meals in the Budget: Applause for Breakfast, Groans for Lunch</a>, by Zehra Rehman</li> <li dir="ltr"><a href="http://www.gothamgazette.com/index.php/government/5785-cuomo-legislative-leaders-announce-end-of-session-pact" target="_blank">Cuomo, Legislative Leaders Announce End-of-Session Pact</a>, by Ben Max</li> <li dir="ltr"><a href="http://www.gothamgazette.com/index.php/government/5782-license-to-carry-new-yorks-gun-permit-laws" target="_blank">License to Carry: New York’s Complicated, Controversial Gun Laws</a>, by David Howard King</li> </ul> <p><strong>MORE FOR THE WEEKEND:</strong></p> <ul> <li>Chalkbeat NY published <a href="http://ny.chalkbeat.org/2015/06/22/brooklyn-generation-offers-a-look-at-de-blasios-renewal-school-turnaround-initiative/#.VYsYaGRVikp" target="_blank">a three-part series</a> looking at one of New York City's "renewal schools."</li> <li>President Obama appeared on Marc Maron's podcast for <a href="http://potus.wtfpod.com/podcast/episodes/episode_613_-_president_barack_obama/" target="_blank">an extended, personal interview</a>.</li> </ul> <p><em>***<br />NOTE TO READERS: we hope you enjoy this new Gotham Gazette weekly feature - please share it if you do; on Twitter, use our handle&nbsp;<a href="https://twitter.com/GothamGazette" target="_blank">@GothamGazette</a>.</em></p> <p><em>If you have feedback on this feature for us, you can email editor Ben Max:&nbsp;<a href="mailto:bmax@gothamgazette.com"></a><a href="mailto:bmax@gothamgazette.com"></a><a href="mailto:bmax@gothamgazette.com"></a><a href="mailto:bmax@gothamgazette.com">bmax@gothamgazette.com</a></em></p> <p><em>Watch Sunday evening for our latest Week Ahead in New York Politics, which gives you a preview of key issues and events to be aware of for the week about to start. In the meantime, catch up on&nbsp;<a href="http://www.gothamgazette.com/index.php/government" target="_blank">the latest original reporting from Gotham Gazette here</a>. And have a great weekend!</em></p> <p><em>***</em><br />by Erika Wang and Ben Max</p> <p><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/images/graphics/2014/03/week_in_review_bus_readers.jpg" alt="week in review bus readers" height="409" width="600" /></p> <p><span style="font-size: 10pt;"><a href="http://blog.mcny.org/2012/04/24/a-ride-on-the-subway-in-1946-with-stanley-kubrick/" target="_blank">photo</a>: Stanley Kubrick via Museum of the City of New York</span></p> <hr /> <p>Gotham Gazette's Week in Review, Friday June 26</p> <p><strong>PHOTOS OF THE WEEK: </strong>Gov. Cuomo shakes hands with Sen. Flanagan at their Thursday 'big ugly' announcement (top; <a href="https://www.flickr.com/photos/governorandrewcuomo/19131688556/in/photostream/" target="_blank">via</a> The Governor's Office on flickr); Mayor de Blasio hugs CM Ferreras-Copeland at their Monday budget announcement (middle, via William Alatriste); de Blasio officiates three marriages at City Hall on Friday (bottom, via William Alatriste)</p> <p><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/images/graphics/2014/03/19131688556_25feda1808_z.jpg" alt="Heastie Cuomo Flanagan" height="301" width="450" /><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/images/graphics/2014/03/IMG_2881.JPG" alt="de Blasio ferreras" height="301" width="450" /></p> <p><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/images/graphics/2014/03/marriage_equlity_city_hall.jpg" alt="marriage equlity city hall" height="300" width="450" /></p> <p><strong>TOP FIVE STORIES OF THE WEEK:</strong></p> <p><strong>1. Albany End-of-Session Policy:</strong> The&nbsp;<a href="http://www.gothamgazette.com/index.php/government/5785-cuomo-legislative-leaders-announce-end-of-session-pact" target="_blank">framework</a> for the end of 2015-2016 legislative session deal was announced by Governor Andrew Cuomo, Senate Majority Leader John Flanagan and Assembly Speaker Carl Heastie on Tuesday afternoon; details were negotiated, and the two legislative houses voted the deal through on&nbsp;Thursday evening.</p> <p dir="ltr"><strong>2. New York City Fiscal Year 2016 Budget Agreement:</strong> The City’s <a href="http://www.gothamgazette.com/index.php/government/5784-mayor-a-council-announce-785b-fiscal-2016-budget-deal" target="_blank">$78.5 billion budget agreement</a> for Fiscal Year 2016 was announced by Mayor de Blasio, City Speaker Mark-Viverito, Finance Committee Chair Ferreras-Copeland and Council Members on Monday evening. Highlights include funding for 1,297 additional NYPD officers, six-day library service, seniors centers, and much more, including a new bail fund.</p> <p dir="ltr"><strong>3. New NYPD Plan, "One City: Safe and Fair Everywhere":</strong> On Thursday Mayor de Blasio and NYPD Commissioner Bill Bratton <a href="http://www.capitalnewyork.com/article/city-hall/2015/06/8571026/nypd-unveils-neighborhood-policing-program" target="_blank">announced</a> a new community policing plan, possible due to the upcoming addition of about 1,000 police officers to the NYPD force, aimed to unite “neighbors and residents in the fight against crime.” Police officers will go through the “training necessary to deepen relationships within the communities they serve.”</p> <p dir="ltr"><strong>4. De Blasio’s Other Announcements:</strong></p> <ul> <li dir="ltr">On Tuesday, de Blasio added&nbsp;the Lunar New Year as an official school holiday.</li> <li dir="ltr">On Wednesday, with&nbsp;<a href="http://www1.nyc.gov/assets/home/downloads/pdf/executive-orders/2015/eo_10.pdf" target="_blank">Executive Order No.10</a>,&nbsp;de Blasio established the Commission on Gender Equality.</li> <li dir="ltr">Also on Wednesday, de Blasio <a href="http://www1.nyc.gov/office-of-the-mayor/news/437-15/transcript-mayor-de-blasio-partnership-warby-parker-provide-free-eyeglasses-to" target="_blank">announced</a>&nbsp;a partnership with eyeglass company Warby Parker, which will allow community school students who need eyeglasses to receive them free of charge.</li> </ul> <p dir="ltr"><strong>5. City Council Schedules Hearing on Police Reform Proposals:</strong>&nbsp;On&nbsp;Monday&nbsp;June 29 there will be a <a href="http://legistar.council.nyc.gov/MeetingDetail.aspx?ID=412648&amp;GUID=200C2568-64A2-45D7-80A9-B89A84A61A38&amp;Options=info|&amp;Search=" target="_blank">hearing</a>&nbsp;of the public safety committee on nine police reform proposals, Capital New York <a href="http://www.capitalnewyork.com/article/city-hall/2015/06/8570969/council-schedules-hearing-police-reform-proposals" target="_blank">reported</a>. One of the bills included would outlaw the use of chokeholds by police officers. There is speculation that the hearing was added to the calendar as part of the budget deal during which de Blasio and the Council decided to include funding for 1,297 new police officers for the NYPD force.</p> <p><strong>THIS WEEK'S NUMBERS:</strong></p> <ul> <li dir="ltr"><strong>1,297</strong> NYPD officers will be <a href="http://www.gothamgazette.com/index.php/government/5784-mayor-a-council-announce-785b-fiscal-2016-budget-deal" target="_blank">added</a> to the force per the City’s newly released budget.</li> </ul> <ul> <li dir="ltr"><strong>$78.5 billion</strong> for <a href="http://www.gothamgazette.com/index.php/government/5784-mayor-a-council-announce-785b-fiscal-2016-budget-deal" target="_blank">the city’s 2016 fiscal year budget</a>. The budget is only a $200 million increase from the mayor’s executive budget released in early May. The new budget includes&nbsp;<strong>$52.6 million</strong> in City Council discretionary funds to be allocated by the 51 members, and Speaker Marissa Mark-Viverito has <strong>$16 million</strong> to allocate from her speaker's pot.&nbsp;</li> </ul> <ul> <li dir="ltr"><strong>80</strong> different pre-packaged Whole Foods products were tested by the Department of Consumer Affairs and “all the products had packages with mislabeled weights.” DCA Commissioner Julie Menin <a href="http://www1.nyc.gov/site/dca/media/pr062415.page" target="_blank">announced</a> an investigation on Wednesday.</li> </ul> <ul> <li dir="ltr"><strong>1</strong>&nbsp;year extension&nbsp;<a href="http://observer.com/2015/06/mayoral-control-is-extended-for-just-a-single-year/" target="_blank">for</a>&nbsp;mayoral control of city schools, per the new end-of-session deal in Albany, a major blow to Mayor de Blasio, who had wanted it made permanent.</li> </ul> <p dir="ltr"><strong>THE GLORY AND THE GOAT:</strong></p> <ul> <li dir="ltr"><strong>It was a good week</strong> for the LGBTQ community with the Stonewall Inn voted as a historic landmark on Monday and the U.S. Supreme Court ruling that same-sex marriage is a right on Friday.</li> </ul> <ul> <li dir="ltr"><strong>It was bad week</strong> for Mayor Bill de Blasio with mayoral control of schools only extended for a year, the charter cap essentially increased, and the rent regulation extension not matching his desired outcome.</li> </ul> <p><strong>THE FLASH:</strong></p> <ul> <li><strong>This week in 2011</strong>, the same-sex marriage bill was <a href="http://www.nytimes.com/2011/06/25/nyregion/gay-marriage-approved-by-new-york-senate.html" target="_blank">approved</a> by the State Senate 33-29 and was signed into law by Governor Cuomo at 11:55 p.m. June 24, 2011. Tweet from Andrew Cuomo, in part:&nbsp;<a href="https://twitter.com/NYGovCuomo/status/613833962776076288" target="_blank">@NYGovCuomo</a> “On this day in 2011, New York State proudly passed #MarriageEquality.”</li> <li dir="ltr"> <p dir="ltr"><strong>This week in 1915</strong>, the current New York City flag was<a href="http://blog.nyhistory.org/of-seals-and-rampant-beavers-new-york-citys-flag-on-its-100th-birthday/" target="_blank"> raised</a> for the first time during a flag-raising ceremony.</p> </li> </ul> <p><strong>GOTHAM GAZETTE HIGHLIGHTS OF THE WEEK:</strong></p> <ul> <li dir="ltr"><a href="http://www.gothamgazette.com/index.php/government/5784-mayor-a-council-announce-785b-fiscal-2016-budget-deal" target="_blank">Mayor &amp; City Council Announce $78.5B Fiscal 2016 Budget Deal</a>, by Ben Max</li> <li dir="ltr"><a href="http://www.gothamgazette.com/index.php/government/5788-school-meals-in-the-budget-applause-for-breakfast-groans-for-lunch" target="_blank">School Meals in the Budget: Applause for Breakfast, Groans for Lunch</a>, by Zehra Rehman</li> <li dir="ltr"><a href="http://www.gothamgazette.com/index.php/government/5785-cuomo-legislative-leaders-announce-end-of-session-pact" target="_blank">Cuomo, Legislative Leaders Announce End-of-Session Pact</a>, by Ben Max</li> <li dir="ltr"><a href="http://www.gothamgazette.com/index.php/government/5782-license-to-carry-new-yorks-gun-permit-laws" target="_blank">License to Carry: New York’s Complicated, Controversial Gun Laws</a>, by David Howard King</li> </ul> <p><strong>MORE FOR THE WEEKEND:</strong></p> <ul> <li>Chalkbeat NY published <a href="http://ny.chalkbeat.org/2015/06/22/brooklyn-generation-offers-a-look-at-de-blasios-renewal-school-turnaround-initiative/#.VYsYaGRVikp" target="_blank">a three-part series</a> looking at one of New York City's "renewal schools."</li> <li>President Obama appeared on Marc Maron's podcast for <a href="http://potus.wtfpod.com/podcast/episodes/episode_613_-_president_barack_obama/" target="_blank">an extended, personal interview</a>.</li> </ul> <p><em>***<br />NOTE TO READERS: we hope you enjoy this new Gotham Gazette weekly feature - please share it if you do; on Twitter, use our handle&nbsp;<a href="https://twitter.com/GothamGazette" target="_blank">@GothamGazette</a>.</em></p> <p><em>If you have feedback on this feature for us, you can email editor Ben Max:&nbsp;<a href="mailto:bmax@gothamgazette.com"></a><a href="mailto:bmax@gothamgazette.com"></a><a href="mailto:bmax@gothamgazette.com"></a><a href="mailto:bmax@gothamgazette.com">bmax@gothamgazette.com</a></em></p> <p><em>Watch Sunday evening for our latest Week Ahead in New York Politics, which gives you a preview of key issues and events to be aware of for the week about to start. In the meantime, catch up on&nbsp;<a href="http://www.gothamgazette.com/index.php/government" target="_blank">the latest original reporting from Gotham Gazette here</a>. And have a great weekend!</em></p> <p><em>***</em><br />by Erika Wang and Ben Max</p> SCOTUS Case Could Diminish New York City, Democratic Clout in Albany 2015-06-03T20:43:13+00:00 2015-06-03T20:43:13+00:00 http://www.gothamgazette.com/?id=5752:scotus-case-could-diminish-new-york-city-democratic-clout-in-albany Super User <p><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/images/graphics/2014/03/scotus.png" alt="scotus" height="427" width="600" /></p> <p><span style="font-size: 10pt;">SCOTUS (photo:&nbsp;Carol M. Highsmith (Library of Congress))</span></p> <hr /> <p>A case brought to the United States Supreme Court by two voters in Texas has the potential to significantly alter the political dynamics within New York. By looking at what exactly is meant by "one person, one vote," the Court could set a national precedent that would significantly reduce New York City's representation in state government.</p> <p><img src="http://www.gothamgazette.com/images/graphics/2014/03/scotus.png" alt="scotus" height="427" width="600" /></p> <p><span style="font-size: 10pt;">SCOTUS (photo:&nbsp;Carol M. Highsmith (Library of Congress))</span></p> <hr /> <p>A case brought to the United States Supreme Court by two voters in Texas has the potential to significantly alter the political dynamics within New York. By looking at what exactly is meant by "one person, one vote," the Court could set a national precedent that would significantly reduce New York City's representation in state government.</p>