The Memorial Jury
By Erica Pearson
One is officially a genius; two have already been dismissed as
political hacks. One designed the new Brooklyn Library for the Visual
and Performing Arts; another was president of the New York Public
Library. One is a famous designer, another is responsible for Jeff
Koons' flowering puppy in Rockefeller Center.
On April 10, the Lower Manhattan Development Corporation named the 13
people who will judge the competition for the 9/11 memorial. They
include well-known artists, academics and architects, as well as a lower
Manhattan resident and the wife of a 9/11 victim. David Rockefeller, who
initiated the development of the original Twin Towers, will be the 14th
member, an honorary member who will not vote.
The governor and mayor each appointed one representative, and the New
York Post immediately criticized
both political appointees for not having the arts background necessary
to choose the memorial.
These 13 people will determine the future of the memorial largely on
their own. There will be a public hearing about the memorial on May 28, before any of the designs have been submitted, [see timeline, right]
and jury members will meet with interested groups, such as victims family members, throughout the competition to get input on
their priorities for the memorial. But all decisions will be up to the jury.
| Memorial Timeline |
April 28, 2003
The competition will officially begin on April 28, when anyone 18 or
older may register to submit a design for the memorial at
There will be a public forum on the memorial, held at the Borough of Manhattan Community College's TriBeCa Performing Arts Center.
Registration, in which each applicant gets a
number so that the first stage of the competition will be anonymous,
will continue until May 29.
June 9 - 30
Only those who have registered will be able to submit designs,
from June 9 to June 30.
The members of the jury will spend late summer
evaluating all of the submissions, and will select five finalists in
mid-September. The finalists will then get a stipend to refine their
design and build a model.
There will be a public exhibition of the
finalists before the jury decides on a single design in late October or
The jurors are (listed alphabetically):
Paula Grant Berry
Paula Grant Berry's husband David was killed in
the south tower of the World Trade Center on September 11. A member of
the Lower Manhattan Development Corporation's Families Advisory Council,
Grant Berry was one of four family members who traveled with development
corporation members on a five-day tour of memorials around the United
States. Grant Berry, who lives in Park Slope, also was a member of the
committee that drafted guidelines
for the memorial.
"I will work my hardest to ensure that the memorial helps us all find
the peace and meaning we are seeking," Grant Berry said in a statement
after her appointment.
Susan Freedman is president of the Public Art Fund , which
coordinates projects like the current installation of art in City Hall
Park and Jeff Koons' flowering puppy in Rockefeller Center in 2000. She
is a board member at the Museum of Modern Art, the Municipal Art
Society, and others, and worked for the city's Arts Commission under Ed
Vartan Gregorian, Ph.D.
Vartan Gregorian is president of the
Carnegie Corporation of New York, and was Brown University's sixteenth
president. From 1981 to 1989, he was president of the New York Public
"New York is full of memorials to democracy, but this will be
something much more powerful because it will commemorate the victims and
celebrates the resiliency and will of all New Yorkers," Gregorian said
in a statement.
Mayor Michael Bloomberg appointed Patricia
Harris, his deputy mayor for administration, to the jury. She managed
Bloomberg LP's corporate communications department before becoming
deputy mayor. During the Koch administration, Harris was executive
director of the city's Art Commission.
When she was 21, Maya Lin created the winning design for
the Vietnam Veterans Memorial in Washington as an assignment for an
undergraduate architecture class at Yale. At first, veterans groups did
not support Lin's design, calling it a "black gash of shame" in a New
York Times editorial. Eventually, a sculpture of three servicemen was
added as a compromise near Lin's wall. Lin has said that the year she
spent overseeing the development of the memorial in Washington was
"beyond miserable." Her design has come to be recognized as one of the
most moving monuments in the world.
Many had hoped that Lin herself would enter the 9/11 memorial
competition, but by taking a place in the jury, she has withdrawn from
competing. "I have fought very, very hard to get past being known as the
Monument Maker," Lin told the New Yorker
last summer. "I hope that my experience with memorials can help in
the process to find a powerful and moving Memorial and can truly help
people come to terms with such a painful and traumatic time in our
lives," Lin said in a statement after her appointment.
Governor George Pataki chose Michael McKeon, his
former communications director, as his representative on the jury.
Family members and firefighters have criticized McKeon's appointment,
saying that a person who represents the victims should be put on the
"I was down at Ground Zero every day with the governor," McKeon told
the New York
Post . "I attended all the briefings with the governor. I was
involved in the planning of the first anniversary ceremony. I've been
actively involved in a whole range of issues on lower Manhattan for a
Lower Manhattan resident Julie Menin founded Wall Street Rising , a
non-profit organization working to revitalize lower Manhattan, in
October 2001. Menin owns Vine Restaurant in the financial district, and
worked as an attorney for Colgate-Palmolive before founding Wall Street
Last spring, Menin's organization created a public art display in
lower Manhattan called Art Downtown, with hundreds of works, including
art by Roy Lichtenstein, Andy Warhol and Louise Bourgeois, displayed in
"Whatever form the memorial ultimately takes, it must honor those who
died on September 11th, it must be spiritually uplifting and
architecturally memorable. It must serve as an instrument of healing
for the families, the city and our nation. There is no greater
challenge before us," Menin said.
A prominent Mexican architect, Enrique Norten beat
out World Trade Center site finalist Rafael Vinoly in the 2002
competition for the Brooklyn Library for the Visual and Performing Arts.
The Times architecture critic Herbert Muschamp has called Norten's
design for the Brooklyn Library, "New York's first full-fledged
masterwork for the information age."
"All of us are living in a unique historical moment, and are at a
turning point in the history of western civilization. This Memorial is
about both pain and loss, but also, about optimism and hope for the
future," Norten said.
Martin Puryear , a sculptor, won the MacArthur Foundation's genius
grant in 1989. Puryear works mainly with wood and metal, and has created
works for the Walker Arts Center sculpture garden in Minneapolis, MN,
and for the Getty Center in Los Angeles.
An expert on public art, Nancy Rosen has given grants
for artwork in public places for the National Endowment for the Arts and
served as an adviser for the New York State Council on the Arts. She has
worked with the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington D.C. and
with a public art program in Battery Park City.
Lowery Stokes Sims, Ph.D.
Lowery Stokes Sims was a curator at the
Metropolitan Museum of Art for more than 20 years, and in 2000 became
director of the Studio
Museum in Harlem . Sims has been a juror for exhibitions at the
Queens Museum, New Museum of Contemporary Art, the Pratt Institute and
other institutions. Her father, John J. Sims Sr., worked for the Port
"I have fond memories of my first visit to the two towers as their
construction was being completed. I know that we will find the right
project that will serve as a fitting memorial to the brave individuals
who died in the line of duty as public servants, employees, co-workers,
parents, children, siblings, friends and neighbors," Sims said.
Michael Van Valkenburgh
New York City landscape artist Michael Van Valkenburgh teaches at
the Harvard Graduate School of Design. He has been a member of many
other memorial juries.
"Living in New York after the September 11 attack gave me a renewed
faith in people and the power of their spirit and will to live. For me,
the memorial is a gift to the future -- for us and something for the
next generations of New Yorkers. The memorial will afford us an
opportunity to remember the World Trade Center attack and to honor those
who lost their lives," Van Valkenburgh said.
James Young, Ph.D.
Young, a professor at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst's
Judaic and Near Eastern Studies department, was a member of the
commission that selected the design for the Memorial to the Murdered
Jews of Europe in Berlin. The process to select the Berlin memorial
spanned nearly a decade, with one design being selected in 1995 and then
scrapped because so many disliked it. A new selection commission was
created -- with Young as the only Jewish member -- in 1997. The group
launched a new competition that year, and selected a design by Peter
Eisenman and sculptor Richard Serra that creates a field of pillars on
sloping ground. It is slated to open in 2004.
Young has said about Ground Zero: "If they hate our buildings, let's
rebuild them here; if they hate our prosperity, let's prosper here; if
they hate our culture, let's celebrate here; if they hate our lives,
let's live them here."
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