District 31 Laurelton, Rosedale, Springfield Gardens, Far Rockaway

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What is Searchlight on Campaign 2001?
Searchlight on Campaign 2001 is a guide to the political races in what many are calling New York City's most significant campaign season in modern history.

What is so significant about it?
For the first time in memory, most political offices in the city will be wide open to people who have neither money nor connections.

Why will the races be so open?
There are two reasons. This year, a new law goes into effect that limits the terms of New York City elected officials, forcing the mass retirement of most incumbents in the city - including the mayor, the comptroller, the public advocate, four of the five borough presidents, and 36 of the 51 members of the City Council. At the same time, a new campaign finance law kicks in, which allows any candidate who agrees to certain restrictions to collect four dollars of matching funds for every dollar they raise.

What does this have to do with this site?
As a public service, Searchlight on Campaign 2001 has a separate page for each race, including all the races for City Council, that not only sorts out the candidates -- many of them new and unfamiliar -- but also offers an opportunity to learn about the issues, and the districts themselves.

Who is behind Searchlight on Campaign 2001?
Searchlight on Campaign 2001 is a project of Gotham Gazette, a non-profit, non-partisan, non-ideological (but non-boring) web site about New York City news, policy and politics published by Citizens Union Foundation, part of the oldest and largest good-government group in the city (founded in 1897).

What's wrong with the way the regular press covers the races?
That is for you to decide. And one of our regular features, Campaign Trail, helps you to decide. Campaign Trail provides succinct summaries and links to campaign articles in the commercial press.

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Learn more about this district in Searchlight 2002

General Election Results

x-James Sanders, Dem 16,290 - 86 percent
Everly D. Brown, Rep 1,926 - 10 percent
Rosalind S. O'Neal, Ind 447 - 2 percent
Edward J. Lewis, Lib 218 - 1 percent
Francisco A. Pena, Gre 149 - 1 percent

Primary Election Results

James Sanders 4,172
James Blake 2,309
Amanda L. Clarke 2,040
Charlotte R. Jefferson 1,916
Henrietta Fullard 1,644
Edward J. Lewis 1,310
Carol B. Howell 779
David R. Hooks 669
(Official Vote Count from the Board of Elections)

Incumbent: Juanita E. Watkins (can't run in 2001)

The Candidates:

Contributors to these candidates, according to the Campaign Finance Board:

Contributors to James Blake
Contributors to Everly Brown
Amanda Clarke has not filed.
Contributors to Henrietta Fullard
Contributors to Carol Howell
Contributors to Charlotte Jefferson
Contributors to Edward Lewis
Rosalind O'Neal has not filed
Francisco A. Pena has not filed.
James Sanders has not filed.

City's Official Primary Election Voter Guide for Residents of District 31

Campaign Tangle:
Four candidates have been knocked off the Democratic line and seven remain. Rosalind O'Neal, Renaldo Clarke, Carol Howell, and Sikiru Fadairo were knocked off the Democratic ballot, according to the Board of Elections. Howell and Fadairo said they may appeal the decision. Rosalind O'Neal was knocked off the Democratic line, but will still appear in the general election in November as an Independence party candidate. For details, see the Campaign Update. Posted 8/15/01

Campaign Feature:
[Campaign Update]

A River Runs Through It

When a heavy rain hits southeast Queens, many residents in neighborhoods like Springfield Gardens, Laurelton and Rosedale head to the basement with a bucket in hand. And it has been that way for the last 50 years.

In the rush to build housing in the area after World War II, developers overlooked the need for storm drains in hopes that the city would eventually build a city-wide sewer system. The plan never materialized and the area has experienced "100-year rains" three times in the last decade. In the winter of 1999 the flooding was so severe, fire officials in scuba gear had to rescue people from their basements, sandbags were used on the coastline and electricity, gas and telephone service for thousands of residents were cut off.

Area Profile
For a detailed profile of this district from City Project, click here.


  • Black 57%
  • White 24%
  • Hispanic 16%
  • Asian 3%

Median income: $57,105 (ranks 9th out of 51)

Unemployment rate: 9%

For more information on this district -- its schools, its crime statistics and more -- click here.

"It's almost like a little third-world country under siege," said current Councilmember Juanita Watkins of the 1999 flooding problems. "You think, how is it possible that this is happening here in New York City."

There have been some recent improvements. Construction of massive drainage tunnels that link Springfield Gardens to the Jamaica Bay has been ongoing since 1992 and has alleviated some problems. But the threat of backed up storm drains, flooded houses and overflowing creeks mean candidates for City Council in district 31 must put sewers at the top of their list of concerns.

A pastor, two college professors, a developer, a former parks department employee, and two teachers⤲all with little experience overseeing massive infrastructure projects--will try to convince voters that he or she can finally solve the flooding problems.

"It should have been dealt with a long time ago," said Edward Lewis, former assistant parks commissioner of Queens. "I can't figure out why it was ignored for so long. At one point it was because the city did not have enough money, but that was a long time ago."

District 31 is largely comprised of African-American, middle class neighborhoods of Springfield Gardens, Laurelton, and Rosedale and the residents have one of the highest median incomes in the borough. But that does not mean the problems are different from less affluent areas of the city.

Like nearly every district, education is also a major concern. Only 38 percent of the students score at or above the national average in reading. In March, hundreds of parents camped out in front of P.S. 251 hoping to enroll their children in that coveted school.

"We are some of the richest black people in the world," said Rosalind O'Neal. "But you would not necessarily know that when you look at our education system."

O'Neal, an educator and delegate for the United Federation of Teachers, said if elected she would monitor how money is spent in the education system, improve school safety by bringing security back under the Board of Education instead of the police department, and initiate literacy programs for new immigrants.

James Sanders, vice president of school board 27, favors partnerships between private business and local schools. "The Home Depot opening in the district could help outfit our classrooms with supplies," said Sanders. "They could also serve as a business training ground for young people. You have to build those kinds of relationships for economic growth and to improve education."

There are other challenges facing the area because of its location and geography. For one, district 31 sits next to JFK airport. "The airport is a constant source of noise and pollution," said Sikiru Fadairo, who works as a computer science professor at Medgar Evans College. "Every time a plane goes over you can see the exhaust."

Illegal dumping and toxic waste sites also present environmental hazards to the Jamaica Bay. "I don't think we need throw so much money at a cure if we don't solve the cause of the problem of dumping into the bay," said Fadairo.

Carol Howell also believes that the poor planning of the past is continuing today in a different way. Howell, who lost a primary race for State Assembly in 2000, opposed the construction of a multiplex movie theater on Merrick Boulevard and Belknap Street because it was across the street from a school. She said it did not create an environment that encouraged serious learning. Howell also notes the lack of public transportation in the district. New York City subways do not reach much of the area and commuters must take the Long Island Rail Road to Jamaica to catch a train into Manhattan. Transportation is a particular problem for the upper part of the Rockaways, the end on the "A" line where trains come infrequently.

The residents of the Rockaways also say that more youth programs, health care, and economic development are needed to bring the standard of living up to the level of the other neighborhoods in the district.

Far Rockaway resident Gian Jones said he wants to found a credit union in the area, improve police and community relations, and provide more opportunities for youth. Several candidates have also said that if elected they would have two district offices--one in the Rockaways and one in the Springfield Gardens or Laurelton area.

The race now has several candidates vying to be in the Democratic primary, but the choices will likely narrow to only a few by election day as candidates try to gather enough signatures and battle each other to get on the ballot. That is partly why one candidate, Everly Brown, feels it is best to run as a Republican. "Once the candidates get knocked off of the ballot, they will run for the Democratic Party not for the needs of the district," said Brown.

The candidates agree that the new representative in City Council will have to start his or her tenure by dealing with the mess of a sewer system that has been too big a problem for any one person to resolve. At least one candidate has something promising on her resume: Carol Howell served as vice-chair of the Springfield Gardens Flood Coalition.

posted 5/16/01

Campaign Update:

Four candidates have been knocked off the Democratic line and seven remain. Rosalind O'Neal, Renaldo Clarke, Carol Howell, and Sikiru Fadairo were knocked off the Democratic ballot, according to the Board of Elections. Howell and Fadairo said they would appeal the decision. Rosalind O'Neal was knocked off the Democratic line, but will still appear on the general election ballot in November as the Independence party candidate.

O'Neal said that after the county organization challenged her petitions, she ended up just seven signatures short of the required 900 signatures to get on the ballot "This is not a process that works with the people," said O'Neal. "Let's get candidates on the ballot and then let the people decide who they want. But they didn't defeat me. Whoever sits in that seat is going to have to do their job, because there are grassroots people watching."

Renaldo Clarke said he did not have the $5,000 to pay an election lawyer to appeal the ruling. He said that candidate Amanda Clarke challenged his petitions, so that, he said "there wouldn't be two Clarkes on the ballot."

The seven remaining Democratic candidates are working to get their names out into the community.

Reverend Henrietta Fullard has put education at the top of her list of priorities. As a former high school teacher and principal, she helped turn a high school into a magnet school that now boasts that 90 percent of the students pass their regents tests. "All students can learn," said Fullard. "They have to be given the chance."

Fullard said her primary concerns also include affordable housing, JFK airport, the Air Train, and pollution. She also wants to bridge the gap with the Rockaways and the mainland. "There are needs that need to be met," said Fullard. "There are gaps in services and experience of the people who live in Far Rockaway."

James Blake, a professor at Manhattan Community College, is also campaigning on an education platform. "The school system has to have the resources so that students can meet the standards they are asked to achieve," said Blake. "The key is getting certified teachers, higher salaries, and smaller class sizes."

Blake also hopes to focus on economic development if he is elected. "This is a strong, affluent, middle-class neighborhood," said Blake. "But if you go down Merrick Boulevard it looks like a run down commercial strip."

David Hooks thinks it is time to overhaul the city's educational system by welcoming the involvement of private technology companies. "You put a kid with poor reading skills in front of a computer, and you can soon have a rocket scientist."

This race remains competitive. Charlotte Jefferson, who did not return requests for an interview, has the backing of the Queens Democratic organization. James Saunders recently received the Working Families endorsement. Rev. Fullard said she gathered 4,000 signatures to get on the ballot, over four times what is needed.

posted 8/15/01

Candidate Biographies

James Blake is a professor at Manhattan Community College and has a background in social work and counseling psychology. He is a member of the NAACP, president and founder of the Varied Internship Program, chair of the Queens Action Committee, the chair and founder of the New Political Union, and a former president of the Laurelton and Springfield Gardens Chamber of Commerce. He has a degree in chemistry from North Carolina Central University and a Masters of Social Work from Columbia University.

Everly Brown is a home developer. He graduated from St. Francis College and Washington Business Institute. He has run for State Assembly and City Council in the past.

Amanda Clarke is the female Democratic District Leader in the 29th Assembly District. She has served as a community volunteer in various organizations and programs including Parent-Teacher Associations, Federated Blocks of Laurelton, the 227th Street Block Association, First Presbyterian Church of Springfield Gardens, and Elmer Blackburne Regular Democratic Club. She is a member of the United Federation of Teachers, Ninety-Nine Women Pilots Association, and the Black Pilots Association of Queens. She graduated from South Carolina State University and New York University.

Reynaldo Clarke has been an engineer for Con Edison, the director of legislator and human rights with the Utility Workers Union of America, an owner of an ice cream parlor, and a mortgage broker. He has served as the president of the Far Rockaway High School Parent Teacher's Association, as a program organizer for Youth In Action and the Boy Scouts and Girl Scouts. He is also chairman of the Daytop Advisory Board, president of the Nameoke Tenant Association, a member of the Bayswater Civic Association and the Frank Avenue Civic Association. He graduated from Cornell University.

Sikiru A. Fadairo is a computer science professor at the City University of New York. He was a co-chair of the School Leadership Team in South Jamaica and on the board of the South Queens Park Association School Advisory Board. He has also served as a board member of the Emigrant Savings Bank Scholarship Committee and a past president of a group of small business owners.

Henrietta Fullard is a pastor of Bethel African Methodist Episcopal Church in Far Rockaway. She was principal at the Math, Science Research & Technology Magnet School from 1994 to 1999. She is a member of Community Planning Board 14 and St. John's Episcopal Hospital Advisory Board. She also serves as secretary of the Community Advisory Board of York College, on the Board of Directors for Habitat for Humanity, Queens chapter, and on the steering committee of the project of Rockaway Youth Safety and Education. She is also the director for the NAACP Get-Out-The-Vote Campaign in the Rockaways. She graduated South Carolina State College, teachers college at Columbia University, and New Brunswick Theological Seminary.

David Hooks is a career planning and development associate at the Statue University of New York. He has served as youth coordinator for Community Board 14, youth service specialist for the New York City Youth Bureau, and was appointed to the State Human Rights Commission by Governor Mario Cuomo. He graduated from the College of New Rochelle and served in the United States Marine Corp in Vietnam.

Carol Howell is currently a student at the City University of New York working toward degrees in psychology and education. She has worked as a Special Education Paraprofessional for 20 years and is also the executive vice president for the Queen's Women's Political Caucus. She is also the education secretary for the South East Queen Regular Democratic Club. She ran for district leader and State Assembly in the past. She graduated from York College.

Charlotte Jefferson is the vice president of development at the Samaritan Village. She has served on the boards of a number of Queens organizations including the Queens Women's Network, Queen's Botanical Gardens, Queens General Hospital, American Red Cross, HIV and AIDS Coalition and the Jamaica Hospital Community Advisory Board. She also served as the district leader for the 29th Assembly District. She graduated from Stillman College and has a training certificate from Columbia University's School of Social Work.

Edward Lewis is an assistant commissioner for the New York City Department of Parks and Recreation. He also served as director of African American and Caribbean Affairs under Mayor Dinkins. He was the Parent Teachers Association President of Public School 80. He is a board member of the Blanche Progressive Day Care Centers, a former Town Hall Civic Association President, a delegate to the Central Labor Council, and chairman of the Labor & Industry Committee of the Jamaica Branch of NAACP. He graduated from Oswego State University and Cornell University School of Industrial and Labor Relations.

Rosalind O'Neal has taught school in the Bronx, Brooklyn, and Queens. She is also a delegate for the United Teachers Federation and president of the African-American/Caribbean Education Association. She has coordinated specialized instruction for the Shared Instruction Program, a program of technical studies at city high schools. She is presently coordinator of Creative Arts at Springfield Gardens High School and chairperson of the School Leadership Team. She graduated from Hunter College and New York University.

Francisco A. Pena (no information available).

James Saunders is an administrator for Forward Motion, an organization that helps people transition from welfare. He is the vice president and former president of Community School Board 27, a former assistant district manager for Congressman Floyd Flake. He also helped found the Hamer-Campos Farmers Market and People United for Local Leadership. He graduated from Brooklyn College and served in the United States Marine Corp.


Campaign Trail

Seven candidates are vying for the council seat from the 31st District in southeastern Queens, a contest that appears to be one of the tightest in the city. (Daily News)

The New York Times today endorsed a candidate in this race. District 31 (Laurelton, Rosedale, Springfield Gardens, Far Rockaway): The city's poorer districts frequently suffer with the worst political representation, but one of the pleasant surprises this year is the number of races in low-income areas that have attracted two or three good candidates. In this district, James Sanders Jr. and Charlotte Jefferson would both make excellent Council members. Mrs. Jefferson has the support of the Democratic organization, but it appears to need her more than she needs it. In a very narrow decision, we prefer Charlotte Jefferson for her superior knowledge of community problems and ideas for how the city could help solve them.

Who has the best track record for community service? That's the platform on which most of the 11 candidates vying for the District 31 seat are running. In an area of overcrowded schools and low math and reading scores, the candidates - who include several educators - are focusing on how they will address what one called an "education crisis." Jobs, economic development, transportation, dumping, airplane noise, flooding and senior citizens' needs are other concerns they share. But by and large, the candidates are running on the contributions they say they're already making in the largely black, middle-class district, which includes Far Rockaway, Laurelton, Rosedale, Springfield Gardens and parts of Cambria Heights and South Ozone Park. (Newsday)

A list of the 107 candidates who filed petitions to run for City Council from Queens. As of this writing, they're all still players. But the challenges have just begun. We will witness a number of these candidates fall to bad petitions or a bad system laden with technicalities that make ballot access costly and difficult. (Queens Tribune)

District leader Charlotte Jefferson, who is definitely not Councilmember Watkins' favorite, was designated in this district. There will be a hefty primary with candidates like Ed Lewis and Beth Debasin challenging for Watkins' seat. (Queens Courier)

Rey Clarke announces candidacy for City Council. (The Wave)

Candidate James Saunders plays host for groundbreaking of a 1,000 seat Cricket Stadium at Gateway National Park. (India In New York)

Far Rockaway resident Gian Jones announced his candidacy for City Council. (The Wave)

In the list of possible candidates for District 31, the Queens Tribune says former assistant parks commissioner Edward Lewis is the one to watch. (Queens Tribune)

Districts of the Week

District 1 -- Lower Manhattan
Whoever wins the election in district 1 will represent immigrant Chinese garment workers, as well as Wall Street traders living in Battery Park City. There are several candidates hoping to be the council's firsts -- the first Asian-American man, the first Asian-American woman, the first gay Rhodes Scholar, the first dot-com guru -- running against some politically well connected opponents. Endorsements and fundraising will play a big role in this race. But voter turnout could be the main determinant of who will next represent district 1 on the council. The key question is how many voters from each community will come out on Election Day.

District 7 -- Washington Heights, Manhattan
The northern tip of Manhattan has become one of the most popular places for new immigrants to call home. The northern tip of Manhattan is a place that today's new immigrants call home. The majority have come from the Dominican Republic, but also from countries in South America, Eastern Europe, and Asia. But it is not just new immigrants that are moving in. Students, artists, and other Manhattanites looking for less expensive rents and larger apartments have also moved north. Ten Democratic candidates are competing for the 15,000 voters expected on primary day. The winner who emerges from a crowded field of candidates will have to balance the needs of the newcomers with those who have lived there for years.

District 16 -- Highbridge, Bronx
The neighborhoods of district 16 are the city's poorest, with the highest rate of unemployment and the lowest median household income. But those who live there also point out that much is positive and stable about the area, thanks in large part to local organizations, not-for-profit agencies, and houses of worship that help hold the neighborhoods together. Each candidate for City Council believes that through his or her connections to churches and local organizations, they can help empower the community toward a better life. Helen Foster, the current council member daughter, will face Michael Benjamin, who has worked as an aide to several government officials and Anthony Curry, a Bronx neighborhood activist.

District 20 -- Northeast Flushing, Queens
This year district 20 may elect the first Asian-American ever to the City Council to an area which now has the second highest number of immigrants from Korea and Taiwan in the city. There are three Asian candidates in the Democratic race who have each drawn big endorsements. Council Speaker Peter Vallone endorsed Terence Park, City Comptroller Alan Hevesi endorsed John Liu, and the New York Times recently endorsed Ethel Chen The campaign has also drawn national and international press coverage

District 25 -- Jackson Heights, Queens
Thirty-seventh Avenue in Jackson Heights, Queens is one of the most diverse streets in the world. Little India quickly blends into Little Colombia, with vendors selling Latin American food to Colombians, Peruvians, Ecuadorians, Mexicans, and Uruguayans. And each summer, the Queens Pride Parade fills the same street with rainbow banners. So it is no surprise that this election year the district produced a diverse field of candidates. A number of them, however, found out that getting on the ballot is not an easy task, especially when the Queens Democratic organization sends teams of lawyers to challenge petitions. But five Democratic candidates survived and will face off on September 11.

District 31 -- South East Queens
When a heavy rain hits southeast Queens, many residents in neighborhoods like Springfield Gardens, Laurelton and Rosedale head to the basement with a bucket in hand. And it has been that way for the last 50 years. In the rush to build housing in the area after World War II, developers overlooked the need for storm drains in hopes that the city would eventually build a city-wide sewer system. The plan never materialized and the area has experienced "100-year rains" three times in the last decade. The eight Democrats -- all with little experience overseeing massive infrastructure projects--will try to convince voters that they can finally solve the flooding problems.

District 35 -- Central Brooklyn
The residents in council district 35 have some of the highest incomes in Brooklyn and some of the lowest. They can play in a famous park and a beautiful botanical garden, and live in the city's most crumbling public housing. They can attend one of the four institutions of higher learning in the district, and the worst-scoring high schools in the city. Such juxtapositions are a way of life for a district that includes the Brooklyn Academy of Music, the Brooklyn Museum, and the Brooklyn Botanical Gardens; mid dle-class African-American communities near Prospect Park; immigrant communities from Haiti, Sierra Leon, Nigeria, and Trinidad, and in Crown Heights, a mix of Hasidic Jews and African-Americans. Seven Democratic candidates are campaigning in hopes that they can bring some kind of unity, and attention, to the area. Their backgrounds are as diverse as the neighborhoods themselves.

District 39 -- Park Slope/Carroll Gardens, Brooklyn
The candidates in district 39 include a chief of staff for an Assemblywoman, the husband of a member of U.S. Congress, a lawyer for the Legal Aid Society, an attorney and president of the Central Brooklyn Independent Democrats, Senator Hillary Clinton's campaign manager, the district manager of Community Board 6, and a labor organizer. This is the race to watch this year. The group of high-profile Democrats have raised a lot of money, almost $1.4 million combined.

District 45 -- East Flatbush
In no place in the city are the effects of campaign finance reform and term limits being felt more than in East Flatbush. The seven Democratic candidates seeking to represent this largely West Indian district come from a number of Caribbean nations. Many have been working on politicians' staffs and serving with community groups, clearly hoping someday to win their own elected office. Term limits has presented them with that opportunity, and they want to make the most of it. But this race that usually draws only about 8,000 voters could be decided by just a few votes. The candidates are attempting to come up with anything that will separate them from the pack.

District 49 -- North Shore, Staten Island
Staten Island has always been somewhat of a suburban stepchild to New York City. When a 1998 survey asked New Yorkers why they go to Staten Island, the top two responses were ''visiting friends and relatives" and ''passing through.'' But in many ways, the north shore has more in common with areas of Manhattan and Brooklyn than with the rest of the Staten Island. The top priority for all the candidates -- Jon Del Giorno, an administrative manager for the Board of Elections, Mike McMahon, an attorney and counsel to current Councilmember Jerome O'Donovan, and Debi Rose, an administrator at the College of Staten Island and the first African-American candidate in Staten Island politics -- is to make sure that the island becomes more than just a turn-around-point for the over one million tourists who ride the free ferry from Manhattan each year.

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Links You Can Use

Government sites
NYC Campaign Finance Bd.
NYC Board of Elections
NYC Voter Assistance Comm.
NY City Council
Federal Election Comm.

Local non-partisan sites
NY League of Women Voters
Common Cause New York

National non-partisan sites
Ctr. for Responsive Politics
Common Cause
League of Women Voters

NAACP Voter Empowerment
Vote Smart


Political consultants
Amer. Assc. of Pol. Consultants

Prime New York

Gotham Gazette
The Empire Page
Campaigns and Elections
Legislative Gazette

Political columnists
Andrea Bernstein
Joe Conason
Mario Cuomo (radio)
Rudy Giuliani (radio)
Clyde Haberman
Nat Hentoff

Joseph Mercurio
Joyce Purnick
John Tierney
Michael Tomasky

Political parties
Right to Life
Working Families
Marijuana Reform
Natural Law Party
Taxpayers Party

Political clubs and groups
Blueprint Camp. Finance Reform
Central Queens Greens
The Jefferson Democratic Club of Flushing
NY Young Republican Club
Stonewall Democratic Club
Village Independent Dems.

Abbreviations for Party Affiliation

American Dream Party (AMD)
Better Schools Party (BES)
Communist (Com)
Conservative (Con)
Constitution (CST)
Democratic (Dem)
Friends United Party (FUN)
Fusion Party (FUS)
Green (Gre)
Harmony Party (HAR)
Independence (Ind)
Liberal (Lib)
Libertarian (LBT)
Marijuana Reform Party (POT)
Natural Law Party (NLP)
Party of Ethics and Traditions (PET)
Reform Party (Ref)
Republican (Rep)
Right to Life (RTL)
School Choice Party (Sch)
Socialist Workers Party (SWP)
Working Families (Wor)

2001 Election Calendar

June 1 -- Deadline for candidates to join the Campaign Finance program, qualifying for the four-to-one match of contributions.
June 5 - First day for candidates from the eight major parties (Democratic, Republican, Indpendence, Conservative, Liberal, Green, Working Families, and Right to Life) to circulate petitions. Candidates running for City Council must collect the signatures of at least 900 people living in the district for which they are running in order to appear on the Primary ballot. Candidates not running under these eight major parties do not appear on the Primary ballot and have a separate set of deadlines.
July 12 - Deadline for major party candidates to file petitions.
July 10 - First day for unaffiliated candidates to circulate petitions, in order to appear on the ballot in the General Election. They must collect the number of signatures equal to five percent of the total enrolled in that party.
August 7 - Board of Elections announces candidates appearing on the Primary ballot.
August 17 - Last day for non-absentee voters to register to vote in the Primary Election.
August 21 - Deadline for non-major party candidates to file petitions to be included on the General Election ballot.
September 4 - Last day to postmark application for absentee voting in the Primary
September 10 - Last day to personally deliver application for absentee voting in the Primary Last day to postmark absentee ballot for Primary
September 11 - Primary election; Polls open at 6:00a.m. and close at 9:00p.m.; Absentee ballots must be hand-delivered by 9:00 p.m.
September 25 - Runoff Primary election for Mayor, Comptroller and Public Advocate, if needed
October 12 - Last day to for non-absentee voters to register to vote in the General Election
October 30 - Last day to postmark application for absentee voting in the General Election
November 5 - Last day to hand-deliver an application for absentee voting, or to postmark an absentee ballot for the General Election.
November 6 - General Election; polls open at 6:00a.m. and close at 9:00p.m. in NYC; Absentee ballots must be hand-delivered by 9:00 p.m.

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