District 1 Lower Manhattan

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What is Searchlight on Campaign 2001?
Searchlight on Campaign 2001 is a guide to the political races in what many are calling New York City's most significant campaign season in modern history.

What is so significant about it?
For the first time in memory, most political offices in the city will be wide open to people who have neither money nor connections.

Why will the races be so open?
There are two reasons. This year, a new law goes into effect that limits the terms of New York City elected officials, forcing the mass retirement of most incumbents in the city - including the mayor, the comptroller, the public advocate, four of the five borough presidents, and 36 of the 51 members of the City Council. At the same time, a new campaign finance law kicks in, which allows any candidate who agrees to certain restrictions to collect four dollars of matching funds for every dollar they raise.

What does this have to do with this site?
As a public service, Searchlight on Campaign 2001 has a separate page for each race, including all the races for City Council, that not only sorts out the candidates -- many of them new and unfamiliar -- but also offers an opportunity to learn about the issues, and the districts themselves.

Who is behind Searchlight on Campaign 2001?
Searchlight on Campaign 2001 is a project of Gotham Gazette, a non-profit, non-partisan, non-ideological (but non-boring) web site about New York City news, policy and politics published by Citizens Union Foundation, part of the oldest and largest good-government group in the city (founded in 1897).

What's wrong with the way the regular press covers the races?
That is for you to decide. And one of our regular features, Campaign Trail, helps you to decide. Campaign Trail provides succinct summaries and links to campaign articles in the commercial press.

Who are we?


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Learn more about this district in Searchlight 2002

General Election Results

x-Alan J. Gerson, Dem 11,297 - 46 percent
Margaret S. Chin, Lib 3,696 - 15 percent
Rocky Chin, WF 3,335 - 14 percent
Jordan Robert Kaufman, Rep 3,111 - 13 percent
Kwong T. Hui, Ind 2,926 - 12 percent

Primary Election Results

Alan J. Gerson 3,310
Brad M. Holyman 2,640
Rocky Chin 2,618
Margaret S. Chin 2,554
John A. Fratta 2,055
Elana Waksal Posner 1,311
Kwong T. Hui 926
(Official Vote Count from the Board of Elections)

Incumbent: Kathryn E. Freed (can't run in 2001)

The Candidates:

Contributors to these candidates, according to the Campaign Finance Board:

Contributors to Margaret Chin
Contributors to Rocky Chin
Contributors to John Fratta
Contributors to Alan Gerson
Contributors to Brad Hoylman
Contributors to Kwong Hui
Elana Waksal Posner has not filed

City's Official Primary Election Voter Guide for Residents of District 1

Issue Statements:
District 1 candidates' statements on the issues, at Savvyvoter.org

Campaign Feature:
[Campaign Update]

Divided District

Walk ten minutes from Chinatown's garment district and you are in the middle of Wall Street. Worlds apart, one area has some of the poorest, the other some of the richest people in the city. They are nevertheless part of the same council district.

Whoever wins Kathryn Freed's seat in City Council will face a unique challenge in trying to address the needs of such an economically stratified district. . In Chinatown and the Lower East Side, residents are concerned about issues of race and immigration, poverty and class. The people who live in Tribeca, Battery Park City and the other affluent neighborhoods in the district, on the other hand, focus on historic preservation and land use policy, environmental protection, and town-gown relations with New York University.

Area Profile
For a detailed profile of this district from City Project, click here.


  • Asian: 37%
  • White, non-Hispanic: 36%
  • Hispanic: 20%
  • Black, non-Hispanic: 7%

Median income: $53,929 (13th out of 51)

Unemployment rate: 7%

For more information on this district -- its schools, its crime statistics and more -- click here.

"Any candidate will need to have a foot in each camp," said Freed, who is running for public advocate and has not endorsed any of the District 1 candidates. "The person who will win will have to build coalitions."

Endorsements and fundraising may also play a role. But voter turnout could be the main determinant of who will next represent District 1 on the council. The key question is how many voters from each community will come out on Election Day.

There are six Democratic declared candidates, at least four of whom have already raised more than $50,000. Alan Gerson, an attorney and member of Community Board 2, leads in fundraising and is competing with John Fratta for Assembly Speaker Sheldon Silver's endorsement. Fratta, who was "born and raised in Little Italy," is a member of Bronx Community Board 11.

Three Asian-American candidates are each hoping to become the first Asian on the City Council, although that honor could go to one of the candidates for the seat from District 20 in Queens. Rocky Chin, a labor activist and public interest lawyer, has amassed one of the largest campaign chests and seems to have a solid base in Chinatown. He hopes to score the endorsement of David Dinkins. Also vying for the Asian-American vote are housing activist Margaret Chin and Kwong Hui, who has a history in labor organizing.

Also running is public interest attorney Brad Hoylman, who is gay, a one-time student activist, and a former Rhodes scholar.

In 1997, Freed defeated an Asian American opponent, prompting some to say the Asian community did not yet have enough political clout to elect one of its members to represent lower Manhattan. According to research by political consultant Jerry Skurnik, of the 61,574 registered voters in the district, 24 percent have Asian names., which is far below their percentage of the population.

Things may be different this time around, thanks to efforts to organize and register Chinese Americans as well as other lower income people. But with three Asian American candidates, the Chinese vote may be split, giving none of them enough votes to win.

Rocky Chin hopes to attract support in Hispanic and white neighborhoods as well. He said that, although he wants to voice the concerns of Chinatown and the Lower East Side on the council, he is also in touch with the issues of the city as a whole.

Fratta said one deciding factor could be how all the candidates - not just Asian Americans - divide their voting bases. Fratta said that, while his main base of support is in such lower Manhattan neighborhoods as Tribeca and Battery Park City, he has also attracted voters in the Lower East Side and the Village. "Given the equal money, it will be a close race," said Fratta.

The winner could have to run in a completely different kind of district next time. All the city's districts have to be redrawn by 2003 to reflect Census 2000, and there is already talk of redistricting along more economically and socially homogeneous lines.

Glenn Magpantay, a lawyer at the Asian American Legal Defense and Education Fund, said that District 1 could be changed to include only Chinatown and the Lower East Side. "The court has said, in order to draw districts to represent racial minorities, they must represent communities of common interest," said Magpantay.

Posted 1/29/01

Campaign Update:

There are now eight Democratic candidates running in district 1 and one Libertarian candidate, Jordan Kauffman. Both Elana Waksal Posner, a 28-year -old attorney and founder of a retail Internet site that sells beauty products and Julio Arroyo recently announced their intentions to run as Democrats. Kauffman, Posner, and Arroyo did not respond to requests for interviews.

Some of the other candidates have been campaigning since January or earlier and working to get endorsements from some of the major political communities in the district like Asian-American organizations, gay and lesbian groups, labor unions, and local Democratic clubs. Many of the endorsements went as one might expect -- the Gay and Lesbian Independent Democrats, for example, endorsed openly gay candidate Brad Hoylman -- but there were a few exceptions. Alan Gerson gained the support of the United Democratic Organization of Chinatown and Margaret Chin received the Liberal Party endorsement, which will allow her to run in the November general election regardless of the results of the September Democratic primary. See the Campaign Trail below for details.

Posted 7/16/01

Candidate Biographies

Margaret Chin, deputy executive director of Asian Americans for Equality, was a bilingual teacher for a brief period before directing the Chinatown Center. In 1991 and 1993, Chin ran for City Council unsuccessfully. She received her BS in Education from City College and a Masters Degree in Economic Analysis and Public Policy from Baruch College.

Rocky Chin, a civil rights attorney for the New York City Commission on Human Rights, helped organize the campaigns of David Dinkins and Jesse Jackson and worked as a campaign manager for Sau Ngar Li and Danny Yip, two successful Asian American candidates for Community Board 2. Chin received a Masters Degree in City Planning from Yale University and a law degree from the University of Southern California.

John Fratta was born and raised in Little Italy. He has been active in politics for 30 years, most recently as the district manager of community board 11 in the Bronx and as a Democratic district leader on the Lower East Side.

Alan Gerson, an attorney at Kelley Drye, served as the chairman of community board 2 in Manhattan from 1998-1999. He created a swimming team for young people in Lower Manhattan and has worked on reducing noise form motorcycles and bars. He also initiated the Heart Defibrillation Public Health Pilot Program. He received his JD from Columbia University Law School and his BA from Columbia College.

Brad Hoylman, a nonprofit lawyer and former Rhodes Scholar, was an organizer in New York City for the 1992 Clinton campaign. As a member of community board 2 he helped form the Creative Community Task Force for cancer research and serves as counsel to the New York City Partnership where he developed programs to build affordable housing and recruit public school teachers. He is the executive officer of Gay and Lesbian Democrats. He grew up in West Virginia and went to Harvard Law School after he attended a state college. He moved to New York City ten years ago.

Kwong Hui helped win settlements for workers working in sweatshop conditions and has fought for minimum wage increases for thousands of tip-earning employees. He has been a member of Committee Against Anti-Asian Violence and the Chinese Staff & Workers Association. Before attending Brooklyn College for his undergraduate degree, he served in the U.S. Army until he received an honorable discharge in 1987.

Jordan Kaufman (no information available)

Elana Waksal Posner is an attorney who grew up in lower Manhattan. After receiving her JD from Benjamin N. Cardozo School of Law, she co-founded ibeauty.com, an internet retail site for beauty products. Posner interned for Governor Mario Cuomo, Geraldine Ferraro, as well as the Democratic National Committee. As an undergraduate at New York University she led an initiative to help clean up Washington Square Park. She is currently working on the restoration of the Roebling building, located in the Tribeca Historic District.


Campaign Trail

One of the city's biggest supermarket barons is giving special help to first-time City Council candidate Elana Waksal Posner - he's stuffing shoppers' grocery bags with her campaign literature. Gristedes chain owner John Catsimatidis is using his Battery Park City store at 71 South End Ave. to dole out material for Posner, who is running for the seat being vacated by Kathryn Freed in lower Manhattan. (New York Post)

In 1991, when the City Council was expanded to add more minority members, the new First District in Chinatown was expected to produce the city's first Asian-American elected official. With that in mind, Chinatown's leaders debated whether it would be better to yoke their neighborhood to the heavily Latino East Side, which might share its concerns about bilingual education, health care and housing, or the whiter, more affluent West Side, where Asians would be the predominant minority. The West Side won out, producing a district that includes parts of the East and West Village, SoHo, TriBeCa, Little Italy, South Street Seaport, Wall Street and Battery Park City - but, so far, no Chinese-American council member. With the field wide open, there had been much talk in the district that this year, that could change. But of the six candidates in the race who are participating in the city's campaign finance system, the three who are Chinese-Americans are lagging in fund-raising and endorsements behind two white candidates, Brad M. Hoylman and Alan J. Gerson. (NY Times)

The New York Times today endorsed a candidate in this race. First District (Lower Manhattan): Seven candidates are competing in this diverse district, three of whom stand out. They are Brad Hoylman, a former Rhodes Scholar, gay activist and counsel to the New York City Partnership; Alan Gerson, a lawyer with a solid record of community service; and Rocky Chin, a civil rights lawyer for the New York City Commission on Human Rights. We endorse Brad Hoylman, who promises to serve the entire district in a thoughtful and lively way, focusing on broader democratic reform of the Council as well as district needs for housing and expanded city services.

The New York Times called this one of the ten races to watch. In a crowded race to fill the seat held by Kathryn E. Freed, the contest in this district, which includes Chinatown and Lower Manhattan, is likely to be a high-spending competition because one candidate, Alana Wachs-Posner, is not participating in the city's program of public financing for campaigns. That lifts the spending limits for the other six candidates. Another question: Will this district, with three Asian-American candidates, elect an Asian-American Council member? (New York Times)

The hotly contested race to succeed Councilwoman Kathryn E Freed in Lower Manhattan, which has a sizeable gay population, has splintered gay political leaders, despite the presence of a gay candidate. To be sure, Brad Hoylman, a 35-year-old lawyer who lives near Washington Square Park with his male partner, has won the endorsements of most gay groups and politicians. But in a field where most of the candidates have strong records on issues of importance to gay men and lesbians, some politicians have cited other factors in endorsing the other candidates. Assemblywoman Debroah Glick, the first lesbian to be elected to statewide office and a past president of the Gay and Lesiban Independent Democrats, endorsed John Fratta. The Stonewall Democrats, and Aubrey Lees, new chairwoman of Community Board 2, endorsed Alan Gerson. Some observers see this as a sign of the gay community coming of age politically. (NY Times)

Elana Waksal Posner, the 28-year-old attorney, and possibly New York's first dot-com candidate, is shaping up as the Mike Bloomberg in the First Councilmanic District, which covers a good chunk of Lower Manhattan. (Downtown Express)

Adding some West Side and gay clout to his Lower East Side/Little Italy base, John Fratta last week captured important endorsements from Assembly member Deborah Glick and two prominent gay men, Alan Roskoff, a Village activist, and Troy Masters, owner/publisher of LGNY, a gay and lesbian weekly newspaper. (Downtown Express)

Five of the seven Democratic candidates for the Lower Manhattan First City Council District outlined their positions on issues of concern to the business community such as the proposed Stock Exchange and Guggenheim projects, at a June 20 forum at the Regent Wall St. (Downtown Express)

Elana Waksal Posner, a 28-year-old attorney from a wealthy family, has done everything a City Council candidate would do except announce her candidacy officially. Posner has been collecting signatures to be placed on the ballot for the Sept. 11 Democratic primary. (Downtown Express)

City Council candidate Margaret Chin, deputy executive director of Asian Americans for Equality, has won the Liberal Party endorsement for City Council and said she will run in the November general election regardless of the results of the Sept. 11 Democratic primary. City Council candidate Rocky Chin, an attorney on leave from the city's Human Rights Commission, won the endorsement of the Working Families Party, which increasingly becoming the political voice of pro-labor, progressive Democrats. (Downtown Express)

City Council candidate Brad Hoylman talks about his career in public service and being gay: "I grew up believing public service is a noble calling. I was concerned I would not be able to pursue a career in public service because I'm gay. That's why I'm so grateful to be living in New York City and having the opportunity to run for City Council as an openly gay man." (Downtown Express)

Rocky Chin, an early front-runner in downtown Manhattan's City Council, did not get endorsed as he had hoped by the Gay and Lesbian Independent Democrats or the Village Independent Democrats. But with the Working Families endorsement, Chin remains hopeful that he may become the first Asian American City Council representative. (Village Voice)

John Fratta won endorsements from both Assembly Speaker Sheldon Silver and State Senate Minority Leader Martin Connor. Brad Hoylman grabbed the endorsements of both the Gay and Lesbian Independent Democrats and more surprisingly of Village Independent Democrats. Alan Gerson - who earlier had been endorsed by Ed Koch and Borough President C. Virginia Fields - won the support of Downtown Independent Democrats, and United Democratic Organization of Chinatown. (The Villager)

Six Democratic candidates vying for City Councilmember Kathryn Freed's seat shared their views on everything from public parks to the death penalty. (The Villager)

Former Mayor Ed Koch has endorsed Alan Gerson in the race for City Council from the 1st District. Koch said Gerson "worked on all of my campaigns, and I know he is first rate." Gerson also got the nod from Manhattan Borough President C. Virginia Fields who said Gerson's experience as the former chairperson of Community Board 2 would be invaluable on the Council. (The Villager)

Manhattan's Chinatown is home to two well-known contenders to be the City Council's first Asian-American rep. But the smart money is betting on Flushing's John Liu to actually get the seat. (City Limits)

There are six candidates for Kathryn Freed's City Council seat, in District 1: Rocky Chin, an attorney with the New York City Commission on Human Rights; Margaret Chin, an executive with a non-profit advocacy group, Asian Americans for Equality; Democratic District Leader John Fratta; Community Board member Alan Gerson; Brad Hoylman, an attorney with New York City Partnership, and Kwong Hui, who has worked closely with a labor advocacy group, Chinese Staff and Workers Association. Assembly Speaker Sheldon Silver says he will endorse either Fratta or Gerson. (Downtown Express)

Assembly Speaker Sheldon Silver plans to endorse either Fratta or Gerson. (Downtown Express)

Election 2001 Overview (Village Voice)

Bob Liff gives a run-down of some crowded City Council races. (NY Daily News)

Six candidates declared for Lower Manhattan Council race. (Downtown Express)


Districts of the Week

District 1 -- Lower Manhattan
Whoever wins the election in district 1 will represent immigrant Chinese garment workers, as well as Wall Street traders living in Battery Park City. There are several candidates hoping to be the council's firsts -- the first Asian-American man, the first Asian-American woman, the first gay Rhodes Scholar, the first dot-com guru -- running against some politically well connected opponents. Endorsements and fundraising will play a big role in this race. But voter turnout could be the main determinant of who will next represent district 1 on the council. The key question is how many voters from each community will come out on Election Day.

District 7 -- Washington Heights, Manhattan
The northern tip of Manhattan has become one of the most popular places for new immigrants to call home. The northern tip of Manhattan is a place that today's new immigrants call home. The majority have come from the Dominican Republic, but also from countries in South America, Eastern Europe, and Asia. But it is not just new immigrants that are moving in. Students, artists, and other Manhattanites looking for less expensive rents and larger apartments have also moved north. Ten Democratic candidates are competing for the 15,000 voters expected on primary day. The winner who emerges from a crowded field of candidates will have to balance the needs of the newcomers with those who have lived there for years.

District 16 -- Highbridge, Bronx
The neighborhoods of district 16 are the city's poorest, with the highest rate of unemployment and the lowest median household income. But those who live there also point out that much is positive and stable about the area, thanks in large part to local organizations, not-for-profit agencies, and houses of worship that help hold the neighborhoods together. Each candidate for City Council believes that through his or her connections to churches and local organizations, they can help empower the community toward a better life. Helen Foster, the current council member daughter, will face Michael Benjamin, who has worked as an aide to several government officials and Anthony Curry, a Bronx neighborhood activist.

District 20 -- Northeast Flushing, Queens
This year district 20 may elect the first Asian-American ever to the City Council to an area which now has the second highest number of immigrants from Korea and Taiwan in the city. There are three Asian candidates in the Democratic race who have each drawn big endorsements. Council Speaker Peter Vallone endorsed Terence Park, City Comptroller Alan Hevesi endorsed John Liu, and the New York Times recently endorsed Ethel Chen The campaign has also drawn national and international press coverage

District 25 -- Jackson Heights, Queens
Thirty-seventh Avenue in Jackson Heights, Queens is one of the most diverse streets in the world. Little India quickly blends into Little Colombia, with vendors selling Latin American food to Colombians, Peruvians, Ecuadorians, Mexicans, and Uruguayans. And each summer, the Queens Pride Parade fills the same street with rainbow banners. So it is no surprise that this election year the district produced a diverse field of candidates. A number of them, however, found out that getting on the ballot is not an easy task, especially when the Queens Democratic organization sends teams of lawyers to challenge petitions. But five Democratic candidates survived and will face off on September 11.

District 31 -- South East Queens
When a heavy rain hits southeast Queens, many residents in neighborhoods like Springfield Gardens, Laurelton and Rosedale head to the basement with a bucket in hand. And it has been that way for the last 50 years. In the rush to build housing in the area after World War II, developers overlooked the need for storm drains in hopes that the city would eventually build a city-wide sewer system. The plan never materialized and the area has experienced "100-year rains" three times in the last decade. The eight Democrats -- all with little experience overseeing massive infrastructure projects--will try to convince voters that they can finally solve the flooding problems.

District 35 -- Central Brooklyn
The residents in council district 35 have some of the highest incomes in Brooklyn and some of the lowest. They can play in a famous park and a beautiful botanical garden, and live in the city's most crumbling public housing. They can attend one of the four institutions of higher learning in the district, and the worst-scoring high schools in the city. Such juxtapositions are a way of life for a district that includes the Brooklyn Academy of Music, the Brooklyn Museum, and the Brooklyn Botanical Gardens; mid dle-class African-American communities near Prospect Park; immigrant communities from Haiti, Sierra Leon, Nigeria, and Trinidad, and in Crown Heights, a mix of Hasidic Jews and African-Americans. Seven Democratic candidates are campaigning in hopes that they can bring some kind of unity, and attention, to the area. Their backgrounds are as diverse as the neighborhoods themselves.

District 39 -- Park Slope/Carroll Gardens, Brooklyn
The candidates in district 39 include a chief of staff for an Assemblywoman, the husband of a member of U.S. Congress, a lawyer for the Legal Aid Society, an attorney and president of the Central Brooklyn Independent Democrats, Senator Hillary Clinton's campaign manager, the district manager of Community Board 6, and a labor organizer. This is the race to watch this year. The group of high-profile Democrats have raised a lot of money, almost $1.4 million combined.

District 45 -- East Flatbush
In no place in the city are the effects of campaign finance reform and term limits being felt more than in East Flatbush. The seven Democratic candidates seeking to represent this largely West Indian district come from a number of Caribbean nations. Many have been working on politicians' staffs and serving with community groups, clearly hoping someday to win their own elected office. Term limits has presented them with that opportunity, and they want to make the most of it. But this race that usually draws only about 8,000 voters could be decided by just a few votes. The candidates are attempting to come up with anything that will separate them from the pack.

District 49 -- North Shore, Staten Island
Staten Island has always been somewhat of a suburban stepchild to New York City. When a 1998 survey asked New Yorkers why they go to Staten Island, the top two responses were ''visiting friends and relatives" and ''passing through.'' But in many ways, the north shore has more in common with areas of Manhattan and Brooklyn than with the rest of the Staten Island. The top priority for all the candidates -- Jon Del Giorno, an administrative manager for the Board of Elections, Mike McMahon, an attorney and counsel to current Councilmember Jerome O'Donovan, and Debi Rose, an administrator at the College of Staten Island and the first African-American candidate in Staten Island politics -- is to make sure that the island becomes more than just a turn-around-point for the over one million tourists who ride the free ferry from Manhattan each year.

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Links You Can Use

Government sites
NYC Campaign Finance Bd.
NYC Board of Elections
NYC Voter Assistance Comm.
NY City Council
Federal Election Comm.

Local non-partisan sites
NY League of Women Voters
Common Cause New York

National non-partisan sites
Ctr. for Responsive Politics
Common Cause
League of Women Voters

NAACP Voter Empowerment
Vote Smart


Political consultants
Amer. Assc. of Pol. Consultants

Prime New York

Gotham Gazette
The Empire Page
Campaigns and Elections
Legislative Gazette

Political columnists
Andrea Bernstein
Joe Conason
Mario Cuomo (radio)
Rudy Giuliani (radio)
Clyde Haberman
Nat Hentoff

Joseph Mercurio
Joyce Purnick
John Tierney
Michael Tomasky

Political parties
Right to Life
Working Families
Marijuana Reform
Natural Law Party
Taxpayers Party

Political clubs and groups
Blueprint Camp. Finance Reform
Central Queens Greens
The Jefferson Democratic Club of Flushing
NY Young Republican Club
Stonewall Democratic Club
Village Independent Dems.

Abbreviations for Party Affiliation

American Dream Party (AMD)
Better Schools Party (BES)
Communist (Com)
Conservative (Con)
Constitution (CST)
Democratic (Dem)
Friends United Party (FUN)
Fusion Party (FUS)
Green (Gre)
Harmony Party (HAR)
Independence (Ind)
Liberal (Lib)
Libertarian (LBT)
Marijuana Reform Party (POT)
Natural Law Party (NLP)
Party of Ethics and Traditions (PET)
Reform Party (Ref)
Republican (Rep)
Right to Life (RTL)
School Choice Party (Sch)
Socialist Workers Party (SWP)
Working Families (Wor)

2001 Election Calendar

June 1 -- Deadline for candidates to join the Campaign Finance program, qualifying for the four-to-one match of contributions.
June 5 - First day for candidates from the eight major parties (Democratic, Republican, Indpendence, Conservative, Liberal, Green, Working Families, and Right to Life) to circulate petitions. Candidates running for City Council must collect the signatures of at least 900 people living in the district for which they are running in order to appear on the Primary ballot. Candidates not running under these eight major parties do not appear on the Primary ballot and have a separate set of deadlines.
July 12 - Deadline for major party candidates to file petitions.
July 10 - First day for unaffiliated candidates to circulate petitions, in order to appear on the ballot in the General Election. They must collect the number of signatures equal to five percent of the total enrolled in that party.
August 7 - Board of Elections announces candidates appearing on the Primary ballot.
August 17 - Last day for non-absentee voters to register to vote in the Primary Election.
August 21 - Deadline for non-major party candidates to file petitions to be included on the General Election ballot.
September 4 - Last day to postmark application for absentee voting in the Primary
September 10 - Last day to personally deliver application for absentee voting in the Primary Last day to postmark absentee ballot for Primary
September 11 - Primary election; Polls open at 6:00a.m. and close at 9:00p.m.; Absentee ballots must be hand-delivered by 9:00 p.m.
September 25 - Runoff Primary election for Mayor, Comptroller and Public Advocate, if needed
October 12 - Last day to for non-absentee voters to register to vote in the General Election
October 30 - Last day to postmark application for absentee voting in the General Election
November 5 - Last day to hand-deliver an application for absentee voting, or to postmark an absentee ballot for the General Election.
November 6 - General Election; polls open at 6:00a.m. and close at 9:00p.m. in NYC; Absentee ballots must be hand-delivered by 9:00 p.m.

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