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Citizens Union

Rebuilding NYC

Three Years of Rebuilding


ThreeYearsofRebuilding

The day after his speech at the Republican National Convention, which was largely about the September 11, 2001 terrorist attack on the World Trade Center, former Mayor Rudolph Giuliani was questioned by a group of delegates from Iowa, who asked whether New Yorkers have been able to recover from 9/11 as quickly as the rest of the nation.

New Yorkers, being closer to the events, are supposed to be more emotional about the attack, Giuliani reportedly replied, and people outside the city are supposed to feel it less. "But," Giuliani said, "I've found in traveling that it's maybe just the opposite."

And indeed, the delegates who streamed to Ground Zero described wrenching visits to the place where their country was attacked. New Yorkers, on the other hand, had a more complicated set of reactions. Some looked at all the attention given to 9/11 at the convention (Giuliani's speech was only one of several to focus on it), and expressed outrage at what they saw as the exploitation of their city's tragedy for partisan advantage.

Others simply are in a different place than the out-of-towners who have not had to live close by for the past three years. "People who weren't here, it's a big deal in a different way to them than for people who were here on that day," said Maryhope Howland, who was evacuated from her apartment in lower Manhattan on September 11, 2001. While she, along with many New Yorkers, marked with great solemnity the first anniversary of the attack, she did little to mark the date one year later. She will be spending September 11, 2004 celebrating a friend's wedding. "It's not like 9/11 occurs to me every day, " she said. "But it has changed everything."

The emotional reaction is not all that separates New Yorkers from other Americans. The convention focused 9/11 on issues of national defense. Certainly, with New York remaining the most likely target for terrorism within the United States, New York officials and residents understand strident arguments for tight security. At the same time, though, as the city with the largest and most diverse immigrant population, many of whom have suffered as a result of harsh security measures, the importance of civil liberties also hits close to home. And, as a famously liberal city, many New Yorkers are at the forefront of the protest movement against the war in Iraq.

To the nation at large, 9/11 evoked a response that seems largely concerned with protecting and preventing. New Yorkers since 9/11 have focused on rebuilding, and security is only one issue in the rebuilding effort. A half dozen questions have faced New Yorkers over the past three years, questions that have yet to be fully answered:

    1. Ground Zero
      What will Ground Zero look like when it is completely built up?
      The major architectural elements for Ground Zero have been designed, but funding issues threaten the redevelopment, which is not scheduled to be completed until 2015.

    2. Transportation
      How did the attack transform transportation to and around lower Manhattan?
      Public transportation to lower Manhattan has been repaired, and major plans to improve it are underway, though debate continues over additional projects.

    3. Economic Impact
      Has New York's economy really recovered from 9/11?
      The city has pulled out of a two-and-a-half year recession, but full recovery is uncertain.

    4. Federal Aid
      Will the enormous federal aid package ever reach the city?
      Over half of the $20 billion pledged to New York has arrived, but the city will not receive the entire amount promised to it for at least five years, if at all.

    5. Security
      Is New York, and the country as a whole, capable of preventing and responding to future terrorist attacks?
      Facing criticism of its capabilities and a shortfall in funding, the city continues to prepare itself to prevent and respond to future terrorist attacks.

    6. Health and Environment
      What are the long-term environmental and health effects that will come as the result of the collapse of the Twin Towers?
      Scientists dispute what will happen in the future, while it has become clear that the Environmental Protection Agency performed badly in the days after the attacks.

    Next Page: Ground Zero

    Health and Environment


    healthenvi

    How the collapse of the Twin Towers will impact the long term health of New Yorkers is probably the most open-ended question remaining three years after the attack.

    Within a week of 9/11, the Environmental Protection Agency announced that lower Manhattan residents were not at risk from the dust created by the collapse of the Twin Towers. Residents and businesses were told to clean dust from their apartments and wash ash-covered clothing separately, but rescue workers at the site were the only ones facing a real health risk.

    In a report (in pdf format) issued last summer, the agency acknowledged that the White House's Council on Environmental Quality had "influenced, through the collaboration process, the information that EPA communicated to the public through its early press releases when it convinced EPA to add reassuring statements and delete cautionary ones."

    The agency has received widespread criticism for these reassurances, and its subsequent cleanup in lower Manhattan.

    Partially in response to this criticism, the Environmental Protection Agency established a panel to examine its own performance after 9/11, and look for unmet health needs that stem from the attack. It has started meeting, and over the next two years will develop a list of non-binding recommendations for the agency.

    The city introduced a health registry to track the health of those who may have been affected by the disease. It has attracted over 50,000 people, whose health will be monitored, but not offered medical care.

    These efforts have been met with various levels of cynicism - especially from those who have gotten sick.

    A study published earlier this year referred to the collapse of the Twin Towers as the "largest acute environmental disaster that has ever befallen New York City." Still, the extent to which the disaster will affect the health of New Yorkers remains uncertain.

    ""The problem we have now is we don't know the long term, lifetime, health consequences. We just don't know, " said Paul Lioy of the Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute.

    The major health problems that have been linked to 9/11 are respiratory diseases like asthma, with some cases proving to be chronic. Nasal and sinus problems and gastrointestinal problems have also been tied to the attack. While no link to cancer has yet been found, and studies have found little danger of people developing cancer due to exposure to dust from the towers, some rescue workers who have developed the disease since 9/11 attribute their illnesses to the attacks.

    New Yorkers also continue to suffer emotionally. A significant number of people developed post-traumatic stress disorder and depression after the attacks, and one Brooklyn hospital even saw a distinct rise in heart attacks, which its researchers attributed to post 9/11 stress.

    Emotional problems have been on the decline since about six months after the attack, said Dr. Spencer Eth, director of the department of psychology at St. Vincent's Catholic Medical Center. The center has seen about 50,000 patients due to 9/11.

    But over the last week, with the stress of the Republican National Convention, St. Vincent's has had to expand its hours to deal with increasing numbers of patients. Many thought they had recovered emotionally from 9/11, only to have their symptoms return.

    "Right now, the conditions are there for the people to have that kind of flashback. Susceptible people will," said Eth. "The weather is warm and there are all these heavily armed people patrolling the streets."

    A similar spike occurred after the crash of the Staten Island Ferry last year. Eth believes that these instances indicate a sensitivity that is part of a permanent shift in the psyche of New Yorkers.

    "If you talk to people in Florida who have been through hurricanes, when the wind starts blowing, they get nervous; that lasts for years and years and years. People in southern California go on alert when they sense an earthquake, when the ground trembles a little bit," he said. "I think people in New York have been sensitized in the same way."

    Security


    security

    New York has been on the front lines of the security debate, both because its security concerns are arguably the nation's greatest , and because many of those most affected by restrictions in civil liberties are immigrants living in cities. This was illustrated last years when large numbers of New York's immigrants - mainly Pakistanis - for fear of a program which required males from 24 Muslim countries and North Korea to register with the federal government.

    The federal Department of Homeland Security, created in 2002 as a way to defend against terrorism, has been giving out grant money to states and cities for their own anti-terror efforts. New York officials are now unanimous in saying that the department's grant program has turned into a way for politicians to push pork towards their own districts, leaving New York City without the resources it needs to protect itself.

    Currently, much of the funding is given out without regard to the threat level that a certain area is under. A portion of the money is given out evenly to every state; another portion by population. A set amount of money is reserved for high risk areas, but as more areas are deemed high risk, the proportion of this money that New York receives has dropped dramatically. New York has spent large sums on transforming its own police department into a counter-terrorism force, but the state gets less funding per-capita than almost any other.

    Local emergency responders, the federal system for allocating anti-terror money, and the national system of intelligence were all criticized by an independent federal panel whose job was to investigate the 9/11 attacks on Washington and New York. The 9/11 Commission, as it was commonly called, operated from 2003 through August 2004, when it released a book-length report on its findings (in pdf format).

    The commission found fault with the city's emergency response system largely because it felt that the various rescue agencies are incapable of working together in major emergencies . But it saved its harshest criticism for the federal intelligence agencies. The commission's major recommendation was to create a cabinet level intelligence czar, who would have wide control over the operations and budgets of the various intelligence agencies .

    For more, see the Security section in Rebuilding

    Next Page: Health and Environment

    Federal Aid


    FederalAidGulliani

    ITEM PAYS FOR TOTAL
    Emergency Response emergency transportation projects, aid to individuals etc. $6.3 billion
    Economic Development Tax benefits for businesses, residential grant program, etc. $4.4 billion
    Long Term Rebuilding Memorial at Ground Zero, Transportation Projects, etc. $9.7 billion

     


    Independent Budget Office Estimate of where aid money will go.

    Soon after the attacks, President George Bush promised $21 billion in aid to help clean up and rebuild New York City. These funds were designed to come through a variety of channel s to achieve several goals. In a recent study, the city's Independent Budget Office outlined (in pdf format) where this aid was intended to go.

    New York has received over half of this $20 billion. But some worry that the city is in danger of never getting the entire amount.

    Because a lot of this money is tied to long-term projects, it will not be actually received for five to ten years. The Independent Budget Office believes that "the Bush Administration and Congress are now in the process of making good on the initial promise of $20 billion in aid"; the city comptroller's office, on the other hand, believes that over a quarter of the money promised may never show up. In a recent report (in pdf format), the comptroller decries the lack of any way to track the promised cash. (see chart, below right)

    Of the $21 billion, there is about $870 million left in discretionary funding. The Lower Manhattan Development Corporation formally controls the money, but different groups have very different ideas of how this money should be spent. Governor Pataki has supported using the funds to build a rail link between lower Manhattan, JFK airport, and the Long Island Rail Road. Community groups would like to see the money directed towards housing and local economic development, which they feel have gotten the short shrift with previous spending.

    Next Page: Security

    Economic Impact


    pennies

     

    New York's economy had already been in recession for nine months by the time the Twin Towers were attacked. While it is difficult to separate the economic impact of the attack itself from the wider economic downturn, it is clear that 9/11 had a serious effect on the city's economy.

    The Partnership for New York City, a business organization in the city, recently estimated that the city suffered an $87 billion economic loss because of the attacks.

    In total, the city's tax revenue dropped $1.5 billion, or about 6.4 percent between fiscal years 2001 and 2002; personal income tax revenues dropped $1.2 billion, or about 26 percent over the same period. New Yorkers lost $2.8 billion in wages. And when the city's tax revenue rose above pre 9/11 levels in fiscal 2003, it had as much to do with the mayor's property tax hike in November 2002 as it did with a general economic recovery.

    Lower Manhattan suffered most severely. Small retail businesses, which lost customers as foot traffic in the area declined and generally have more trouble than larger businesses taking losses, were hit especially hard. But the impact of the attack spread across the city. The outer boroughs, especially Queens with its heavy reliance on its airports, all lost jobs in the wake of the attacks.

    In late 2003, the city pulled out of a two-and-a-half year recession but signs of recovery remain mixed. Eighty percent of jobs lost due to 9/11 have returned to the city, but the unemployment rate remains above pre 9/11 levels. According to the city's tourism bureau, in 2003 more visitors came to New York than ever before, even as the number of international visitors was the lowest number since records have been kept.

    Many feared that after 9/11 businesses would be eager to leave Manhattan, or at least reluctant to start large new operations in the city. Indeed, few companies have expressed interest in the Freedom Tower on the World Trade Center site. But across the street, buoyed by federal Liberty Bonds designed to encourage development in the city, Goldman Saks is planning a new office tower. The New York Times and Bank of America are also using Liberty Bonds to construct office towers in midtown.

    But the flow of jobs to New Jersey, one that existed before 9/11, has not ceased. Since the attacks, JP Morgan Chase, UBS Financial Services, and Citigroup, are among the companies that have crossed the river. While this has arguably made the financial system less vulnerable to terrorist attacks, it has also taken a significant amount of tax revenue from the city's coffers.

    Meanwhile, the ongoing threat of terrorism has made doing business in the city more expensive. The Partnership for New York City estimates that major downtown businesses are spending up to ten times as much on insurance and security than they were before 9/11, even if, as a New York Times article recently reported, many companies are not actually paying for the plans that they draw up.

    For more, see the Economic Rebuilding section of Rebuilding

    Next Page: Federal Aid

    Transportation


    transportation

    A new sense of urgency and an influx of $4.55 billion in federal funding specifically earmarked for transportation has resulted in a wealth of ideas about transforming the way that people get around in lower Manhattan.

    9/11 inspired New Yorkers to discuss ambitious transportation projects. In the past years, two connected stations in and around Ground Zero have been designed. The Ground Zero transportation hub will replace the PATH station that was destroyed.

    Though underground walkways, the station will also connect to a new Fulton Street Subway Station, which itself will connect 12 subway lines that spread about 1,000 feet from east to west. The $750 million Fulton Street Station is scheduled for completion by 2007; the $2 billion transportation hub by 2009. Federal rebuilding funding will be used to fund both projects.

    Other plans do not have such a clear future. Governor George Pataki has alternately spoken of using the money to bury West Street - a plan from which he has recently retreated - or to build a tunnel underneath the East River, connecting lower Manhattan to the Long Island Railroad and JFK International Airport.

    The rail link plan got a boost recently when President Bush said that he supported converting unused tax incentives into cash for such a project. Congress has yet to approve the plan, but if it does, it will be a boon for the city, as it seemed unlikely that it would have been able to use the incentives themselves.

    For more, see the Transportation section of Rebuilding

    Next Page: Economic Impact

    Ground Zero


    GroundZero

    Thousands of New Yorkers became interested in urban planning because of 9/11, a phenomenon that startled many urban planners. A project of such large scale that had to incorporate the opinions of a vast number of people sparked serious debate on several levels. Some saw the need to build quickly; others wanted to pause and reflect. With emotional appeals arguing both for leaving the site empty and rebuilding the towers exactly, the difficulty of finding consensus was apparent.

    The job was given to a newly formed governmental agency, the Lower Manhattan Development Corporation, which had to find a way to produce a tangible plan out of the conceptual debate. New Yorkers roundly rejected its first attempt.

    It was over a year after the attacks that an international competition yielded a master plan for the site, and architects began working on the different pieces of the development. But one year ago, New Yorkers still had little idea what a redeveloped Ground Zero would actually look like.

    That changed over a ten-week span starting in November 2003, when the three major pieces of architecture for Ground Zero were presented to the public:

    Memorial:
    Eight finalists out of 5,201 entries in the international competition to design a memorial for Ground Zero were picked in November. The winner, a young architect named Michael Arad, designed two sunken pools for the sites where the Twin Towers had stood, surrounded by an austere plaza. Two weeks after its selection in January, Arad and landscape architect Peter Walker revised the plan to address criticisms that it was creating a cold, bare space. The pools remain the central feature of the plan, but they are now to be surrounded by a lush garden of trees and plantings.

    Freedom Tower:
    Aside from the memorial, the highlight of Daniel Libeskind's master plan for Ground Zero was a 1,776 foot tower , with an asymmetrical spire meant to evoke the Statue of Liberty. In late December, Libeskind, along with David Childs, an architect working for developer Larry Silverstein, presented the Freedom Tower -- a twisting skyscraper topped by a huge open air space, enclosed in cables, holding huge windmills which would produce 20 percent of the building's energy. While the two men claimed to have worked together, the building was much larger than Libeskind's original vision, and many believed Libeskind had been sidelined in its design.

    Transportation Hub:
    While both the Freedom Tower and the memorial have had their share of critics, the transportation hub designed by Santiago Calatrava has been met with near unanimous acclaim. Calatrava presented his building - a steel and glass structure flanked by two enormous glass wings that move to allow the roof to open - in January.

    With the major elements of the master plan firmed up, the symbolic beginning to construction at Ground Zero took place on July 4, when the cornerstone to the Freedom Tower was put in place at Ground Zero. Governor George Pataki - who has adopted the speedy rebuilding of the site as a priority of his administration - heralded the event as the start of the next stage in the site's rebirth. But skeptics see troubling uncertainty in the site's future.

    Libeskind's master plan, some say, has lost the primacy that it held soon after winning the international competition to design the site. Different architects have chipped away at the plan, replacing some of its key elements with their own visions as they design portions of it. Designs for the two planned cultural buildings, to be decided upon soon, could continue to move away from the plan. Libeskind himself is competing to design one of these buildings, which would, presumably, keep in line with his original vision.

    Whether architectural changes are an evolution of erosion of Libeskind's plan is a point of debate, and even if the architect is losing traction it doesn't pose a fundamental threat to the site. More dangerous, some worry, is the increasing lack of clarity about how Ground Zero's development will be paid for.

    In May, a court decision over how much insurance money Larry Silverstein will get because of 9/11 dealt the developer a big blow. Silverstein, who was seeking about $7.1 billion in insurance funds, suddenly would get no more than $4.5 billion. He said that the court verdict would not limit his ability to redevelop Ground Zero; the Lower Manhattan Development Corporation, the government agency in charge of the redevelopment, backed his claim. Others expressed skepticism that Silverstein would be able to pay for the entire site's development.

    The financing for the major elements of the plan - the Freedom Tower, the memorial, the transportation hub, and the cultural buildings - will be unaffected by the lawsuit. But when the other four office towers will be built, and whether it will be Silverstein who builds them, is in doubt. Some don't think this is necessarily a bad thing.

    Next Page: Transportation

    Three Years of Rebuilding


    ThreeYearsofRebuilding

     

    Three Years of Rebuilding:
    Ground Zero
    Transportation
    Economic Impact
    Federal Aid
    Security
    Health and Environment

    The day after his speech at the Republican National Convention, which was largely about the September 11, 2001 terrorist attack on the World Trade Center, former Mayor Rudolph Giuliani was questioned by a group of delegates from Iowa, who asked whether New Yorkers have been able to recover from 9/11 as quickly as the rest of the nation.

    New Yorkers, being closer to the events, are supposed to be more emotional about the attack, Giuliani reportedly replied, and people outside the city are supposed to feel it less. "But," Giuliani said, "I've found in traveling that it's maybe just the opposite."

    And indeed, the delegates who streamed to Ground Zero described wrenching visits to the place where their country was attacked. New Yorkers, on the other hand, had a more complicated set of reactions. Some looked at all the attention given to 9/11 at the convention (Giuliani's speech was only one of several to focus on it), and expressed outrage at what they saw as the exploitation of their city's tragedy for partisan advantage.

    Others simply are in a different place than the out-of-towners who have not had to live close by for the past three years. "People who weren't here, it's a big deal in a different way to them than for people who were here on that day," said Maryhope Howland, who was evacuated from her apartment in lower Manhattan on September 11, 2001. While she, along with many New Yorkers, marked with great solemnity the first anniversary of the attack, she did little to mark the date one year later. She will be spending September 11, 2004 celebrating a friend's wedding. "It's not like 9/11 occurs to me every day, " she said. "But it has changed everything."

    The emotional reaction is not all that separates New Yorkers from other Americans. The convention focused 9/11 on issues of national defense. Certainly, with New York remaining the most likely target for terrorism within the United States, New York officials and residents understand strident arguments for tight security. At the same time, though, as the city with the largest and most diverse immigrant population, many of whom have suffered as a result of harsh security measures, the importance of civil liberties also hits close to home. And, as a famously liberal city, many New Yorkers are at the forefront of the protest movement against the war in Iraq.

    To the nation at large, 9/11 evoked a response that seems largely concerned with protecting and preventing. New Yorkers since 9/11 have focused on rebuilding, and security is only one issue in the rebuilding effort. A half dozen questions have faced New Yorkers over the past three years, questions that have yet to be fully answered:

      1. Ground Zero
        What will Ground Zero look like when it is completely built up?
        The major architectural elements for Ground Zero have been designed, but funding issues threaten the redevelopment, which is not scheduled to be completed until 2015.

      2. Transportation
        How did the attack transform transportation to and around lower Manhattan?
        Public transportation to lower Manhattan has been repaired, and major plans to improve it are underway, though debate continues over additional projects.

      3. Economic Impact
        Has New York's economy really recovered from 9/11?
        The city has pulled out of a two-and-a-half year recession, but full recovery is uncertain.

      4. Federal Aid
        Will the enormous federal aid package ever reach the city?
        Over half of the $20 billion pledged to New York has arrived, but the city will not receive the entire amount promised to it for at least five years, if at all.

      5. Security
        Is New York, and the country as a whole, capable of preventing and responding to future terrorist attacks?
        Facing criticism of its capabilities and a shortfall in funding, the city continues to prepare itself to prevent and respond to future terrorist attacks.

      6. Health and Environment
        What are the long-term environmental and health effects that will come as the result of the collapse of the Twin Towers?
        Scientists dispute what will happen in the future, while it has become clear that the Environmental Protection Agency performed badly in the days after the attacks.

      Next Page: Ground Zero

      Ground Zero


      GroundZero

       

      Three Years of Rebuilding:
      Ground Zero
      Transportation
      Economic Impact
      Federal Aid
      Security
      Health and Environment

      Thousands of New Yorkers became interested in urban planning because of 9/11, a phenomenon that startled many urban planners. A project of such large scale that had to incorporate the opinions of a vast number of people sparked serious debate on several levels. Some saw the need to build quickly; others wanted to pause and reflect. With emotional appeals arguing both for leaving the site empty and rebuilding the towers exactly, the difficulty of finding consensuswas apparent.

      The job was given to a newly formed governmental agency, the Lower Manhattan Development Corporation, which had to find a way to produce a tangible plan out of the conceptual debate. New Yorkers roundly rejected its first attempt.

      It was over a year after the attacks that an international competition yielded a master plan for the site, and architects began working on the different pieces of the development. But one year ago, New Yorkers still had little idea what a redeveloped Ground Zero would actually look like.

      That changed over a ten-week span starting in November 2003, when the three major pieces of architecture for Ground Zero were presented to the public:

      Memorial:
      Eight finalists out of 5,201 entries in the international competition to design a memorial for Ground Zero were picked in November. The winner, a young architect named Michael Arad, designed two sunken pools for the sites where the Twin Towers had stood, surrounded by an austere plaza. Two weeks after its selection in January, Arad and landscape architect Peter Walker revised the plan to address criticisms that it was creating a cold, bare space. The pools remain the central feature of the plan, but they are now to be surrounded by a lush garden of trees and plantings.

      Freedom Tower:
      Aside from the memorial, the highlight of Daniel Libeskind's master plan for Ground Zero was a 1,776 foot tower , with an asymmetrical spire meant to evoke the Statue of Liberty. In late December, Libeskind, along with David Childs, an architect working for developer Larry Silverstein, presented the Freedom Tower -- a twisting skyscraper topped by a huge open air space, enclosed in cables, holding huge windmills which would produce 20 percent of the building's energy. While the two men claimed to have worked together, the building was much larger than Libeskind's original vision, and many believed Libeskind had been sidelined in its design.

      Transportation Hub:
      While both the Freedom Tower and the memorial have had their share of critics, the transportation hub designed by Santiago Calatrava has been met with near unanimous acclaim. Calatrava presented his building - a steel and glass structure flanked by two enormous glass wings that move to allow the roof to open - in January.

      With the major elements of the master plan firmed up, the symbolic beginning to construction at Ground Zero took place on July 4, when the cornerstone to the Freedom Tower was put in place at Ground Zero. Governor George Pataki - who has adopted the speedy rebuilding of the site as a priority of his administration - heralded the event as the start of the next stage in the site's rebirth. But skeptics see troubling uncertainty in the site's future.

      Libeskind's master plan, some say, has lost the primacy that it held soon after winning the international competition to design the site. Different architects have chipped away at the plan, replacing some of its key elements with their own visions as they design portions of it. Designs for the two planned cultural buildings, to be decided upon soon, could continue to move away from the plan. Libeskind himself is competing to design one of these buildings, which would, presumably, keep in line with his original vision.

      Whether architectural changes are an evolution of erosion of Libeskind's plan is a point of debate, and even if the architect is losing traction it doesn't pose a fundamental threat to the site. More dangerous, some worry, is the increasing lack of clarity about how Ground Zero's development will be paid for.

      In May, a court decision over how much insurance money Larry Silverstein will get because of 9/11 dealt the developer a big blow. Silverstein, who was seeking about $7.1 billion in insurance funds, suddenly would get no more than $4.5 billion. He said that the court verdict would not limit his ability to redevelop Ground Zero; the Lower Manhattan Development Corporation, the government agency in charge of the redevelopment, backed his claim. Others expressed skepticism that Silverstein would be able to pay for the entire site's development.

      The financing for the major elements of the plan - the Freedom Tower, the memorial, the transportation hub, and the cultural buildings - will be unaffected by the lawsuit. But when the other four office towers will be built, and whether it will be Silverstein who builds them, is in doubt. Some don't think this is necessarily a bad thing.

      For more, see the Ground Zero section in Rebuilding.

      Next Page: Transportation

      Rebuilding NYC


      rebuildingNYC

      Previous Features

      September 6, 2004
      Three Years of Rebuilding
      A look at the issues that New Yorkers have faced over three years of rebuilding - and those we will face in the future.

      August 27, 2004
      Will NYC Get Its $20 Billion?
      The Independent Budget Office writes that the federal government is "in the process of making good on the initial promise of $20 billion" in a new report; the City Comptroller, in his own report, fears that much of the aid will never reach the city. Read both reports (in pdf format).

      August 20, 2004
      Environmental Problems at Ground Zero
      A Sierra Club report "explains how the federal administration's reckless disregard for the toxic hazards generated by the attack had disastrous consequences for many people who served on the front line of terror response and lower Manhattan's recovery."

      August 13, 2004
      Report On Post 9/11 Grants
      The Lower Manhattan Development Corporation has established a system for distributing grants that lacks accountability and transparency, says developmental watchdog group Good Jobs New York in a recent report. Read the entire report.

      July 22, 2004
      9/11 Commission Report
      The federal commission investigating the attacks of 9/11 published its final report on July 22. Read the entire report (in pdf format).

      July 2, 2004
      Economic Impact of 9/11
      A recent federal study gives a borough-by-borough account of 9/11's economic consequences. (in pdf format)

      June 28, 2004
      Where's Our $21 Billion?
      While President George Bush pledged $21.4 billion to New York City in post 9/11 aid, it is unclear how much has actually arrived. Representative Carolyn Maloney, who has been tracking federal rebuilding aid, writes about the differences between what has been said and what has been done.

      June 17, 2004
      9/11 Commission's Final Hearings
      The 9/11 Commission's final round of hearings was held last week. Read the commission's reports -- Overview of the Enemy, Outline of the 9/11 Plot, and Improvising a Homeland Defense. All reports are in pdf format.

      June 4, 2004
      Memorial Center Recommendations
      Part of the memorial design for Ground Zero is an underground museum dedicated to the 9/11 attacks. An advisory panel consisting of the families of 9/11 victims, survivors of the attack, and historians has issued its recommendations for what this center should look like.

      May 28, 2004
      Fulton Street Subway Station
      The Fulton Street Subway Station, a huge glass dome rising from Fulton and Broadway streets in lower Manhattan, is the centerpiece of a major redesign of subway service in lower Manhattan. Click here to see a slideshow of the new station, which was presented publicly on May 26.

      May 17, 2004
      Revisiting 9/11, Reworking 911
      Did New York City learn any lessons from 9/11? Almost three years after the attack -- and a week after emotional hearings by the 9/11 Commission -- many complain that the major problems with the city's response to emergencies remain unresolved.

      May 10, 2004
      Governor's Speech
      Governor George Pataki wants to use federal rebuilding funds for a new tunnel under the East River, and says that construction on the Freedom Tower will begin July 4. Read the text of the Governor's rebuilding update, given last week to the Association for a Better New York (in pdf format).

      April 26 - May 9
      Ground Zero in Politics
      Both the Republican National Convention and the 9/11 Commission are coming to New York in the next few months, and are likely to inspire questions about how September 11 will factor into the presidential campaign. What does Ground Zero symbolize? And how should it be used -- or not be used -- in politics?

      April 17 - April 25
      Housing in Lower Manhattan
      In a report released last week , Rebuild Downtown Our Town stresses the importance of lower Manhattan's tradional pattern of mixed-income housing, and discusses ways to maintain it (in pdf format). [This week, the group issued a clarification on the report. To read it, click here.]

       April 11 - April 16
      Condoleezza Rice and the 9/11 Commission
      Condoleezza Rice, assistant to President Bush on National Security Affairs, testified under oath at a special hearing of the federal panel investigating the 9/11 attacks. Read a transcript of the hearing.

      April 5 - April 11
      Helping 9/11 Rescue Workers
      Many Ground Zero rescue workers and residents of lower Manhattan continue to suffer from health problems related to 9/11. US Representative Carolyn Maloney describes her plan to aid those in need and continue to examine what the health effects have been.

      March 29 - April 4
      The 9/11 Commission
      On March 26 and 27, the federal commission investigating the 9/11 attacks held hearings in which top officials from the Bush and Clinton administrations testified. Read the testimonies of Richard Clarke, Madeline Albright, Colin Powell, William Cohen, Donald Rumsfeld, George Tenet, and Samuel Berger, or visit the 9/11 Commission's website about the hearing.

      March 22 - March 28
      The Last $1.2 Billion
      $1.2 billion remains in a pool of federal rebuilding funds can be used for almost anything. Governor George Pataki seems to have his heart set on a rail link between downtown Manhattan, JFK and the Long Island Railroad. David Kallick of the Fiscal Policy Institute writes about other ways the money might be spent.

      March 15 - March 21
      City Planning Report
      Last week the Department of City Planning issued an evaluation of the plan to develop Ground Zero. The illustrated report (in pdf format) calls for more open space, and more streets open to traffic.

      March 8 - March 14
      Ground Zero Environmental Impact Statement
      New Yorkers have their latest chance to respond to the development at Ground Zero through the Environmental Impact Statement process. Read what people are saying.

       March 1 - March 7
      A Year With Libeskind
      It has been a year since Daniel Libeskind was chosen to make a master plan for Ground Zero, and his plan has changed significantly since then. But because Libeskind's role has never been clear, there is disagreement about whether these changes are a betrayal of Libeskind's plan, or a natural part of its evolution.

      February 23 - February 29
      5,201 Memorials
      The Lower Manhattan Development Corporation recently put all designs entered into the Ground Zero memorial competition on display. Click here to see them.

      February 16 - February 22
      Cultural Complex At Ground Zero
      Fifteen museums, theater groups, and other arts institutions are on a 'short-list' of groups being considered to run the cultural spaces at Ground Zero. A recent report (in pdf format) lists the organizations and gives an idea of what the three cultural areas will be. Read more about culture at Ground Zero, and see the entire report

      February 9 - February 15
      Downtown Visions For The Arts
      The Arts Advisors To The Select Committee, artists downtown who advise their councilmember on the role of the arts in the redevelopment of Lower Manhattan, have recently launched a website. Click Here to see the site.

      January 30 - February 8
      9-11 Commission Hearings
      On January 26 and 27, the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States, a federal panel investigating the September 11 attacks, held public hearings, and issued several preliminary reports. Click here to read transcripts of the meetings.

      January 23 - January 29
      Permanent PATH Station
      The plan for the permanent PATH station at Ground Zero, recently made public, is an oval-shaped structure of glass and steel with two "wings" rising from its spine. The retractable glass roof of the building allows daylight to reach the train tracks 60 feet below street level.

      January 12 - January 22
      Revising Absence
      A revised design for the memorial at Ground Zero was recently made public. The design covers the austere plaza of the original design with trees, incorporates access to the bedrock level on the footprints of the Twin Towers, and adds an underground area containing artifacts from the September 11th attacks.

      January 5 - January 11
      Rebuilding in 2004

      Reflecting Absence has been chosen as the Ground Zero memorial, the freedom Tower is slated to be under construction by mid-year , and a new transportation hub is scheduled to be presented this spring. A look at the eventful year ahead for rebuilding.

      Reflecting Absence
      Reflecting Absence, a minimalist design featuring two sunken pools on the footprints of the Twin Towers, has been chosen as the memorial for Ground Zero.

      December 29 - January 4
      Top Rebuilding Stories of 2003

      In the past year, a plan for Ground Zero and a design for the Freedom Tower have been released, eight finalists have been selected in the memorial competition, and services, including a PATH train station at Ground Zero, have returned to Lower Manhattan. Read about the top rebuilding stories of 2003.

      December 19 - December 28
      The Freedom Tower

      Released on December 19, the 1,776 foot tall Freedom Tower is the result of a fiery collaboration between two architects. It is said to have features that echo both the Statute of Liberty and the Brooklyn Bridge. See the design.

      A Good Work In Progress
      Mark Ginsberg, the president of the New York chapter of the American Institute of Architects, writes that while the Freedom Tower is a well thought out design with some exciting features, there are still issues that must be resolved for it be a success.

      Stick With Libeskind
      The design for the Freedom Tower brings David Childs' building more into line with Daniel Libeskind's vision, writes Beverly Willis, the co-chair of Rebuild Downtown Our Town. But it does not completely fulfill the necessary task of keeping to the Libeskind vision, and therefore poses a potential threat to the success of Ground Zero as a whole.

      December 15 - 22
      Towards the People's Memorial:

      Imagine New York played host to a series of six public workshops in the week after the finalists in the memorial design competition were released. Over 300 people participated, and 2,800 more submitted comments on the memorial designs online. From this feedback, Imagine New York compiled a fifteen-page report, and submitted it to the jury to aid its members in making a decision. Read the report here (in pdf format).

      My Memorial
      Mike Kuo, the head of Imagine New York, writes about his group's report -- and how working on it affected him personally.

      December 5 - December 14
      Transcript of Live Chat

      Gotham Gazette held an online memorial chat with architectural experts Rick Bell and Fred Bernstein. Read a transcript here.

      December 1 - December 5
      Response by New York New Visions

      "None of the memorial designs have achieved the level of artistic significance expected, nor have they, as yet, successfully addressed the complex challenge of integrating with the Libeskind site plan or the surrounding neighborhood context," New York New Visions writes to the memorial jury.(Read the entire letter).

      November 21 - December 1
      The Eight 9/11 Memorial Designs
      Most incorporate water, all use light, and together they are evoking strong reaction. A look at details of the designs, the criticism, the process of choosing them, and what is likely to happen now.

      October 11 - October 24
      New Study of Rebuilding Funds
      A new study (in pdf format) by the federal General Accounting office found that the city may never be able to determine how much of the $5 billion in Liberty Bond tax benefits, given as part of President George Bush's 9/11 aid to New York City, are ever used.

      September 29 - October 10
      A National Theater Downtown
      Martha Hostetter on the efforts to create a new American National Theater at Ground Zero.

      September 21 - September 28
      The Revised Plan
      Rebuilding officials have released a revised master plan for the World Trade Center site. A look at the changes, from slimmer towers to a new park.

      September 13 - September 20
      The 9/11 Health Registry
      Sue Wilson on the new comprehensive survey to follow the health of those people most directly exposed to 9/11's World Trade Center collapse and the subsequent clean-up efforts.

      The EPA Report
      Sam Williams on the alarming report about the EPA's response to 9/11.

      September 8 - September 12
      9/11/03
      New Yorkers are commemorating the second anniversary of September 11 this week, with a ceremony inside Ground Zero's huge construction site. But while the city pauses to look back, plans for lower Manhattan's future are moving forward. A look at where we are, issue by issue.

      September 1 - September 7
      The Inspector General's Report
      In a new report, the Environmental Protection Agency Inspector General found that the White House influenced the agency to tell New Yorkers that the air was safe after the September 11 attacks, even before the agency had fully monitored the air quality near the World Trade Center site. Read the full report (in pdf format).

      Featured Links: The Port Authority's 9/11 Transcripts
      The Port Authority has released 2,000 pages of documents from September 11 previously unseen by the public, largely transcripts of radio transmissions from people at the World Trade Center during the attacks. Newsday has collected a selection of excerpts from the transcripts, and the New York Times created an interactive feature.

      August 25 - August 31
      Lincoln Center's Lessons for Ground Zero
      At the same time that Lincoln Center is "breaking up," there are plans to include a cultural center at Ground Zero. Martha Hostetter offers a list of mistakes made by Lincoln Center that the Lower Manhattan Development Corporation can avoid.

      August 18 - August 24
      Commemorating 9/11
      The second anniversary of September 11 will be commemorated by the return of the twin beams of the "Tribute in Light," and a ceremony at Ground Zero. Read a schedule of the city's commemoration plans.

      August 2 - August 17
      The Pentagon Memorial's Lessons for New York
      By the time New York City's September 11 memorial jury narrows the Ground Zero memorial competition down to five finalists, the Pentagon will have already broken ground on its memorial - selected way back in March - for the 184 victims who died there on 9/11. What can New York learn from the other 9/11 memorial?

      July 24 - August 1
      The Congressional Report on 9/11
      Read the report on 9/11, which found that the FBI and CIA failed to exchange important information about the hijackers before the attacks.

      July 12 - July 24
      A Resident's Hopes for the Memorial
      As the 9/11 memorial jury prepares to sort through design applications, lower Manhattan resident Tim Lannan writes that he wants the chosen memorial to convey the special sense of community he felt downtown after the attacks.

      June 27 - July 11
      Competing to Design the 9/11 Memorial
      Designers competing in the international 9/11 memorial competition were given until June 30 to figure out how to best memorialize September 11 and interpret the competition's guidelines, even as those closest to the tragedy disagreed on the details and concepts for the memorial.

      June 16 - June 26
      Perspectives on the Memorial
      Anthony Gardner, whose brother Harvey Joseph Gardner III was killed on 9/11, argues that a bus garage and commercial stores do not have a place in the sacred space where most of the remains of those murdered on September 11 were found.

      June 9 - June 15
      Perspectives on the Memorial
      In the first in a series of essays about the 9/11 memorial, retired firefighter John Finucane says that whatever design is chosen should list the names of the rescue workers together, with their name, rank, serial number and company.

      June 2 - June 8
      The Memorial Hearing
      At last week's hearing about the 9/11 memorial, Chris Ganci, whose father, Fire Department Chief Pete Ganci, died on September 11, urged the jury to chose a design that shows that rescue workers "willingly gave their lives to help other people." Julie Boryczewski said that the design should show what happened on 9/11 "honestly and equally." Read transcripts of their testimonies, and others, from the hearing.

      May 26 - June 1
      Preserve Downtown's Historic Buildings
      Roger Lang on why it is important to preserve historic buildings downtown, especially the 1889 Corbin building now slated for demolition by the Metropolitan Transportation Authority.

      May 19 - May 25
      Imagining Downtown Transportation
      At last week's Imagine New York workshop about lower Manhattan transportation projects, over 100 people broke into small groups and weighed in on downtown's transportation future. Some argued that making a section of West Street an underground tunnel is absolutely necessary, while others said it would be an enormous waste of money. Some praised a one-seat ride to the airport, while others said that the city should build projects for residents, not for tourists.

      May 12 - May 18
      Transportation And Lower Manhattan: Where Do We Go From Here?
      In 2015, if all goes as planned, people will be able to move easily to and from lower Manhattan by commuter trains and subways, and even take a one-seat ride to the airport. This vision of the future contrasts sharply with the realities of transportation in lower Manhattan today. Jeffrey Zupan explains what is planned and the decisions that must be made.

      May 5 - May 11
      Tribeca Film Festival
      The second annual Tribeca Film Festival, started to boost a neighborhood damaged by September 11, is taking place this week. Nine different festival movies - features, documentaries and shorts - are about rebuilding New York. Some are funny, some are poignant, and others can only be called wacky.

      April 22 - May 4
      The Governor's Timeline
      On April 24, Governor George Pataki announced what he called a "bold, daring and swift" schedule for rebuilding lower Manhattan and new transportation projects downtown. A look at what Pataki has planned for lower Manhattan, year by year.

      April 14 - April 21
      The Memorial Jury
      The Lower Manhattan Development Corporation has selected the jury that will select a design for the 9/11 memorial. A look at the 13 jury members, and a timeline for the competition.

      April 7 - April 13
      The 9/11 Commission
      Gotham Gazette columnist Julia Vitullo-Martin considers the public hearings on the 9/11 terrorism attacks, finally taking place 19 months after the fact; the case of the 9/11 killer; and the late Senator Daniel Patrick Moynihan's prescient comments on the pathology of government secrecy.

      Also: A transcript of Mayor Michael Bloomberg's testimony before the commission.

      March 31 - April 6
      Rebuilding Jobs
      Featured Report: The Labor Community Advocacy Network to Rebuild New York's new report (in pdf format) proposes that $1 billion in federal rebuilding funds be used for a jobs program putting 60,000 New Yorkers to work. This New Deal-like program would subsidize government and non-profit jobs, as well as jobs at companies affected by September 11.

      March 24 - March 30
      Security in NYC
      As the United States invasion of Iraq intensifies, New Yorkers are faced with competing concerns. In Operation Atlas and the Security of New York, Julia Vitullo-Martin details the city's vulnerability to attack, and analyzes the efforts to defend it. (Also, in An Assessment Of The Threat From Al Qaeda, terrorism expert Rohan Gunaratna summarizes the debriefing he gave to the New York Police Department.) In Special Registration, Chaleampon Ritthichai focuses on one security measure that critics say has gone too far.

      LMDC President on What's Next
      The new president of the Lower Manhattan Development Corporation, Kevin Rampe, delivered a speech about the next steps for the World Trade Center site at a Downtown-Lower Manhattan Association Forum on March 20. Read a transcript of his remarks.

      March 17 - March 23
      Report from Rebuilding Delegation to Europe
      A delegation of rebuilding civic groups, victims' family members and planners traveled to Europe in order to learn from rebuilding projects and memorials in cities like Berlin, where they visited World Trade Center architect Daniel Libeskind's Jewish Museum, and Barcelona. A report of their findings (pdf format).

      March 10 - March 16
      What's Next For Civic Groups
      The many civic groups that have formed after September 11 say that even though a major part of the rebuilding process has come to a close with the choice of Daniel Libeskind's design for Ground Zero, they are not going away any time soon. Civic groups like Rebuild Downtown Our Town and the Labor Community Advocacy Network will be fighting to protect the design that Libeskind envisions, influence its details, and to capture unspent federal rebuilding aid for causes like jobs and affordable housing.

      February 24 - March 9
      The Winning Plan
      The design by architect Daniel Libeskind featuring a 1,776-foot spire and an open pit where the twin towers once stood was chosen Wednesday night as the final plan for the World Trade Center site. The plan also features a museum at the site and structures that will create memorial spaces free of shadows each September 11. The single spire will be the tallest structure in the world.

      February 17 - February 23
      Transcript of Chat With Daniel Libeskind
      Read a transcript of our recent online chat with World Trade Center site design finalist Daniel Libeskind, who compares his competitors' plan to "two skeletons in the sky" and says that his plan is estimated at between $200 and 320 million, the "bargain basement of all the schemes in the competition."

      Chat With Tara Snow
      Read a transcript of our recent online chat with Tara Snow, who coordinates public and government participation for the Lower Manhattan Development Corporation.

      February 10 - February 16
      Living in Limbo
      Some immigrant families who lost loved ones on September 11th are faced with the extra burden of worrying about being deported. State and federal officials are trying to present themselves as allies to these New Yorkers.

      February 3 - February 9
      Ground Zero Finalists
      On February 4, rebuilding officials named two finalists to design the World Trade Center site. The selection committee chose architect Daniel Libeskind, whose design exposes the Twin Towers original foundations and leaves the hole at Ground Zero for a memorial, and the THINK team of architects Rafael Vinoly, Shigeru Ban, Ken Smith and Frederic Schwartz. Their World Cultural Center plan includes two open steel latticework towers with a museum, an amphitheater and other cultural spaces at different heights.

      9/11 Money Troubles
      As authorities draw closer to deciding on a final design for Ground Zero, some wonder whether there is money to make any of the lofty plans a reality. Despite federal aid, the money problems 9/11 created continue to multiply. Families of victims say the federal funds set aside to compensate them are being distributed unfairly. Downtown businesses say they have not received the help they need. Politicians fight over the rebuilding funds. Can the city untangle the confusion and get the money it needs?

      Transcript of Chat With Steven Holl
      Read a transcript of our online chat with architect Steven Holl, who created the "Memorial Square" design for Ground Zero. "I believe that this process was not run with the sophistication that for example a European architectural competition would be run," Holl said. "Respected architects should have been among the final decision makers."

      January 27 - February 2
      Transcript of Chat With Rafael Vinoly
      Read a transcript of our online chat with architect Rafael Vinoly, a member of the Think team, which designed three new plans for Ground Zero. Vinoly said that he believes one of the new nine visions he and other architects have created will eventually be built, "even though they may have to evolve over time and as a result of the necessary public dialogue that has to take place."

      January 20 - January 26
      Public Hearings for Ground Zero
      At last week's public hearings on Ground Zero, Bill McLoughlin called for a separate memorial space for rescue workers. John Dellaportas urged the agency in charge to rule out a wide promenade along West Street, and Sally Regenhard said that the city of New York, not the Port Authority, should have control over the World Trade Center site. Michael Kuo and Paul Epstein used their three minutes to ask for a better public discussion, saying that these types of hearings, where whoever shows up gets to give a short speech while everyone else listens, don't make sense. Read transcripts of what these five people - and many others - had to say about rebuilding downtown.

      January 13 - January 19
      Transcript of Live Chat with Barbara Littenberg
      Read a transcript of our live chat with architect Barbara Littenberg of Peterson/Littenberg, which created one of the designs for the World Trade Center site and also produced the urban design concepts of the mayor's plan for lower Manhattan.

      January 6 - January 12
      Chinatown's Slowdown
      Park Row is the only major road that remains closed after September 11th. Police say that a terrorist threat makes it necessary, but Chinatown's residents and business owners say that it's the closure itself that is threatening them.

      Chat With Robert Yaro
      Read a transcript of our live chatwith Robert Yaro, Head of the Civic Alliance To Rebuild Downtown New York. He talked about public participation in the rebuilding and what he thinks of the nine plans.

      December 21 - January 5
      Chat With Rick Bell
      The day after architects unveiled nine new plans for Ground Zero, Gotham Gazette held an online chat with Rick Bell, Executive Director of the New York chapter of the American Institute of Architects. He presented an overview of each of the nine plans and answered questions about public participation in the rebuilding, how the new plans would be funded and what criteria people should use to judge the plans. Find out what he had to say.

      December 14 - December 20
      Nine Plans
      The nine new plans for Ground Zero include four that feature what would be the tallest buildings in the world, and two that create 16 acres of roof-top parks. Read an overview of the nine plans commissioned by the Lower Manhattan Development Corporation, including links to details on each design.

      The New Plans for Lower Manhattan
      Last week, the mayor outlined his vision for lower Manhattan, an ambitious plan that includes the creation of two new neighborhoods, a network of large parks and leafy boulevards and a one-seat ride to the airport. This week, the Lower Manhattan Development Corporation unveils nine new plans for Ground Zero, which it vows this time around are "inspiring." The Port Authority is developing its own plan for the World Trade Center site. And the Civic Alliance, in something of a protest against the lack of public input in these other plans, is holding workshops this week to come up with their own designs. Will all these proposals fit together to form a master plan by the new official deadline -- January 31? Will the public have a real say in what gets built? Who will make the final decision about the future of lower Manhattan?

      December 9 - December 13
      The Mayor's New Plan
      On Thursday December 12, Mayor Michael Bloomberg gave a speech to the Association for a Better New York (ABNY) at the Regent Wall Street Hotel at 55 Wall Street. The speech outlined an ambitious plan to rebuild lower Manhattan. Read a full transcript of his remarks.

      Transcript of Live Chat About 9/11 Health Concerns
      On Thursday, December 12 Gotham Gazette hosted a live chat with Dr. Jack Caravanos from Hunter College and Dr. Lung Chi Chen of the New York University School of Medicine. Read what they had to say about "World Trade Center cough," the potential environmental impact of rebuilding at Ground Zero, and concerns about air quality for students attending school downtown.

      Rebuilding Delegation to Europe
      52 New Yorkers -- both architects and planners, victim's family members and activists -- traveled on a delegation to visit Europe's reconstruction projects, development plans and memorials with New York in mind. A look at their findings.

      November 16 - November 22
      Will Two Big Projects Be Too Much?
      Some worry that efforts to rebuild the World Trade Center site and lower Manhattan will be overshadowed by the city's bid for the 2012 Olympics. Development corporation official Roland Betts, Deputy Mayor Dan Doctoroff and many others are involved in both projects. Will two such huge projects stretch the city's resources too thin?

      November 11 - November 15
      NYC Memorials
      In creating the over 2,000 monuments and sculptures in the city's public spaces, New Yorkers have long grappled with how to commemorate heroes or tragic events, and often came to very different conclusions. A new walking tour plans to visit some of the best. A look at some of the tour stops and other New York City memorials.

      November 4 - November 10
      Biotech: A Boon for Lower Manhattan?
      A new plan to create a biotechnology hub in lower Manhattan aims to create 1,300 jobs and fill 300,000 square feet of office space vacated after the September 11 attacks. A look at the debate, the obstacles, and the details involved in bringing biotech downtown.

      October 28 - November 3
      Save West Street
      "Downtown can be great again, without all the digging," argues Battery Park City resident John Dellaportas, who created a coalition opposing the plan to turn West Street into a tunnel. Dellaportas explains why transportation advocates, environmentalists, parents of schoolchildren and Battery Park City residents have come out against the tunnel plan.

      October 19 - October 27
      Five Ways to Help Small Businesses Still Struggling After 9/11
      As of August, the grant program to keep and bring small businesses in lower Manhattan had only distributed about eight percent of the millions of dollars available. Ariel Goodman, whose small business was destroyed in the World Trade Center attack, gives five ways to improve this and other programs for business owners still struggling after 9/11.

      October 13 - October 18
      New Rules For Designing Ground Zero
      The design teams chosen to create new plans for the World Trade Center site met for the first time near Ground Zero last week. In a day-long orientation program, rebuilding officials gave the architects and designers a new list of requirements to be included in the plans. See a slideshow explaining the new rules, with maps.

      October 6 - October 12
      Housing Downtown
      A debate is growing about what kind of housing should be built downtown. Washington gave the city $1.6 billion in bonds to spend on housing in lower Manhattan, and many say the aid should be used to counter New York City's affordable housing shortage. Gov. Pataki and others say requiring a significant percentage of apartments be set aside for low and middle income New Yorkers may mean nothing gets built.

      Transcript of Live Chat About Housing
      Read a transcript of our live chat with Ron Shiffman of the Pratt Institute Center for Community and Environmental Development and Frank Braconi, executive director of the non-profit research organization Citizens Housing and Planning Council.

      September 30 - October 5
      The Six Teams
      Many of the architects, artists and designers selected last week by the Lower Manhattan Development Corporation to create new plans for downtown are known for creating celebrated buildings around the world, such as the new glass domed Reichstag parliament in Berlin and the stark white High Museum building in Atlanta. See a slide show about the six chosen teams, with photos of their past work.

      Transcript of Online Debate About Economic Rebuilding After 9/11
      Read the transcript of the online discussion featuring Bettina Damiani of Good Jobs New York and Steve Malanga of the City Journal, where they talked about how federal funds should be spent for rebuilding downtown, whether or not there should be housing at Ground Zero, and other issues of economic rebuilding.

      Street Name Tributes For Firefighters
      The city plans to rename 81 streets in honor of firefighters, police officers and civilians who died on 9/11. A list of the new streets.

      September 23 - September 29
      The Fire Department's Lessons From 9/11
      On September 11, 2001 the New York Fire Department was hampered by organizational and equipment failures, according to a report by McKinsey. A major point of the study was that the fire department's radios and other communications equipment did not work reliably. Last week commissioner Nicholas Scoppetta told the City Council that it may take several years to fix the problem.

      Monica Gabrielle of the Skyscraper Safety Campaign, whose husband Rich died in the attacks, asks why the city has yet to address some of the simple lessons learned that day. Retired deputy fire chief Vincent Dunn details 12 ways he believes firefighters could do their job more safely and effectively.

      September 16 - September 22
      Transcript of Live Chat With Psychologists
      In a live chat on the anniversary of the attacks, psychologists involved in September 11 crisis counseling talked about how New Yorkers can regain feelings of safety and security, the debate over the different types of therapy being used to treat 9/11 trauma, and more. Read a transcript.

      September 9 - September 15
      A Year Of Changes
      More than a dozen articles -- covering topics from civil rights to housing to land use -- explore the tangible ways New York City has changed in the last year.

      The Culture of 9/11
      This week New York City commemorated the anniversary of the attacks on the World Trade Center in what has been called the "largest collective ceremony of remembrance in American history." Gotham Gazette offers a look at how the capital of media, art, and culture has been affected by, and shaped the understanding of, the events of 9/11.

      Also, check out our lists of cultural works and exhibitions that were created in response to September 11.

      September 2 - September 8
      September 11 In Television
      September 11 was a television event for most of the world and even many New Yorkers. A look at how television has changed since the attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon, highlights of anniversary coverage by channel and an hour-by-hour TV schedule for September 11, 2002. For more on how September 11 has influenced art and culture, see our lists of books, theatrical productions, songs and film and video documentaries. A look at arts and museum exhibitions coming soon.

      9/11 Anniversary
      Find out about events and other information connected to the one-year anniversary of September 11, 2001-- including an hour-by-hour list of events on the day itself -- in our Anniversary section. (These lists will grow with your help: tell us about events you know about.)

      August 26 - September 1
      9/11 in Arts and Culture
      Our focus on September 11 in art and culture begins with a look at September 11 songs and documentaries.

      August 19 - August 25
      Looking At Memorials
      Anita Contini, who began her job as the person in charge of the memorial at Ground Zero this month, has a trip planned to help her figure out what her next steps should be. Her visits to the Oklahoma City memorial, the Vietnam memorial, a memorial to the victims of the atomic bomb in Hiroshima, Japan and others may have important lessons for Ground Zero.

      Transcript of Live Chat with Anita Contini
      Read a transcriptof our live online chat with Anita Contini, director of memorial, cultural and civic programs for the Lower Manhattan Development Corporation. Find out what she said during our conversation as Contini fielded questions about the process of creating the memorial.

      August 12 - August 18
      What's the Formula for Prosperity?
      The latest Bloomberg administration idea to attract jobs and investment to New York City is a land swap that would give up two city airports in exchange for city control of the World Trade Center site. Mayor Michael Bloomberg and Deputy Mayor for Economic Development Daniel Doctoroff are also jockeying to play host to the Olympics and build a new stadium on the West Side. A look at the pros and cons of these and other Bloomberg administration moves to restore New York's economy.

      August 5 - August 11
      Rebuild The Towers vs. All Memorial
      Preliminary results from Gotham Gazette's Ground Zero Planner show that over half the entries call for rebuilding the towers as they were, while a fifth insist all 16 acres should be a memorial. Also: what the experts make of these passionately-held, mutually exclusive views, and whether a real consensus can be reached.

      July 29 - August 4
      Talking About the Six Plans in Many Languages
      How are people in New York's immigrant communities reacting to the six plans released this month by the Lower Manhattan Development Corporation? Find out how Chinese and Spanish language papers, which serve two of the communities most affected by the attacks, covered the story.

      July 22 - July 28
      Rethinking The Six Plans
      After the Lower Manhattan Development Corporation released six different designs for rebuilding the World Trade Center site, 5,000 citizens responded at a town hall meeting. This week find out why the public responded negatively to the plans and what issues the officials in charge of rebuilding must resolve to come up with a plan satisfactory for the people.

      Transcript of Chat with Lou Tomson
      Read a transcript of Wednesday's live online chat with Lou Tomson, president of the Lower Manhattan Development Corporation. Find out what he said during our conversation as Tomson fielded questions about the six plans for the World Trade Center site.

      July 15 - July 21
      Is It Too Late to Listen to the City?
      Find out how rumors about the six plans affected New Yorkers preparing for the biggest public meeting on rebuilding to date and the opening of a major exhibit of ideas for downtown.

      Transcript of Chat with Madelyn Wils
      Gotham Gazette held a live chat with Madelyn Wils, head of Community Board 1 and member of the Lower Manhattan Development Corporation, on Tuesday July 16. Read a transcriptof our chat with her, and find out what she had to say about the plans released by the Lower Manhattan Development Corporation and what the priorities are for downtown residents.

      July 5 - July 14
      Three Alternative Views
      Officials talk of an emerging consensus about what to rebuild downtown, but there are strong voices arguing for a different approach in many specific aspects of the reconstruction. Peter Marcuse, a planning professor at Columbia University, argues that improving transportation downtown should not be our first priority. Sharon Zukin, co-editor of After the World Trade Center: Rethinking New York City, examines the residential neighborhood that has developed in lower Manhattan over the past few decades and argues that the area is now ripe for cultural, not financial, businesses and institutions. Rick Bell, director of the New York chapter of the American Institute of Architects, talks about the reasons New York New Visions and other civic groups have supported building "green" at the World Trade Center site.

      June 29 - July 4
      Monica's Mission
      September's Mission founder Monica Iken describes her ideas for a memorial downtown. She urges planners to make sure that everything built on the site reflects what happened on Sept. 11, saying, "the final resting place of our lost souls is not confined to the footprints of the towers."

      June 24 - June 28
      Mapping Ground Zero
      Take a look at Gotham Gazette's collection of maps of Lower Manhattan, ranging from a map used by recovery workers to determine where Ground Zero fires needed to be extinguished, different diagrams of how a memorial might fit into the site's development, and a map that shows which businesses affected by Sept. 11 may qualify for aid.

      June 17 - June 23
      Nine Months Later, Top Rebuilding Players Look Ahead
      On June 11, many of the lead decision makers in the rebuilding process talked about their plans for the World Trade Center site at the "Turning 9/11 Around" symposium downtown. Gotham Gazette takes a look at their ideas, including the Port Authority's designs for a viewing platform at Ground Zero during construction, and presents an edited transcript of the panel's answers to the audience's questions.

      June 10 - June 16
      A Conversation With Alex Garvin
      Gotham Gazette's Rebuilding NYC had its first live online chat on Tuesday, June 11, as Alex Garvin, lead planner for the Lower Manhattan Development Corporation, answered questions about rebuilding downtown. Read the transcript from our conversation and find out what Garvin thinks rebuilding after September 11 resembles most in history. Also, read a profile of the Yale University planning professor and lifelong New Yorker who now wields considerable influence over what will be built at the World Trade Center site.

      Consensus or Competing Visions?
      Three articles explore the ideas of consensus and competing visions for the rebuilding of the World Trade Center site. In "Working In Coalition," Mike Kuo sums up the recent reports by five major volunteer rebuilding coalitions and finds their visions remarkably similar. In "Competing Visions" Laura Wolf-Powers supplies her own analysis of the recent coalition reports, emphasizing the ways that they differ. And in "Rebuilding by Consensus?" Mark Berkey-Gerard looks at the emerging differences of opinion among New Yorkers in general, and points out that many feel the basic questions -- about who makes the decisions, what should be built, and even what "rebuilding" means -- have yet to be answered.

      June 3 - June 9
      The Firm Of "Blah, Blah and Blah?"
      This week, Gotham Gazette's Rebuilding NYC presents a profile of Beyer Blinder Belle, the urban planning and design firm selected by the Lower Manhattan Development Corporation. The firm is best known for renovating Grand Central Station during the 1990's. Will they be able to bring creativity and vision to their efforts to create a plan for the World Trade Center site?

      May 24 - June 2
      The First Public Hearing
      "Given that this is the first public hearing, it is disappointing...that so many decisions have already been made," said Margaret Hughes, one of the dozens of speakers at the first public hearing about rebuilding downtown held by the Lower Manhattan Development Corporation and the Port Authority. Among those who testified were family members of victims, residents of downtown neighborhoods, architects, advocates, officials and the civic-minded. Edited transcripts of testimony about health concerns, the memorial, suggested designs, the reasons why some feel betrayed.

      May 10 - May 23
      Artists Talk About September 11
      Five New Yorkers in the arts discussed life after September 11 in a panelthat was part of the Tribeca Film Festival. Moderated by talk show host Jon Stewart, painter Karen Batten, performance artist Spalding Gray, actress Susan Sarandon, and playwright Wendy Wasserstein talked about their personal reactions to the events of September 11th and how it has affected their work as artists.

      Air Quality At Ground Zero
      Eric Goldstein, Gotham Gazette's Environment columnist, takes a look at the Environmental Protection Agency's reversal of policy this week concerning indoor cleaning and testing for air quality. Is it too little, too late? Or a triumph for New Yorkers?

      May 6 - May 9
      Culture and the World Trade Center Site
      Gotham Gazette's Arts columnist Martha Hostetter writes about ideas to make arts and culture a part of the new Lower Manhattan. Will cultural institutions be able to provide the initial shot of financial strength the area so desperately needs?

      April 31 - May 5
      The Importance of Transportation
      Department of Transportation Commissioner Iris Weinshall talks about the need for transportation in the future of rebuilding downtown. Also, see our page focusing on rebuilding infrastructure and transportation for more news and commentary.

      April 24 - April 30
      Labor Community Advocacy Network (LCAN) Rebuilding Statement
      Few of the reports with recommendations for rebuilding Lower Manhattan have touched on the economic steps that need to be taken to revitalize the city, particularly for lower-wage workers and those left unemployed after September 11. This week, the Labor Community Advocacy Network tries to address these issues in their policy statement about rebuilding.
      Download their report (PDF format)

      April 15 - April 23
      Principles For Development and Blueprint For Renewal
      The Lower Manhattan Development Corporation unveiled its set of principles to guide development of the World Trade Center site and a blueprint for renewal with a number of initial proposals. Take a look at the principles and the blueprint (PDF format).

      April 8 - April 14
      John Whitehead On The Present And Future Of Downtown
      The Chair of the Lower Manhattan Development Corporation, John Whitehead, presents an update on the status of the recovery of Lower Manhattan and lays out his organization's plans for what will be done to rebuild downtown.

      April 1 - April 7
      Listening To The City: A Report
      How do everyday New Yorkers envision the rebuilding of the city? Last week we showed you how Imagine New York is trying to find out with look at their first workshop. This week, a new report from the Civic Alliance (PDF format) shows how that coalition of civic groups tried to pinpoint some answers to that question at their "Listening To The City" event in February.

      March 25 - March 31
      Bringing Democracy To Rebuilding
      While the Lower Manhattan Development Corporation is in charge of rebuilding downtown, one voice that has not been heard as much is that of the public. James Wong writes about how a project called Imagine New York is trying to get everyday New Yorkers to discuss their thoughts on rebuilding. Meanwhile, Nancy Biberman writes about the need for democracy and public input as the city begins to rebuild.

      March 18 - March 24
      The Psychological Impact
      Mental and emotional stress from September 11 is still a major issue for many New Yorkers. In our new section about the psychological impact you can find news and information about how New Yorkers are dealing with the stress even today and how they can find help.

      March 11 - March 17
      Six Months Later
      The city has made an amazing recovery in the six months since the terrorist attacks. Ground Zero will soon be cleared of rubble. Subways, schools, and businesses have reopened. And two temporary memorials will be unveiled this week. But as New York moves to the next phase of rebuilding there are many unanswered questions about what to build, who is in charge, and how it will be funded. Gotham Gazette takes a lookat the status of recovery and rebuilding, how far we have come and where we are headed.

      March 4 - March 10
      Charities: Relief and Controversy
      This week, the March 8 deadline approaches for those left unemployed by September 11 to apply for relief through some of the largest charities. Gotham Gazette brings you information about getting assistance and aid before the deadline, as well as how to donate your money or your time to helping those still in need. Our new Charities topic area also provides news about charities, including the recent flap over former Mayor Rudy Giuliani and the Twin Towers Fund.

      February 25 - March 3
      Rebuild Downtown Our Town White Paper
      Rebuild Downtown Our Town (R.Dot), a coalition of downtown residents involved in the rebuilding process, released its first white paper Tuesday on recommendations for rebuilding Lower Manhattan and the World Trade Center site.

      Archiving 9/11
      Archeological artifacts, one-of-a-kind photographs of John F. Kennedy, original manuscripts by Helen Keller, and of course, millions of documents from businesses were lost when the World Trade Center buildings collapsed. In the months since the attack, historians and archivists have struggled to assess what has been lost. And now they face the task of sorting through the enormous amount of information documenting September 11.

      February 15 - February 24
      Profile of the Lower Manhattan Development Corporation
      Good Jobs New York has produced the first comprehensive person-by- person profile of the eleven members of the Lower Manhattan Development Corporation. Find out who on the commission is a film financier; a community activist; the "ultimate power broker;" and a one-time dinner guest of a Taliban leader. (The report is in PDF format)

      February 8 - February 14
      Working Towards Recovery
      Last week we featured the different coalitions working towards rebuilding the city. This week, former City Council candidate David Reiss and former assistant district attorney Matthew Kleiner lay out a four-part plan for how these different groups can work together for New York City's recovery and rebuilding.

      February 1 - February 7
      Coalitions For Rebuilding
      Several groups have formed to come up with visions for a new downtown. These groups range from architects and designers to local residents and business leaders. Find out more about these coalitions for rebuilding with our summary of the largest coalitions.

      January 25 - January 31
      The "New" New York City Skyline
      It took seven years to construct the tallest buildings in New York City. They were destroyed in a single day. Paul Goldberger, architecture critic for the New Yorker magazine, describes how this sudden change to the skyline has affected us all and suggests what should be built to heal the skyline.

      Getting Back On Track (01/07/02)
      Jeffrey Zupan, senior fellow for transportation at Regional Plan Association, says that transportation is key to any rebuilding effort, and the many new (or renewed) proposals will make travel easier and better than before the terrorist attack.

      Eight Steps Toward Rebuilding Downtown (12/31/01)
      Carl Weisbrod, the president of the Alliance for Downtown New York, answers Dick Netzer's argument in Gotham Gazette that we should rebuild "Fast, Not Fancy - And in Midtown, Not Downtown." Such a suggestion, Weisbrod writes, is "an insult to the thousands of people who are working around the clock to stabilize the area." Downtown must be rebuilt, he says, and he offers eight ways to do it right.

      Living Near Ground Zero (12/10/01)
      The only member of the Lower Manhattan Redevelopment Corporation who actually lives in Lower Manhattan, Madelyn Wils, blasts the city for its inaction in helping the residents living near Ground Zero. Etta Sanders asks the people living downtown what it has been like in the past three months. Ann Farmerlooks at the tenants who are still not permitted back into their building near the World Trade Center site, a building with the horribly appropriate name of Post Towers.

      What Albany Must Do (12/10/01)
      If downtown Manhattan is to thrive once more, the city and state have to work together, writes State Comptroller Carl McCall. But instead, he charges, Albany is undermining redevelopment efforts. The candidate for governor offers his plan for what state and city officials must do if we are to restore the financial district and move forward.

      The Make-Up Of The Lower Manhattan Redevelopment Corporation (12/10/01)
      A look at the new 11-member Lower Manhattan Redevelopment Corporation -- "top-heavy," says Tom Angotti, "with business executives and City Hall insiders," and virtually void of people who live and work in the area -- or of the various victims of 9/11.

      Awards and Alarms: (12/3/01)
      America loves nobody more these days than a New York City firefighter. But the cheers at sports stadiums, the free trips and the bouquets cannot erase the difficulties confronting the department, writes David Schwartz and Christopher Stewart. The problems in some ways have just gotten worse. Many firefighters ache from the loss of so many "brothers" on September 11. Leaders with expertise and decades of experience lost their lives, and a nasty rift separates the commissioner from the rank and file. Meanwhile, as Jane Latour writes, the department remains overwhelmingly white and male, with fewer blacks than it had 36 years ago.
      Also: What does it take to be a NYC firefighter? Find out the requirements in 2001 -- and 1887.

      Dying On The Job (11/26/01)
      Immigrant construction workers face dangerous working conditions.

      Two Views on How to Rebuild (11/26/01)
      1. Make it fast, not fancy, Dick Netzer says, and in midtown, not downtown.

      2. We must pause and reflect, says Nancy Biberman, before trying to build anything on the hallowed ground.

      A Rocky Season (11/19/01)
      This is may be the season for giving thanks, and for giving, but it is "A Rocky Season" for New York's nonprofit agencies, as Linda Ostreicher explains.

      911 For Charities (11/19/01)
      Despite the generosity of the country, many nonprofit agencies are "Down and Out," -- reeling from the aftermath of 9/11, according to Dr. Megan McLaughlin, director of the Federation of Protestant Welfare Agencies. The resources of many agencies are being strained by the increasing need for services by the various victims. At the same time, the agencies' normal contributions are being diverted -- to newly created 9/11 charities.

      Not Always As Sweet (10/29/01)
      Debbie Almontaser is an Arab-American who wears the hjiab or head-covering of a devout Muslim. She is also a schoolteacher and a mother whose son is a soldier standing guard at Ground Zero. Above all, she is a New Yorker.
      Also: A brief look at the history of Arabs in New York City

      Danger In The Air? (10/22/01)
      1. The Anthrax Scare
      Does anthrax pose a serious threat, or will the panic over a few cases be what threatens an already overburdened and under funded public health system? A much greater risk than anthrax, Maia Szalavitz argues, may be panicking over bioterror and trying 'quick fix' solutions that won't ultimately protect people from either terrorists or natural diseases.
      2. The Environment Near Ground Zero
      The hundreds of government scientists who have been testing the air in lower Manhattan have reported that there is little to worry about. Yet in the last two weeks it has become increasingly apparent, Michael Burger charges, that the scientists are not looking for precisely the right thing -- or, if they are, they are not releasing that information to the public.

      Two Views Of The Twin Towers (10/15/01)
      As New Yorkers debate whether to replicate the World Trade Center, few have asked why the complex was built in the first place. Was it both the symbol and reality of global finance, as economist Rosemary Scanlon argues? Or was it just an elaborate scheme to bail out mid-century downtown business interests, as Robert Fitch maintains?

      Fund City (10/08/01)
      The month after the attack on the World Trade Center saw the largest outpouring of charity in history. But the many millions of dollars donated by the many millions of people throughout the nation and the world have already had some unintended consequences. There is growing concern about fraud and improper use of funds. There is a question as to who will oversee all of this money. And some say other charitable causes and nonprofits may suffer because so many have given so much to this one disaster.

      What We Will Do (10/08/01)
      We asked the candidates who will be in the Democratic runoff this Thursday, October 11th, for their plans on rebuilding the city. Betsy Gotbaum and Norman Siegel, facing each other for the Democratic nomination for public advocate, both address what their role in the rebuilding should be. Fernando Ferrer and Mark Green, facing each other in the runoff for mayor write follow-up essays to those they wrote earlier, which offer more specific details about their plans.

      What You Should Do (10/08/01)
      Rebuilding New York City includes restoring New Yorkers' psyches. Maia Szalavitz talks to one of the world's leading, and most opinionated, experts on post-traumatic stress disorder.

      A History Of Crisis And Recovery (10/01/01)
      In the very first week after the attack, the mayor looked to history for comfort and instruction in how New Yorkers could respond. The historical event he focused on was the blitz of London during World War II. But, as New Yorkers can discover in hundreds of history-related events starting this week, there is comfort and instruction as well in the long series of crises and recoveries that make up the history of New York City.

      Rebuilding NYC (9/20/01)
      The mayor and the speaker of the City Council have announced plans to form a special commission for rebuilding lower Manhattan. They are talking about creating a new Marshall Plan, which rebuilt Europe after World War II, for New York City. But what will the city look like? What should it look like? Three opinionated New Yorkers, two of them professors of urban planning, give their views, in the first of what will become a continuing series.

      The Lessons To Be Learned (9/17/01)
      We have had to explain to our children things that are incomprehensible to us, writes Teachers College President Arthur Levine.

      A Question Of Recovery: (9/14/01)
      While the city is mourning the loss of human life, of our sense of security, and of a piece of our skyline, small signs of recovery are beginning to show. Most schools have reopened, businesses are cleaning the dust from their window, and many subway lines are running. "We're going to come out of this stronger than we were before," Mayor Giuliani has vowed. "Emotionally stronger, politically stronger, economically stronger." But even to the city's greatest boosters, it is painfully clear that the challenges ahead are staggering, the questions overwhelming. A first glimpse of what may lie ahead.

      The Fight Against Terrorism In New York: (9/12/01)
      If there is any room for irony at the moment, there are two supreme examples. Two years ago, the mayor created an emergency management command center whose walls could withstand 200 miles-per-hour winds, and whose ventilation system was designed to blow out chemicals or germs in case of a germ warfare terrorist attack. The center was in the World Trade Center. It went down, along with everything else. Just weeks ago, a mayoral commission decided to put on the November ballot a proposal connected to the Office of Emergency Management. A look at the city's history of dealing with emergencies, especially terrorist attacks.

      The Twin Towers Attack: The First Hours (9/11/01)

      Where's Our $21 Billion?


      21billion

      Several months after September 11, 2001, President George W. Bush detailed $21.4 billion in pledged federal aid to New York City to help rebuild after the attacks on the World Trade Center.

      Three years later, New York is still grappling with the serious and lasting impact of the attacks. But because of the Bush administration's vague accounting, we do not know how much money we have actually received to date. The total amount of money we will eventually receive is also far from clear.

      mloney

      Unfortunately, it is clear that New York State's own poor decisions have made it even harder for New York City to get what it needs from Washington.

      SHORTFALLS IN 9/11 AID

      The Bush administration is required by law to produce a full accounting of this 9/11 aid. Why it has failed to do so adequately is extremely difficult for me to understand. Along with members of the New York Congressional delegation, I have urged the administration on seven separate occasions to detail when and where recovery funds have been used and to clarify what has not been sent to New York from the President's initial pledge.

      In late May, the White House Office of Management and Budget finally produced an attempted accounting document, but it can be called an "accounting" of 9/11 aid only by Enron standards. There is inadequate detail on where specific funds went for what purposes. In several instances, we don't know when, if ever, these funds were used.

      The document does not address the $268 million lost to wrongful taxation of 9/11 aid to downtown businesses. It also fails to explain how the administration intends to respond to billions in losses to our region that, at present, remain totally unaddressed. For example, city and state tax revenues lost as a result of 9/11 are estimated at $8.8 billion, for which the federal government has provided no assistance.

      Nor does it account for a shortfall of about $2.6 billion in "Liberty Zone" Tax benefits.

      "Liberty Zone" tax benefits made up fully one-fourth of the overall aid package, or about $5 billion, earmarked for New York's recovery by President Bush. These were intended to stimulate economic activity in Lower Manhattan. Now, most officials agree that $2.6 billion Liberty Zone benefits will go unused if Congress and the President fail to extend the deadline for when these benefits can be used, or alter how New York City can take advantage of the funds.

      Significant gaps in the federal response have made achieving a full economic recovery for New York a serious challenge. From the widest perspective, costs and losses from 9/11 total between $80 billion and $100 billion while federal aid designated for the region remains under $20 billion and insurance payments are estimated to be between $30 billion and $40 billion. This leaves New York alone to shoulder the burden of between $20 billion and $50 billion in losses, in addition to ongoing costs for anti-terrorism security measures, unanticipated long-term health costs from the disaster and increasing costs for rebuilding projects in Lower Manhattan.

      NEW YORK STATE'S POOR DECISIONS

      The city's financial problems go beyond those surrounding the president's $21.4 billion, however. Seeking additional help from Washington is made more difficult by poor decisions on the use of existing funds by New York State.

      For instance, rather than using current Liberty Bonds for their intended purpose, to help downtown redevelopment, Governor Pataki's administration is diverting $400 million for a power plant in Queens that is opposed by the community. This, even though Congress has said specifically that "public utility property and residential property located outside [Lower Manhattan] cannot be financed with the bonds."

      Because the Governor has left us no choice, I have joined several elected officials in a lawsuit challenging this misuse of the Liberty Bonds. Federal legislators from around the country will be much less likely to support future requests to help New York's recovery if we don't spend existing resources the way they were meant for use by Congress.

      THE FUNDS WE HAVE GOTTEN

      Billions of dollars have come in for the redevelopment of the World Trade Center Site and transportation projects throughout New York City. But a significant portion of the pledged funding that we received has only come after a tough fight by the New York congressional delegation. The good news is that after our sustained efforts, there are a number of successes to report:

      • $90 million for the health screening of sick and injured Ground Zero responders
      • $80.5 million for New York's school system to make up for lost instructional time resulting from the terrorist attacks
      • $33 million for the mental health needs of students affected by the disaster
      • $10 million in federal aid for universities damaged by the attacks
      • The extensive reform and expansion of Federal Emergency Management Agency's emergency response programs, leading to thousands more New Yorkers made eligible for individual grants and housing assistance after 9/11.

      Hopefully, our continued advocacy in Washington for New York's remaining recovery needs will lead to additional successes, but we will need a united front, including the governor and the mayor, to achieve much needed and more positive results.

      Congresswoman Carolyn Maloney represents the 14th District in New York, which includes parts of Manhattan and Queens.



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