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Rebuilding NYC

Rebuilding NYC

9/11/01-02: A Failure On 9/11, Life-Saving Innovations Afterwards

It would be easy to see technology as the bad guy in the events of September 11th. The terrorists, after all, used our own technology Ð our airplanes Ð against us. Rescue workers, several reports have concluded, were forced to rely on Inadequate communication technology. And the breakdown of technological infrastructure in the city -- electric, gas, broadcasting and telecommunication networks -- caused so many people so much frustration and anxiety. The city government itself was hit hard, according to New York City Councilmember Gale Brewer, head of the council's Committee on Technology: "Over 50,000 government phone lines were disabled; 26 municipal buildings were shut down; Internet capability was severely disrupted," she said. "We nearly lost the city's Web site, NYC.gov. And we had to build many Information Technology systems from scratch."

In a recent City Council report on 9/11, the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) was sharply criticized for not reimbursing the city for over $30 million in damage to information technology (IT) equipment that resulted from the attacks. As of July 2002, the payment was still pending approval and FEMA had cut its 9/11 recovery aid from 15 percent to only five percent.

But there is a flip side. The fast and efficient restoration of New York's electricity and communication networks was vital to the recovery effort. This is because each of these networks relies on the smooth functioning of the other. The city's electricity and telecommunications providers, Con Edison and Verizon, worked tirelessly around the clock to restore services despite having suffered extreme damage at their facilities.

And 9/11 sparked innovative uses of technology by city agencies in the emergency management efforts. Many new technologies such as high-tech maps, databases, and small electronic tracking devices were used during the recovery effort. These applications can be seen everywhere from the Chief Medical Examiner's Office to the Health Department and Housing Authority.

The rebuilding and recovery effort taught us many important lessons about the functioning of technological systems during times of crisis. The Internet emerged as one of 9/11's technological heroes because of its reliability as a back-up communication network when wired and wireless telecommunication networks were overloaded. In addition, the Internet was also used to store data because of its easy accessibility and decentralized nature. The city's website was used to relay vital emergency information.

High-tech maps of the city proved to be a vital resource during the crisis. Now, the same type of high-tech maps that were used during the recovery effort are being used by community boards to identify problems in their neighborhoods.

Databases were also important. But, since the city has no common database system, IBM created one that allowed the data to be entered electronically and transmitted to different agencies. This avoided having to ask families of victims to fill out the same form many times over.

Small tracking devices or Global Positioning Systems from PowerLoc Technologies, Inc. were key in helping to remove debris from Ground Zero. The technology allowed the city to document the exact location and amount of debris efficiently and flexibly. Similarly, personal items and evidence found among the debris were tracked and recorded with a small scanning device using GPS technology from LinksPoint.

Now, with these lessons in mind, the city is rebuilding its technological infrastructure. Some of the interesting technological opportunities recommended in the City Council report include making better use of existing technologies such as the Internet and text-messaging, redundant telecommunications networks, aerial photography, high-tech maps and NYC.gov. In addition, completely new initiatives such as a web-based emergency portal and a local Emergency Technology Corps are envisioned.

Laura's Favorite Sites For Beginners:

  • NYC.gov is New York City's electronic government portal or "one-stop government site." The site boasts more than 30,000 pages of content and 100 online transactional services.
  • The New York State Department of Public Service regulates electric, gas, telecommunications, steam, water and cable to insure that these utilities are reliable and low-cost. The Public Service Commission includes up to five members who are appointed by the Governor of New York State and serve six-year terms. The department's goal is to promote competition and streamline regulation. They offer information and services for consumers about choosing utility companies and filing complaints.
  • The New York Academy of Sciences (NYAS) is the third oldest scientific organization in America. The Manhattan-based Academy promotes the role science and technology in fostering social and economic development through analysis and discussion of public policy issues. The Science and Technology Policy Forum, a NYAS project, organizes public meetings, examines science and technology policy and brings leaders in the field.
  • The Internet Policy Institute (IPI) is the nation's first independent, nonprofit research, and educational institute created to provide objective, high-quality analysis, research, education, and outreach on public policy issues affecting and affected by the global development and use of the Internet.
  • Electronic Privacy Information Center (EPIC) is a public interest research center in Washington, D.C. established to focus public attention on emerging civil liberties issues and to protect privacy, the First Amendment, and constitutional values.
  • E The People is a nonpartisan site helping over 400 online newspapers, television stations and Internet portals bring government closer to the people. E The People is the organizer of America's Interactive Town Hall, an initiative that has collected 180,840 electronic signatures on 3,520 petitions. This Web site allows you to sign petitions and pay tickets on-line.
  • The New York City Department of Information Technology and Telecommunications (DoITT) is responsible for the city's effective utilization of existing and emerging voice, video, and data technologies in government operations and its delivery of services to the public.

    Other Recommendations:

    Privacy and Security:

    • The Center for Democracy and Technology (CDT) works to promote democratic values and constitutional liberties in the digital age. The center seeks practical solutions to enhance free expression and privacy in global communications technologies. It is dedicated to building consensus among all parties interested in the future of the Internet and other new communications media.
    • The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) enforces federal antitrust and consumer protection laws. This Web site includes information on consumer protection issues such as privacy and identity theft, and business and economic issues such as e-commerce and antitrust.

    Digital Divide:

    • Digital Partners is a nonprofit institute that helps create economic development opportunities for the poor by fostering collaboration between digital entrepreneurs and nonprofit leaders.
    • New York City Economic Development Corporation (EDC) works with the private sector to generate jobs and strengthen the economy by attracting business expansion and helping the established businesses in New York. The Digital NYC program helps hi-tech businesses find affordable, pre-wired office space in New York's new technology districts.

    Intellectual Property and Copyrights:

    • The Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) is the trade group that represents companies and individuals in the recording industry. They work to protect intellectual property rights worldwide and the First Amendment rights of artists; conduct consumer, industry and technical research; and monitor, review and influence state and federal laws, regulations and policies.


    • United States Department of Commerce promotes job creation, economic growth, sustainable development and improved living standards by working with the private sector, universities and communities. Year 2000 initiatives include formulating e-commerce policy and closing the digital divide.

9/11/01-02: A Demographic Portrait Of The Victims In 10048

The direct losses to New York and the United States from the WTC attack are incalculable. Yet, as the first anniversary comes and goes, the calculations go on apace.

More than two-thirds of the 2801 victims, or at least 1946, died on the upper floors near or above where the planes crashed: the top 19 floors of the North Tower and the top 33 floors of the South Tower. With the firefighters (343), the police and other rescue workers (about 90) and the victims from the two planes (157), and that accounts for about 90 percent of those who were killed.

Cantor Fitzgerald, the bond trading firm, lost 658 employees, by far the greatest number. Other companies and their losses:

  • Marsh and McLennan (the insurance firm) 295;
  • Aon (another insurance firm), 176;
  • Fiduciary Trust International (a financial firm), 87,
  • the Port Authority, 75;
  • Windows on the World restaurant, 73;
  • Carr Futures, 69;
  • Keefe, Bruyette and Woods, 67;
  • and Sandler O'Neil and Partners, 67.

All these were on high floors in one of the towers. Risk magazine, the trade bible of derivatives industry, which defined much of finance in the 1990s, was having a conference at Windows on the World. Everyone in attendance, including many high executives, perished.

Given the firms for whom many of those in the World Trade Center worked (as well as the large number of fire fighters and other rescue workers) the other demographic facts should not be that surprising. The victims were overwhelmingly male (about 75 percent), young (many under 40, most under 50), and white (about 75 percent). Only about eight percent were black, nine percent Hispanic, and about six percent Asian. About 75 percent were born in the United States; the rest came from many countries. Together New York and New Jersey accounted for about 87 percent.

We now know that the Upper East Side had the most losses (44), while Hoboken, NJ had the highest proportion of loss of any area, losing 39 residents, or about one per thousand. The number is probably even higher if parental addresses are taken into account. It is not surprising that many of the victims lived in very affluent parts of the metropolitan area, including the Upper East Side and Basking Ridge New Jersey.

But those working at 10048 represented many aspects of New York City society -- the wealthy older executives at the Risk conference or running some of the firms, the young traders on the make, the lawyers, the computer techies, the immigrants working in the service fields. After 9/11, 10048 is no more.

  • US Census Bureau -- The Census Web site is the premier site for data from the 2000 and earlier censuses, and from a variety of other sources. The site is very well indexed and has a very good search engine. You can order data, download data, make maps, download tables and publications, view publications, etc. As with any source it may have both more and less than you want for any specific use.
  • American FactFinder -- The American Fact Finder is meant to be the Census Bureau's main access point to data from the Censuses, the American Community Survey and a variety of other sources. Some criticize it for being hard to use for comparisons from one area to another. For a quick number or two it works like a charm.
  • US/NYS Departments of Labor -- Another exemplary source is the Local Area Unemployment Statistics unit of the US Bureau of Labor Statistics. Each month the Bureau, in a joint undertaking with the State, provides county by county estimates of the employment status of the working age population.
  • U.S. Commerce Department -- A comprehensive handle on where and how New Yorkers earn their livings. Also features information on Big Apple employers, salaries, industries and their revenues. Especially recommended is a database maintained as part of Commerce's Regional Accounts.
  • New York Metropolitan Transportation Council -- One of the more ambitious online undertakings in making regional and city statistical data. Contains data on population, employment and income, to name a few. Not always easy to use, but well worth the effort.

Other Recommendations:

  • New York City Department of Health -- Though the website of New York City's Department of Health is utterly confusing, their annual publication, "Summary of Vital Statistics for New York" is indispensable for would be students of population dynamics. And it's free. Call the Press Office at 212-788-5290 and ask for the Office of Vital Statistics and Epidemeology. Persevere.
  • New York City Department of City Planning -- The Department of City Planning has begun to update the data based upon Census 2000. Following the links and you can find discussion of changing New York City and some PDF maps.
  • New York City's Housing and Vacancy Survey -- Every three years or so the US Census Bureau provides New York City with a census-type survey of the city's households. Mandated by the rent regulation law, it contains much that is of interest to those concerned with social and economic change at the borough and neighborhood level. A compact disc containing the microdata files for the 1991, 1993 and 1996 surveys can be purchased from the Census Bureau. The 1999 survey tables and data re available for download.

9/11/01-02: Are New Yorkers Any Safer?

Most New Yorkers probably think that government learned a great deal from September 11 about protecting the city, its symbols, landmarks, and people. The attack's immediate aftermath saw a barrage of reassuring official actions that were military-like in their precision -- securing vital areas, shutting down ground access to the city, and patrolling New York's perimeter from the skies and seas. In the months since, the official presence has withdrawn from the skies and the streets, but most New Yorkers assume hopefully that this retreat masks ongoing work behind the scenes. Citizens have no way of knowing for sure, since all anti-terror operations are secret. For those who agree with the former city official who told Richard Cohen of the Daily News that the September 11 attack meant that "the government let us down," the secrecy is yet another barrier to evaluating government actions.

Most New Yorkers -- 72 percent -- believe another terrorist attack is very or somewhat likely, according to a poll conducted by Blum & Weprin for the Daily News. A plurality of 28 percent speculate that it will probably involve smaller-scale car bombs or suicide-bombers, while 20 percent anticipate the use of biological weapons and 16 percent expect chemical weapons. Still, 72 percent say they feel safer or as safe in the city as anywhere else in the country. Are they right?


September 11 badly damaged public confidence in the federal security agencies -- the FBI and the CIA -- but enhanced confidence in the NYPD, which immediately went onto Omega Alert, its highest state of readiness. Through what Police Commissioner Raymond Kelly calls "target hardening" it has since been able to reduce the number of officers assigned to Omega posts Ă‘not an insignificant matter since some violent crime, including rape, seems to be heading back up.

Nonetheless the New York Police Department has been refocusing the problem-solving strategy that helped reduce violent crime from local crime to terrorism. The strategy's specific elements, according to policing expert George Kelling, are accurate and timely intelligence, rapid deployment, effective tactics, and relentless follow-up and assessment. The media have contained many accounts of both historic and recent federal stone-walling of the NYPD on intelligence, the greatest federal failing, of course, on September 11. All parties now insist publicly that this is a problem of the past.

Perhaps it is. The NYPD is led by a police commissioner, Raymond Kelly, who has far stronger federal security credentials than any previous commissioner. His federal experience helps him in the many instances in which the NYPD tangles with the FBI and the federal Department of Justice over jurisdiction. As Cooper Union historian Fred Siegel says, "In a time in which the distinction between war and crime has narrowed, Kelly has already worked in positions in which he had to deal with this reality. Given that we're a target in New York, it's a huge asset that he's in a good position to make a difference."

Kelly has been aggressive, assigning NYPD personnel to areas that were once exclusively federal -- training some cops abroad, sending brass to the Naval War College, expanding the intelligence office to include foreign terrorism, and setting up a medical office to coordinate with federal agencies and the city's Department of Health on biological weaponry.

He has brought in high-level people with federal experience. He hired Ret. Marine Corps Lt. Gen. Frank Libutti as Deputy Commissioner for Counterterrorism to head a new division on counterterrorism and to direct the department's work with the FBI/NYPD Joint Terrorist Task Force. The idea is to ensure cooperation and flow of information between the agencies Ă‘not a strength in the past. Libutti oversees the new Terrorism Security and Analysis Section, which conducts comprehensive security assessments of terrorist threats in the city. An Incident Response Team has been set up to respond to requests for assistance at suspected terrorist events. Kelly also hired a former top CIA operative, David Cohen, as the new Deputy Commissioner for Intelligence. Both deputies report directly to Kelly, who also established a new position of medical adviser to coordinate with the Department of Health.

How effective are these measures? We're unlikely to know unless -- probably until -- there is another attack. Over the last decade, the city has been the target of at least three other known terrorist plots: the 1993 truck bombing of the World Trade Center; the 1993 plot to bomb the United Nations and the Holland and Lincoln tunnels; and the 1997 plan to bomb the subways. New York remains the symbol of capitalism and Western culture, and a target.


Even before September 11 New Yorkers had become accustomed to security measures deterring the common thug: metal detectors, photo IDs, bag searches, checks of electronic equipment. The devices are often primitive and the training of the personnel poor, but routine security checks have prevented at least some crime and perhaps some terrorism. The future, however, lies with high-tech solutions that are independent of human judgment, such as new sensing machines that can detect biologic agents, explosives, suspicious voids in truck cargo, or weapons hidden on someone a distance away. Private companies tend to be way ahead of government in spending the millions of dollars these machines cost.

The other set of measures are what the security trade calls Israeli tactics -- traffic-stopping checkpoints, street closings, intrusive questioning, random identification checks, intimate searches, and racial profiling. These are ostensibly meant to deter crime, but they are also meant to remind the public often and aggressively of the presence of terrorists and to get the public to accept the authority of the police and military. The inconvenience that accompanies these tactics is deliberate.

Giuliani's NYPD actually introduced a few of these ideas, such as the traffic-stopping checkpoints that were ostensibly for drunk-driving or seat-belt use. His 1998 pedestrian-controlling concrete barriers are another Israeli tactic, a re-engineering to encourage people to go only where they are directed and to accustom the public to accepting restrictions on their movements.

Street closings, immensely disruptive to the city's business and psyche, are increasingly being insisted on by powerful interests, including the federal government. The main federal building in Lower Manhattan, 26 Federal Plaza, has always had security problems. It houses the FBI field office that has investigated many terror plots. It houses the Immigration and Nationalization Service. Lines of anxious immigrants with federal applications snake around the building during peak periods. In late 2000, the General Service Administration installed barriers and posts and hired additional guards. Some federal officials are now urging the closing-off of Broadway(the main artery downtown), Centre Street (which leads to the Brooklyn Bridge), and Worth Street.

The public has very limited access now to most government buildings in New York. The new federal courthouse, for example, is blocked by a huge hydraulic truck barrier. Police headquarters, never really accessible since it was built during the Lindsay administration, has a 24-hour guard out front. Visitors must go through three checkpoints, carrying a government-issued photo I.D.

One bright spot on this glum governmental scene, however, is City Hall, which Mayor Bloomberg has re-opened to political events. press conferences and peaceful gatherings . They are again allowed on the steps of City Hall, as they had been from the early 19th century until the Giuliani administration.

And it's not just public buildings that have internal checkpoints and external barriers. Ugly concrete bolsters are being installed in front of otherwise handsome new buildings, like the Jewish Community Center on the West Side. The elegant glass, iron, and greystone building would be a beauty, if its exterior were not marred by white and yellow blocks of junky concrete, looking as if a sloppy contractor forgot to take them home.


Much as it will seek to protect itself, New York will only be safe insofar as others protect it as well. The plane that flew into the World Trade Center took off from Logan Airport in Boston, an airport that the Federal Aviation Administration has repeatedly cited for safety violations. Everyone wants whatever went wrong at Logan Airport in Boston fixed. But what was it that failed? And will the FAA's new proposals and restrictions on passengers work? Are tactics like the FAA's ban on steak knives in first class or the abolition of curbside checking effective? Certainly neither would have prevented the hijackings.

Mary Schiavo, former inspector general for the U.S. Department of Transportation, argues that aviation security is a law enforcement function, and belongs with a law enforcement agency, not the FAA. Law enforcement officials would be far less ready to listen to concerns about the weight of new cockpit doors (additional weight would affect the cost of every flight), or the extra costs of sky marshals or deputized pilots.

New York has an acute interest in these issues, and in all matters having to do with its air space. In May the FAA announced that its ban on flights by small planes and helicopters over key American cities had been lifted. Planes could return to flying under visual flight rules without asking permission to enter a city's airspace, or identifying themselves to FAA regional or local controllers.

Even before the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center, local officials had often been at odds with the FAA, which maintains that all small aircraft should be able to fly low, with no restrictions, over major cities and national monuments. This is in part because the FAA's role is to promote the aviation industry Ă‘not police or regulate it beyond preventing collisions. They argue that flying freely anywhere in the country is a basic American right and expectation. As an FAA representative said at a community meeting in Manhattan, the same rules that apply over Kansas wheat fields apply to flying over New York City.

There is little doubt but that Al Qaeda intends to use small planes to attack more targets. Plans to pack a corporate jet with explosives were found in a German apartment rented by suspected Al Qaeda terrorists. Cell members in the U.S. trained at flight schools, obtained small-plane pilot licenses, and sought to rent crop dusters. The FBI renewed its warning about air attacks in early July.

Even the FAA concedes that some landmarks may be vulnerable. Deferring to its sister federal agency, the National Park Service, the FAA in late June banned flights near the Statue of Liberty, Mount Rushmore, and the St. Louis Gateway Arch during the July 4 holidays. The Statue of Liberty ban will continue through September 30, and forbids any plane from flying below 1,500 feet within a 6,000-foot radius of the statue.

These bans may be comforting to some, but they are not significant security measures because the FAA has no air police to stop a plane violating its rules. It can only suspend the pilot's license and levy a fine. The NYPD, though it has an aviation unit and some older helicopters, has no official enforcement role or authority in the air over the city.

Anyone with a license can rent a plane at many of the approximately 2000 general aviation airfields within a short flight of New York. Few of these have more than the most minimal security. Pilot licenses, which are easily forged and carry no photos, are seldom verified. Planes, which can fly into these fields from almost anywhere in the US, are not inspected before departure. Helicopters do not even need an airport for departureÑand in any case can stop anywhere to pick up anything.

So long as New York's skies are open, the city is undefended. An attacker boarding an airplane at LaGuardia faces far more government inspection than one flying a plane at 700 feet across 42nd Street.

Sites For Beginners:

  • New York Police Department - Hokey design but good substance, particularly the feature that allows you to check out your own neighborhood. The department has begun posting crime figures for each of the city's 76 police precincts on both its own and City Hall's official websites. Precinct maps show where crimes have recently been committed. One drawback: the only official you can email is the commissioner. Still, that's better than nothing--if the commissioner reads and answers his email. Let us know what happens when you try.
  • Federal Bureau of Investigation, Unit for Crime Reports - The FBI's uniform crime reports are the nation's most useful tracking system for both violent crimes (murder and non-negligent manslaughter, forcible rape, robbery, and aggravated assault) and property crimes (burglary, larceny and theft, car theft, and arson.)
  • Vera Institute of Justice - Vera is a nonprofit organization, founded in 1961, that works collaboratively with government officials to develop innovative approaches to problems and to improve the quality of urban life both here and abroad. It is currently working with both the New York City and New York State police departments to strengthen police accountability through civilian complaint review, community policing, and computerized management systems.

Other Recommendations:

  • Mothers Against Drunk Driving - Long on policy positions and recommendations, short on data. If you want data, go immediately to the bottom of the home page and click on statistics, which will yield four drop-down windows: general statistics, fatalities, statistics by youth, statistics by race. Fairly cumbersome to get local and state data but can be done.
  • Families Against Mandatory Minimums - With the slogan "Let the punishment fit the crime," this national organization of citizens uses an effective combination of hard data and individual stories and photographs to argue for the abolition of state and federal mandatory sentencing laws. Its frequently updated "Latest News" section offers a concise, efficient way to learn about and track the issues of mandatory sentencing.
  • Community Justice Exchange - Works to bring together citizens and the criminal justice system to solve neighborhood problems. Their site is austere but well-organized. It provides information and assistance to community justice planners across the country, and carries a useful section on Best Practices that includes project profiles, problem-solving strategies, and a recommended reading list. It works as a pretty good do-it-yourself course on effective community activism.

September 11 Television

PBS's Frontline will show many documentarie, including Faith and Doubt at Ground Zero.

On September 10, 2002, ESPN, the all sports cable network, will air a special on the passengers that overtook the hijackers aboard Flight 93 which crashed in Pennsylvania. Why would a sports channel focus on airline passengers? "The four men, whose selfless acts revealed extraordinary character, had strong sports connections," ESPN said in a press release. For example, one had been a star high school quarterback and another was a national collegiate judo champion.

To mark the one year anniversary of the attacks, most of the television networks have suspended all of their regular programming in order to provide wall-to-wall coverage of the day's memorial events [See highlights of anniversary coverage by network or a schedule for 9/11/02.] The Country Music Channel will highlight patriotic songs and videos. Even the Food Network will suspend its cooking shows for two hours and run "a series of images, words, and music intended to inspire quiet reflection."

But this unusual programming is not just for the anniversary.

September 11, 2001 was a television event for most of the world, and even for many New Yorkers. For the last year, television has struggled to make the medium fit the events and has made substantial changes to its programming.

Viewers have witnessed an unprecedented amount of news coverage. Audiences have revisited the events through dozens of documentaries and benefit concerts. The story lines and opening credits of comedies and dramas have been altered to reflect the new reality in New York and the nation. Even sports events and late-night talk shows have been affected.

But while the phrase "September 11 changed everything" has been repeated over and over on television, some things on the small screen remain the same.


The History Channel will show a series of six specials on the attacks, the World Trade Center, the Pentagon and Islam.

Initially, the biggest changes in television occurred in the news industry as stations struggled to respond to the events then stretched their continuous coverage on for days. Several television news studios, including NBC Nightly News, even became the subject of the news when anthrax letters came addressed to their offices.

For the one year anniversary:

- NBC's Today show will have six hours of coverage before noon.
- ABC plans to reconstruct the events of the morning of 9/11 minute-by-minute.
- CBS will have an interview with President George W. Bush on 60 Minutes.
- Fox News has decided it will not air commercials for the entire day, responding to sponsors who were nervous about pitching their products on a national day of mourning.

Some critics argue that the anniversary coverage planned for the day - live reports from memorial services, documentaries, and extended TV magazine specials - is overkill. "There's a fine line between remembrance and mawkishness," wrote Wall Street Journal editor Daniel Henninger. "TV makes sure we cross it."

While the news, or at least the amount of it produced, has changed since September 11, studies suggest that while Americans followed the coverage in the first few weeks, they do not watch more news now than they did before the attacks. An April 2002 study by the Pew Research Center found that the total number of people who watch nightly network and cable news and follow international news stories continues to decline.


Artists, actors, and musicians have honored those who died in the attacks with series of lucrative benefit concerts and telethons over the last year.

The biggest television event was "America: A Tribute To Heroes," a telethon that aired ten days after the attacks on 30 different channels and was watched by 89 million viewers. The show raised $150 million, three times as much as any other television fundraiser in history.

It has also been impossible to show any kind of television event - sports, award shows, politics, or concerts - without honoring New York City. Television stations have also made it a practice of airing long and patriotic half time shows at sports events and the 7th inning rendition of "God Bless America" at baseball games instead of cutting away to commercials. The 2001 World Series had the strongest 9/11 sports connection as the New York Yankees played host to the fall classic while the fires continued to burn at Ground Zero.

Even the reclusive Woody Allen was convinced to make a rare television appearance at the 74th annual Academy Awards. Allen had never attended the show despite 20 nominations and 3 wins, but agreed to present a montage of movie clips celebrating his hometown.

The benefit concerts continue. On September 11, 2002, NBC will air the Lincoln Center's "Concert For America," and PBS will broadcast "A Requiem for September 11," a live concert event at Liberty State Park in Jersey City, New Jersey.


Since September 11, comedies and dramas, particularly those set in New York City, have dealt with the attacks in varying ways. Some fictional shows chose to edit their scripts -- an episode of "Friends" that made light of an airline bomb threat was cut - or to remove the towers from scenes or the title sequence as HBO's "Sex and the City" did last year. Some have made small tributes to the lost - the creators of "Everybody Loves Raymond" placed a photo of one their friends who died in the attacks on the mantel of the set.

Still others, like "Third Watch," a drama about New York City emergency rescue workers, wrote the real life events of 9/11 into their fictional story lines. And many programs, like "Spin City," a comedy about the fictional mayor of New York City, simply avoided the subject. "We could never, as a sitcom, handle this in a real authentic way that would be satisfying to us or America," the show's co-producer Michelle Nader told the New York Times.

Some believe the tragedy has increased the demand for television shows that help viewers escape. Channels like TV Land which replay long-canceled shows like "The Beverly Hillbillies" and "Gilligan's Island" have seen their ratings increase since September 2001. New network shows for the fall of 2002 feature half a dozen shows built around nostalgia for better times. Both Fox and NBC will debut new shows where the main character falls asleep and awakens in the 1980s.

"I think right now we are at a time in our country of fear and economic pain, and we yearn for a simpler time," Warren Littlefield, a TV executive that oversaw hits like "The Cosby Show" and "Cheers."


In the initial weeks and months after the attacks, the usual antics and stupid pet tricks of shows like "The Tonight Show," "The Late Show with David Letterman" and "Late Night with Conan O'Brien" seemed inappropriate to both writers and audiences. For a while, the mood on late-night television remained somber. Critics hailed David Letterman's first show after the tragedy when the visibly shaken host paid tribute to police officers, firefighters, and Mayor Rudolph Giuliani in a heartfelt speech.

A February 2002 survey by the Center for Media and Pubic Affairs found that the number of political jokes on late night talk shows dropped by more than 50 percent in the first week weeks after the attack and that appearances by serious guests like news anchor Dan Rather and former Secretary of State Madeleine Albright became more frequent.

By the spring of 2002, comedy had returned to normal and political jokes actually increased.

However, Bill Maher host of "Politically Incorrect," argues that unpatriotic comments contributed to the demise of his show. On September 17, Maher characterized U.S. military actions as "cowardly." Advertisers immediately pulled their ads and ABC cancelled the show in June of 2002.


Dozens of documentarieshave become a more regular part of television programming in the last year. The two-hour documentary "9/11" filmed by two French brothers was watched by nearly 39 million viewers, the most watched non-sports broadcast of the season. But as time progresses, television has increasingly returned to its pre-9/11 state.

"The war on terror has added new themes and concerns to our popular culture, but it couldn't make the old ones go away," Robert Thompson, a professor of media, wrote in a recent New York Times editorial. "For many people, getting back to normal includes making wisecracks and watching professional wrestling."

Later this year, television producers will construct their own made-for-TV versions of the events with two TV movies about former Mayor Rudolph Giuliani. One will be based on the biography by Village Voice writer Wayne Barrett and feature veteran actor James Wood in the title role. The other, entitled "Rudy Giuliani: Emperor of the City," will be produced by the same film company that did bio movies on Jesus and Moses.

Reports and Resources on the Economic Impact

The attacks added to New York City's tough economic times. Find out more with reports on the economic impact of September 11.

City Comptroller William Thompson's 2003 Report
New York City Comptroller September 2, 2003
The city comptroller found that New York City remained in recession during the second quarter of 2003, and that the "failure of the City's economy to recover after 30 months of recession, even though the national recession officially lasted only nine months, can at least in part be attributed to the lingering effects of 9/11."

City Comptroller William Thompson's Report on Fiscal Impact Of 9/11 on New York City
New York City Comptroller September 4, 2002
A report from the city comptroller's office detailing the economic costs of the September 11 terror attacks on the World Trade Center. Entitled "One Year Later, The Fiscal Impact of 9/11 on New York City," the report provides a comprehensive examination and analysis of the financial toll exacted by the attacks on the City's economy, budget and cash flow.

The Employment Impact of the September 11 World Trade Center Attacks: Updated Estimates based on the Benchmarked Employment Data
Fiscal Policy Institute March 8, 2002
An update to Fiscal Policy Institute's previous publication about the economic impact of September 11

Economic Impact of Terrorist Attack on New York City: A Fact Sheet (PDF format)
The Century Foundation January 28, 2002
A document summarizing the various reports and studies about the economic impact of September 11 on the city

Economic Impact of the September 11 Terrorist Attacks and Strategies for Economic Rebirth and Resurgence. (PDF format)
James Parrott, Fiscal Policy Institute, December 6, 2001
Fiscal Policy Institute's analysis of the effect of September 11 on New York's economy. Focuses on effects on low-wage workers.

Working Together to Accelerate New York's Recovery
Economic Impact Analysis of the September 11th Attack on New York City. From the New York City Partnership
A report from the New York City Partnership outlining the impact of September 11 on businesses throughout the city, specifically downtown.

Back to Work Since September 11 (PDF format)
The Community Service Society of New York releases a position paper which addresses the impact of 9/11 on low-wage workers.

Testimonies from the November 6 hearings on the Economic impact of the Sept. 11 Terrorist Attacks and Strategies for Economic Rebirth and Resurgence
Held by the New York State Assembly Subcommittees on Economic Development and on Small Business

Statements From:
Adam Friedman, NY Industrial Retention Network
James Parrott, Fiscal Policy Institute
David Jones, Community Service Society
Linda Dworak, Garment Industry Development Corporation

Twin Towers Attack

Shortly before 9 a.m., while a customer was waiting for his bialy to be toasted, the owner of Grace Deli at 198 Broadway rushed in. "There was an explosion at the World Trade Center." The customer asked if he was joking, but the owner shook his head grimly. About half a dozen of the people in the deli rushed out to see the twin towers, right across the street.

All we could see was a darkened band near the top, something like the band around a cigar, that was spreading. It was the first moment in a day that witnesses, those who survived, may never forget, a day when two planes crashed into the twin towers of the World Trade Center, and the buildings completely collapsed. It was, officials say, the worst act of terrorism in United States history. For the rest of the day, people who saw what happened were walking around, telling the story of what they had seen, of what they had lived through, to anyone who would listen.

Rob Ercoreca had a closer view. He was walking through a courtyard at 4 World Financial Center when the first plane hit. "Glass and concrete were flying down. I went under a bench. People started jumping, and they would literally explode when they hit the ground. I ran towards them. I don't know why. Maybe you never know if someone might be alive."

At about the same time, Nigel Scott, a bond broker, was working on the 55th floor. He felt the building shake. He looked out the window, and saw flames on the sister tower. "The flames were rolling across the building... I saw people jumping from the building, right in front of me."

Security came over the loud speakers and told everyone to stay put. He called his girlfriend, to tell her he was okay.

Then the second plane hit; this time, his tower. "The sound was huge. I heard a jet, and then an explosion. Everyone was thrown to the floor. My head is still ringing. I will never forget that sound."

Frank Broughton, who works for the Bank of New York at 101 Barclay, saw the second plane hit from his office. "The plane came in, and then looked like it was trying to veer off. It was too late. I saw people jumping out the window to get out of the way." He said after the first attack, security told everyone to stay in the building and move to the north end. After the second attack though, Broughton got out; "I was thinking, I have family, I need to talk to my family."

At 10 a.m, the first building collapsed. It was slow motion movie-life; an explosion of flames, the building crumbling, the great rumble reaching the crowd, and then a cloud of ash, first in a bubble low to the ground.

Momentarily, the crowd was paralyzed, not seeming to accept what had happened.

Then the cloud spread. There was a heavy rush of debris, as thick as an avalanche, as frightening as nuclear fall-out, looking like Mount St. Helen's had erupted in downtown Manhattan. It was nearly impossible to breathe. The cops yelled; "Run, run. That's asbestos in there. Don't walk, run!" People ducked in buildings, behind cars, in locked doorways.

Covered in about an inch of the finely-ground white-grey ash, an African-American woman who now looked white was limping alongside a man in the middle of Fulton Street. "It's ok, I'm here, I'm here, I'm here, it's ok, I'm here," the man said to her, as she cried.

People were stumbling east away from the towers, trying to escape. Some hid in doorways, trying to shield their faces.

After the cloud had settled a little, Mayor Rudolph Giuliani walked through the street, looking straight ahead. "Everyone should remain calm and head north above Canal" He told the people surrounding him that he had contact with the president. "Stay calm."

"Move north, move north," an emergency services personnel was yelling out. "Don't go east"

If the ground concrete and glass formed a blanket several inches thick on the street, the burned bits of memos, day planners, bills floated in the air all the way across the river several miles away to neighborhoods like Carroll Gardens, where the dust and soot settled on cars. Politicians who had planned to spend the day handing out campaign literature on the street instead passed out dust masks.

Shortly after 11am, local bars were full of people watching television, giving their own eye witness accounts and talking about friends and relatives who work in Lower Manhattan.

Others, looking to help in any way possible, went to the local hospitals and helped organize anyone who passed by on the street to go to a nearby blood donation center.

"I don't work with anyone or any organization. I'm just a volunteer. I figured I'd stand here and help," said William Burton, a Carroll Gardens resident. Burton gathered groups of three or four people, then flagged down a car to serve as a make-shift shuttle.

By 12:45pm, over 200 people lined up outside the blood donation center on Lawrence Street near Borough Hall.

"I just wanted to do something," said Lisa Abernathy, a college student at the City University of New York. "I could only watch the TV so long. When I heard they needed blood, I figured it was something I could do, even if it was small."

At one point, workers at the blood bank were so overwhelmed they handed out donation forms for people to fill out and asked them to return after 6:00pm.

With limited subway service and area bridges closed, the Brooklyn Bridge filled with a parade of what looked like refugees--Wall Street traders in blue jackets, business people in suits covered in grey dust, and mothers and children with dust masks--being evacuated from lower Manhattan.

One woman met her grandmother at the base of the bridge, where they embraced and wept.

Near Borough Hall, police tried to direct people to buses that would take them to Crown Heights, Bed-Stuy, and Far Rockaway. One woman wondered how she could get to Staten Island.

"All the bridges are closed," an officer told her. "No one is going over the Verrazano Bridge and no one is going back into Manhattan." Across the city, all fire fighters and police, including off duty and those on vacation, were called in. Even young police recruits were brought in to help direct traffic and flag down car service for elderly and handicapped people.

September 11th, 2001 had started with candidates for mayor voting early in front of the cameras. It was a light turnout. "The difference between American and a lot of other places is that we can vote, we have a democracy," one of the candidates told reporters."It's a shame that such a small percentage of Americans take the opportunity."

Seven hours later, at 3 p.m., the fact that this was Election Day was all but forgotten, and Mayor Giuliani was giving a press conference at "undisclosed location." After explaining what they knew, and assuring New Yorkers that the city was safe, he asked everybody to pray for strength. "American democracy is much stronger than vicious cowardly terrorism, and we're going to overcome this."

By Mark Berkey-Gerard, Jonathan Mandell, and David Schwartz

Posted 4:30 p.m., September 11


The Psychological Impact

There is no doubt that September 11 has taken a psychological toll on New Yorkers. Learn more about how New Yorkers have been reacting and what resources are available to help you deal with mental stress caused by September 11.


What You Should Do
Gotham Gazette - October 8, 2001
Rebuilding New York City includes restoring New Yorkers' psyches. Maia Szalavitz talks to one of the world's leading, and most opinionated, experts on post-traumatic stress disorder.

More Resources

LIFENET is a free, confidential referral service of The Mental Health Association of New York City, in collaboration with the New York City Department of Mental Health. Their Project Liberty is a coordinated outreach and crisis counseling program for individuals, families, and groups most affected by the September 11th disaster and its aftermath.

1-800 LIFENET (1-800-543-3638) or 1-212-995-5824.
1-877-298-3373 or 212-533-7007 (Spanish)
1-877-990-8585 or 212-254-2731 (Asian Languages)

Safe Horizon
Hotline for anyone who needs help recovering from general distress, grief or the loss of a loved one. Call 800-621-HOPE (4673) or 212-577-7777.

List of Mental Health Services Facilities (in PDF format)
A list of support groups, counseling services, mental health clinics, and other resources around the city for dealing with psychological stress as a result of September 11. The list is provided by the city's Office of Emergency Management.

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Web Links:

The PTSD Alliance - An informative website, by an alliance of organizations concerned with trauma and PTSD.
American Psychological Association's Trauma Page - A resource with information from the APA on coping with trauma and getting professional help.
The Sidran Foundation - A non-profit organization devoted to research, advocacy and education to help people who have experienced trauma
The International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies - Research and information about traumatic stress
Trauma Pages - A master resource created by a researcher in the field which links to numerous pages on PTSD and trauma.
Therapist Finder - An interesting page which offers help to people seeking specific types of therapists near them.
Child Trauma Academy - Info on helping children cope.

News Stories

Interviewers In 9/11 Oral History Project Were Changed By Experience - Feb 14, 2003
About a year ago, 30 interviewers armed with tape-recorders and resolute curiosity fanned out across New York City, seeking true-life stories of 9/11. The 449 accounts they came back with, on more than 400 hours of tape, captured the horror, and sometimes, the spiritual transcendence of those days. But something else happened, too. The interviewers, working for Columbia University's 9/11 Oral History Narrative and Memory Project, became entangled themselves in the stories they'd heard. (New York Times)

New Study Will Examine Firefighters' Mental Health - Nov 13, 2002
The union representing city firefighters announced yesterday that it has launched a massive study of nearly half its members to examine their mental health and the factors that cause excessive stress on and off the job. The Uniformed Firefighters Association said the study will be conducted by Cornell University's School of Industrial and Labor Relations, which will poll 3,000 firefighters and 300 retirees. (New York Post)

9/11 Mental-Health Funding for City Schools Stalls - Oct 22, 2002
Students haunted by the terror attacks will have to wait for extra mental-health counseling as the feds and the state dawdle in getting money to city schools. So far, the Federal Emergency Management Agency has distributed up $8.9 million of the $40 million that school officials deem necessary to deal with the emotional fallout from Sept. 11, according to Education Department records. (New York Daily News)

A WTC Survivor Offers Thanks to Therapists - Oct 6, 2002
World Trade Center survivor Lauren Manning thanked the occupational therapists who helped her, in front of a crowd of therapists gathered at the Brooklyn Campus of Long Island University for their annual state conference. (Newsday)

September 11 and Mental Health: The Profession Tests Its Limits - Sep 11, 2002
In the midst of the crisis following the September 11 attacks, the city's abundance of mental health professionals turned out to be a mixed blessing. There was no shortage of help, but few practitioners were trained in disaster response. City officials and agencies like the Red Cross had little control over therapists who wandered into firehouses, made their way to ground zero or stopped people on the street to offer counseling. Also, for the first few days no mechanism was in place to allow researchers to collect data that could teach crucial lessons about why some people are resilient while others are not, and which treatments are effective for whom. (New York Times)

City Seeks Names of Students Struggling After 9/11 - Sep 10, 2002
Six months after Sept. 11, an anonymous survey of more than 8,000 New York City schoolchildren found that one in 10 was experiencing post-traumatic stress disorder and 26 percent had at least one of seven other mental health disorders, including anxiety, depression and substance abuse. Now, city officials want to know who these children are. (Newsday)

For Psychologist, Year of Grief Brings New Understanding - Sep 10, 2002
"The past year has forced me to cross the border from provider to patient, and it taught me how much I did not know," writes psychologist Robert Klitzman, whose sister died in the World Trade Center attacks. (New York Times)

Post-9/11 Coping, From Preparedness to Fatalism - Sep 10, 2002
Some New Yorkers are preparing for another terrorist attack by loading up on safety devices; others are getting their affairs in order. Parents and single people alike are weighing the scary possibilities and quietly pursuing a strategy of personal preparedness. (New York Times)

New Yorkers Still Fearful One Year Later - Sep 7, 2002
An overwhelming majority of New Yorkers think about the September 11 attacks at least once a week, with almost half thinking about them at least once a day, according to a poll from Newsday. Furthermore, some New Yorkers from outside Manhattan are taking less frequent trips into Manhattan, while over 70 percent of those surveyed foresee another terrorist attack taking place in the United States in the future. (Newsday)

New Yorkers Stressed, Few Seek Help - Sep 6, 2002
A government study of 3,512 people in New York, New Jersey and Connecticut found that 75 percent reported having emotional problems after Sept. 11, but only 12 percent asked for help, even from friends and family (Associated Press)

Poll Finds Children Still Traumatized by 9/11 - Sep 4, 2002
Nearly a year after the Sept. 11 terrorist attacks, children in New York City and nationwide are still showing signs of psychological trauma related to the disaster, a poll has found. Sixty-nine percent of parents in New York - and more than 40 percent of parents nationwide - say nightmares, anxiety, headaches and depression continue to plague their children. (Associated Press)

9/11 Counseling Shunned - Aug 22, 2002
Project Liberty, an unprecedented federal counseling program designed to help New Yorkers traumatized by the Sept. 11 attacks is being faulted by some mental health experts for trying to treat millions who have no direct link to the tragedy. In May, the Federal Emergency Management Agency gave the state $132 million for Project Liberty. The grant was the largest of its kind in FEMA's history and came on top of a previous $22.7 million allocation. But through last week, only 220,000 people had reached out to Project Liberty. (New York Daily News)

Program to Cover Psychiatric Help for 9/11 Families - Aug 21, 2002
The American Red Cross and the September 11th Fund said yesterday that they would underwrite the expense of extended mental health treatment for people directly affected by the terrorist attacks last year. The effort may be the most ambitious ever undertaken by charitable organizations to address the emotional needs of disaster victims. (New York Times)

Some Lower Manhattan Residents Make Plans to be Elsewhere - Aug 11, 2002
While the city busies itself with ceremony schedules, some Lower Manhattan residents are making plans to be elsewhere on Sept. 11. (New York Times)

A Hard Year for 9/11 Victims' Children - Aug 9, 2002
With the coming anniversary of the day the world fell down, some in the adult world will try to have Sept. 11, 2002, signify the date on which life moves on. But for the children who lost a parent, sometimes two parents, or for those who never found the parent's body, some fear that the confusion has left some unmedicated sores that will fester. In the long term, child psychologists foresee anxieties, irrational fear of death, aggression, attachment disorders. (New York Times)

Remembering Sept. 11 in a Personal Way, or Maybe Ignoring It - Aug 8, 2002
The Times asked 20 New Yorkers how they plan to observe the anniversary of Sept. 11, and got at least 10 different answers. While some plan to stay at home and remember Sept. 11 with their familes, others said they had had more than enough remembrance of Sept. 11 already. (New York Times)

Mending the Hearts Broken on Sept. 11 Is as Difficult as Explaining the Cost - Jul 22, 2002
Charity officials are struggling to prove that money allocated for providing mental health care to those traumatized by the Sept. 11 attacks is being well spent. (New York Times)

Career Profiles of 9/11 Dead Arouse Anxiety - Jul 9, 2002
The staff of Cantor Fitzgerald have prepared a detailed accounting of the performances and prospects of the firm and its 658 lost employees. The book is meant to arm families of Sept. 11 victims in their fight for federal compensation awards. But as both those who are assembling the Cantor document and those about to open it realize, it could well be yet one more minefield for a bruised and fragile population of survivors. The document and other similarly detailed packages being prepared by the companies with the greatest losses at the World Trade Center are a kind of emotionally loaded statistical yearbook. (New York Times)

At Camp for Sept. 11 Children, Grief Is Close - Jul 6, 2002
There are dozens of summer camps running programs for families shattered by Sept. 11. Some have built-in bereavement programs. Others are simply intended to let children get away and have fun. But all the programs are grappling with a common obstacle: while many children could benefit from a getaway in the country, many are not ready to be away from their remaining parents. (New York Times)

Relatives Channel Grief into Activism - Jun 30, 2002
Gov. Pataki's promise yesterday that no one will build on the footprint of the Twin Towers is in part the fruits of dogged work by kin of 9/11 victims who have risen to lead family groups to become a powerful force in the city and nation. (New York Post)

Cops Getting Help for 9/11 Stress - Jun 21, 2002
So far, nearly 500 police officers, primarily first responders to the World Trade Center attacks and Emergency Service Unit officers who spent months digging at Ground Zero, have used the police department's counseling program. (New York Daily News)

9/11 Paramedics Seek Counseling - Jun 13, 2002
After two suicides by paramedics who worked extensively at Ground Zero, the cityÕs paramedics union called on the Fire Department yesterday to implement mandatory counseling for those who worked at Ground Zero. (Newsday)

More Drinking and Smoking in 9/11 Study - May 29, 2002
Manhattan residents drank more alcohol and smoked more tobacco and marijuana after the Sept. 11 attack, researchers say. The researchers, at the New York Academy of Medicine, surveyed nearly 1,000 residents in the two months after Sept. 11. A quarter of respondents said they drank more than usual in the five to eight weeks after the attack on the World Trade Center; nearly 10 percent said they had been smoking more cigarettes and more than 3 percent said they had been smoking more marijuana. (Associated Press)

A Third Of Public School Children Surveyed Will Need Mental Health Assistance After September 11 - May 14, 2002
N.R. Kleinfield profiles individual children to illustrate the conclusions of a recent study by the Board of Education. The study found that "roughly 200,000 of the 712,000 public school children in grades 4 through 12 were candidates for some sort of mental health intervention - at least a visit with a mental health professional - because of the lingering trauma of September 11." (New York Times)

Report on Mental Health of City Children After September 11 Prompts Consideration of Treatment - May 13, 2002
A recently published study by the city's Board of Education found that about 75,000 of the more than 710,000 public school students in grades 4 through 12 are suffering symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder, and as many as 190,000 have mental health problems, both related and unrelated to 9/11. The study and the underlying reality have spurred an intense debate about how to proceed. Psychologists who specialize in trauma want the Board of Education to screen students and find those with emotional problems -- especially those suffering in silence, crying themselves to sleep or having nightmares or getting psychosomatic aches and pains. (New York Times)

Thousands Of Children Throughout Five Boroughs Showing Signs of Mental Stress After September 11 - May 2, 2002
Tens of thousands of public-school children throughout New York City, not just near Ground Zero, are experiencing chronic nightmares, fear of public places, severe anxiety and other mental health problems months after the World Trade Center attack, a study conducted for the Board of Education has found. The study estimates that 10.5 percent of the children in the 4th through the 12th grades suffered post-traumatic stress disorder after Sept. 11. Even more (15 percent) suffered agoraphobia, or fear of public places. (New York Times)

New Yorkers More Fearful of Terrorism Than Residents of Other Cities - Apr 26, 2002
New Yorkers are more worried about future terrorism than other Americans, a new poll shows. 22% of New Yorkers worry a great deal about another attack, according to a survey by the Center for Public Policy at the University of Houston. By contrast, 14% in Chicago and 13% in Los Angeles and Houston worry a lot about the possibility of attacks on their cities, the center said. (New York Daily News)

Dispatchers Still Haunted by the Voices of Sept. 11 - Apr 17, 2002
Police Commissioner Raymond W. Kelly recognized 192 police communications workers yesterday for the vital service they provided on Sept. 11. Many recounted their troubling stories. In many cases, their voices were the last voices the victims heard. There were more than 3,000 calls within the first 18 minutes; more than 57,000 calls in the 24 hours after the first plane hit at 8:46 a.m. It was the single busiest day ever for the dispatchers, with nearly twice the average number of calls logged. (New York Times)

People Still Experiencing Trauma Throughout New York Metro Region - Apr 7, 2002
A new report released today from the Red Cross finds residents across the New York region are continuing to experience increased symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder. The survey, conducted by Strategic Surveys International, is the first report to document the widespread prevalence of trauma beyond Manhattan. Researchers found 30 percent of those interviewed were at increased risk for post-traumatic stress disorder. In addition, 43 percent expressed feelings of hopelessness and fear about the future. Thirty-one percent said they worried about the ongoing threat of terrorism or that more people could die, and 22 percent feared for the safety and security of their families. (Newsday)

Americans Slept Less After September 11 - Apr 2, 2002
Almost seven out of 10 Americans experienced some sleep disturbance after the terrorist attacks of Sept. 11, says a survey that also shows almost half the people say their sleep is only fair or poor. (Associated Press)

New Study Finds Thousands in Manhattan in Need Of Psychiatric Treatment After September 11 - Mar 28, 2002
In the aftermath of the World Trade Center collapse, tens of thousands of Manhattan residents suffered emotional difficulties severe enough to warrant psychiatric treatment, according to a report in the new issue of The New England Journal of Medicine, out today. The study, a random telephone survey of 1,008 adults living below 110th Street, is the first to appear in a peer-reviewed journal. The overall rates of post-traumatic stress and depression found in the study were two to three times as high as those normally found in any given year, the researchers said. (New York Times)

As Chapel Closes For Cleaning, Workers Miss A Sanctuary From Ground Zero - Mar 24, 2002
When St. Paul's Chapel closes its doors after the Easter sunrise service for an interior and exterior cleaning, the recovery workers who have relied on it for warm meals, quiet reflection and a place to sleep are not sure where they will go. The cleaning, which is expected to last a month and cost several hundred thousand dollars, is necessary to reopen the church to its congegration and visitors. (New York Times)

New York City Colleges Cite September 11 For Drop in Number of Applications - Mar 22, 2002
While applications at many selective colleges around the country grew this year, New York University, Columbia and Barnard College all experienced declines, with some admissions officials blaming Sept. 11 jitters by families uneasy about sending their children to New York City. (New York Times)

Renewed Feelings Of Loss And Urgency At Ground Zero As Cleanup Nears Completion - Mar 17, 2002
With more bodies being found in a newly uncovered area of Ground Zero, the feeling of urgency to recover the bodies has returned to the site, something not felt since the early days of the cleanup. At the same time, a feeling of loss hangs over the workers, and not just for their fallen brothers found in the site. With the amount of dirt and rubble rapidly diminishing, workers who have developed a kinship with their recovery team, many having worked seven days a week since September, are having a hard time letting go. (New York Times)

Mental Health Experts Say Problems Still Abound Six Months Later - Mar 11, 2002
Mental health professionals across the country say the psychological fallout from Sept. 11 -- affecting people with chronic psychiatric and addiction problems and people who had never experienced anything like the wrenching angst they are battling now -- is strikingly pervasive. They say that they are seeing more serious problems now -- and more evidence of a widespread anxiety -- than they did in the immediate aftermath of Sept. 11, attributing it to a delayed reaction after the shock of the attacks wore off. (New York Times)

Poll Shows Majority of New Yorkers Felt Mentally or Emotionally Distressed After Sept. 11 - Mar 10, 2002
A poll conducted by the Daily News and cable station NY1 revealed that 68% of New Yorkers feel the city is as safe or safer than any other place in America. 70% of those polled said they do not believe the Environmental Protection Agency or other government agencies' reports that the air quality around Ground Zero is safe. 59% of all New Yorkers -- including 67% of those living or working downtown -- say they suffered financial setbacks after the terror attacks. And 56% also admit that at some point after Sept. 11 they were racked by depression, sleeplessness, anxiety or nightmares. (New York Daily News)

Second Wave of Emotional Trauma Beginning To Hit New Yorkers - Mar 5, 2002
Nearly six months after the Sept. 11 terrorist attacks, psychologists say a second wave of emotional trauma is hitting New Yorkers, and it may be tougher to treat than the first. After a lull in November and December, calls to employee-assistance programs and private counselors in the city have started up again. And while it was acceptable -- even desirable, in a way -- to confess to feelings of stress a few months ago, now revealing anxiety may be riskier and more difficult than immediately after the attacks. (Wall Street Journal)

Health Department Campaign Aims At Psychological Healing - Feb 3, 2002
Hand-scrawled posters that read like pages torn from a diary are promoting New York Needs Us Strong, a city Health Department campaign offering free crisis counseling for anyone feeling the strain of the World Trade Center attacks. The city program is part of Project Liberty, a state initiative funded by a $23 million grant from the Federal Emergency Management Agency. The campaign refers people to LifeNet, a 24-hour hotline operated by the Mental Health Association of New York City. Although almost five months have elapsed since Sept. 11, the demand for psychological counseling services has continued to rise, experts say. LifeNet saw its calls double after Sept. 11. In December, the state started promoting the hotline in television and radio ads, and the number rose further: The hotline received 11,650 calls in December and January, compared with 5,300 a year earlier, said director John Draper. (Newsday)

Terror Attacks Take Hidden Toll - Jan 20, 2002
Posttraumatic stress disorder is afflicting much of the NYPD and FDNY since September 11. According to their own departments, 1,150 police officers and 1,800 firefighters have sought counseling since September 11. At any given time since September 11, there are 75 firefighters "off-line" for stress-related reasons - an exponential jump from the pre-September 11 average of 5 to 10. Both departments are urging their members to seek counseling, despite cultures that discourage seeking help. Experts warn that those who are not manifesting posttraumatic stress symptoms now may still do so a year or more later. (New York Daily News)

Downtown Is Slower to Embrace Optimism - Dec 22, 2001
Three months after it was blanketed with smoke and choking ash, Lower Manhattan has largely returned to its former harried self. Gone are the National Guardsmen who stood sentinel at the avenues below Canal Street, checking ID's. Most businesses in the area formerly known as the frozen zone have reopened. Some of SoHo's most stylish restaurants, once eerily empty, are happily turning away diners on Saturday nights. "The pessimism has lifted and there's a joyousness in the air," said Ashley Massie, 32, a Stuyvesant High School teacher and Battery Park City resident who almost moved away. "For the first time in months, we feel like we can live again." But for every optimist, there are a dozen pessimists still fitful and sad, uncertain whether their beloved neighborhoods will fully recover (New York Times)

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