"Demography" is "the study of statistics of births, deaths, disease, etc., as illustrating
conditions of life in communities." Its subject matter is how and why the populations of particular places
change over time, at least insofar as those changes can be quantified with some reasonable degree of precision.
Near-synonyms: Population; Immigration; Socio-Economic Data.
New York City's population has remained largely unchanged over the past half century
while the US population has doubled. Since 1970, New York City's American-born adult population
has declined sharply, and is being replaced on a virtually one-for-one basis by immigrants and their children.
In 1990, 28% of the city's population was foreign born. By the year 2000, the comparable figure will likely
be closer to 45%.
Emanuel Tobier is a Senior Researcher at the Taub Center for Urban Research, and a Professor of Economics and Planning at New York University's Robert
Wagner Graduate School of Public Service. A native of the Bronx, he is a long-time student of and frequent
commentator on the New York scene. His essay, "The Bronx in the Twentieth Century: Dynamics of Population
and Economic Change," appeared in the Fall 1998 Centennial issue of the Bronx County Historical Society
With the economy booming, more of the City's residents are employed are than
ever. But there is still the nagging question of how well they are doing.
We know that those who are employed in the city's Manhattan-based global
economy sector are raking it in. But what
about New York's rank and file? The evidence here is far from discouraging.
A recently opened window on this subject is provided by the 1999 New York
City Housing and Vacancy Survey.
Sponsored by the New York City Department of Housing Preservation and
Development, the NYCHVS has been
conducted every three years since 1965 by the US Census Bureau. The survey's
sample size, approximately 18,000 housing units, is large enough by the
Census's exacting standards to be representative of the City's population
and housing stock. According to the HVS, inflation-adjusted median
household income in the city increased by 4% between 1995 and 1998 and by
13% from 1992 to 1998. In fact, New York outperformed the nation on this
score for the longer period -- 13% versus 9% -- though it did lag in the
timespan -- 4% in the City versus 7% nationally. There was also a
significant reduction in the poverty rate among the City's households from
21% in 1995 to 18% in 1998.
Emanuel's Favorite Five Sites For Beginners:
Bureau - Hands-down candidate for the richest source of post-1990
population data for NYC. Here you will find annual updates detailing
age and sex, race and Hispanic origin, as well as births, deaths, net
domestic migration and net international migration. Excellent special
feature: county-by-county estimates of the below poverty level
population. Indispensable and superb.
Also courtesy of the US Census Bureau. Features data on population and
housing, industry and business as well as a searchable database on any
other demographic information you could possibly want. Available by
state, metro or urbanized area. Maps too!
of Labor - Another exemplary source is the Local Area Unemployment
Statistics unit of the US Bureau of Labor Statistics. Each month the
Bureau, in a joint undertaking with the State, provides county by
county estimates of the employment status of the working age
Commerce Department - A comprehensive handle on where and how New
Yorkers earn their livings. Also features information on Big Apple
employers, salaries, industries and their revenues. Especially
recommended is a database maintained as part of Commerce's Regional
York Metropolitan Transportation Council - One of the more
ambitious on-line undertakings in making regional and city statistical
data. Contains data on population, employment and income, to name a
few. Not always easy to use, but well worth the effort.
New York City Department
of Health -- Though the website of New York City's Department of
Health is utterly confusing, their annual publication, "Summary of
Vital Statistics for New York" is indispensable for would be students
of population dynamics. And it's free. Call the Press Office at
212-788-5290 and ask for the Office of Vital Statistics and
New York City Department
of City Planning - One would think that the DCP would have put its
population data base on-line in a user-friendly way. But no. Go figure.
It's still worth looking at their website to see the lineup of
potential sources and types of population and economic information.
York City's Housing and Vacancy Survey - Every three years or so
the US Census Bureau provides New York City with a census-type survey
of the city's households. Mandated by the rent regulation law, it
contains much that is of interest to those concerned with social and
economic change at the borough and neighborhood level. A compact disc
containing the microdata files for the 1991, 1993 and 1996 surveys can
be purchased from the Census Bureau. The survey for 1999 will be
available for analysts by 2000, scooping the decennial Census.