Campaign 2001 Feature

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The Nod of the Bosses... Scramble for the City Council... Basic Training for Council Recruits... How They Stack up on Term Limit... Dynasties... The Speech that Saved Term Limits...


What is Searchlight on Campaign 2001?
Searchlight on Campaign 2001 is a guide to the political races in what many are calling New York City's most significant campaign season in modern history.

What is so significant about it?
For the first time in memory, most political offices in the city will be wide open to people who have neither money nor connections.

Why will the races be so open?
There are two reasons. This year, a new law goes into effect that limits the terms of New York City elected officials, forcing the mass retirement of most incumbents in the city - including the mayor, the comptroller, the public advocate, four of the five borough presidents, and 36 of the 51 members of the City Council. At the same time, a new campaign finance law kicks in, which allows any candidate who agrees to certain restrictions to collect four dollars of matching funds for every dollar they raise.

What does this have to do with this site?
As a public service, Searchlight on Campaign 2001 has a separate page for each race, including all the races for City Council, that not only sorts out the candidates -- many of them new and unfamiliar -- but also offers an opportunity to learn about the issues, and the districts themselves.

Who is behind Searchlight on Campaign 2001?
Searchlight on Campaign 2001 is a project of Gotham Gazette, a non-profit, non-partisan, non-ideological (but non-boring) web site about New York City news, policy and politics published by Citizens Union Foundation, part of the oldest and largest good-government group in the city (founded in 1897).

What's wrong with the way the regular press covers the races?
That is for you to decide. And one of our regular features, Campaign Trail, helps you to decide. Campaign Trail provides succinct summaries and links to campaign articles in the commercial press.

Who are we?


My Economic Blueprint

By Mike Bloomberg

The September 11th terrorist attack on the World Trade Center has affected every community of our City in all five boroughs. Families have suffered the loss of spouses, children, parents, siblings, aunts and uncles. We lost our friends, co-workers, neighbors, and more than 400 heroes who gave their lives to save others.

Now, even as we continue to mourn, we must move beyond the pain and deal realistically with the job that lies ahead. The economic impact of the destruction has damaged our transportation system, weakened our downtown financial center, and cost people their jobs.

Cutbacks in air travel threaten the aviation and related industries. The decline in tourism has forced the closure of Broadway shows and adversely impacted the hotel, retail and restaurant industries. Small businesses and their employees in all boroughs are threatened by forces, which they aren't equipped to manage and are beyond their control.

In the coming months, we face the enormous task of rebuilding and renewing our City. This is a challenge that will involve all New Yorkers, the public and private sectors, and will require the partnership of Federal and State governments.

But this is not our only challenge, as we seek to build on the success of the past eight years. We must take a comprehensive view of improving our city.

My plan is divided into a number of different sections focusing on different issues, but it really boils down to three inter-related, primary objectives: Building for the Future, which involves capital projects like rebuilding Lower Manhattan, major new developments and infrastructure improvements; Creating Jobs, which includes balancing the municipal budget, government policy, nurturing new businesses and attracting and retaining existing business; and Improving Quality of Life, which encompasses issues like public safety, education, housing, healthcare and seniors.

By focusing on Building for the Future, Jobs and Quality of Life, I will lead our City through the challenges that lie ahead. It is the only way to get us moving forward and let the world know New York is open for business.

Building for the Future

1. Lower Manhattan

I'll begin by looking at the challenges of rebuilding lower Manhattan.

We cannot precisely assess the economic damage from September 11th. But we can and should specify the priorities and process we need going forward.

The Federal Government is prepared to fund the total cost of recovery and clean up, and there is some hope for additional Federal monies for reconstruction.

But the Federal Government, no matter how sympathetic to our plight, is not going to dispense money indiscriminately for "non-recovery" purposes.

We must develop and promote a credible and comprehensive needs assessment that clearly demonstrates to the nation why we require and deserve Federal and State assistance. We must convince them this is a special case - and not just a "grab" for any monies available. To build credibility for our requests, we have to justify every cost

If we don't provide oversight, the State or the Federal Government will. Existing monitoring authorities maybe adequate, but this is a unique occurrence in terms of speed and magnitude. It requires the Mayor's personal attention, in partnership with the City Comptroller, the Department of Finance and the Department of Investigation.

In terms of what we build -- we know that the clean up and recovery process will take more than a year; and the PATH and Subway repairs even longer.

We will include a memorial to those we lost; and we will eventually build new structures, though probably at a substantially different scale. We'll hold a design competition and get the best from around the World to participate.

But we must not get locked into only looking at the site through a lens of the past. We must look to the future. What made sense on that site twenty years ago may not be what's best today.

We live in a different world, a different economy and different city than we did then. And we must rebuild from today's vantage point, looking ahead.

That is why we must consider industries other than Financial Services for the World Trade Center site. The fact is that financial industry has been spreading uptown and throughout Manhattan for many years in a trend unlikely to be reversed.

After accommodating the needs of Wall Street, the Bond and Commodity Markets, we should entertain other forward-looking opportunities. Why not a biotech complex, information technology center, fashion industry metroplex?

And I want to stress that we do not need another bureaucratic agency to handle the recovery/ clean up effort. The current administration is doing an admirable job and the MTA and Port Authority are certainly able to supervise the Subway and PATH reconstruction.

We do, however, need an agency for debt issuance - either the Temporary Financing Authority or something similar.

However, we must keep in mind that in building for the future, the World Trade Center site, maybe our most immediately pressing priority, but it is not our only priority.

We have to continue building the infrastructure necessary to support economic growth and provide good jobs for our citizens.

2. Infrastructure

Energy and Connectivity

One area to focus on is energy and connectivity.

A mayoral taskforce on energy is needed to facilitate communication among utilities, business and environmentalists. This communication is critical to accomplishing an essential upgrade of existing power plants for greater productivity and reduced emissions while assuring the business community of a secure, reliable energy supply in future years.

And we must improve our high-capacity "connectivity." New York City should inventory its broadband infrastructure to identify potential service gaps and assure adequate supply in response to a growing demand. Utilize sewer lines, water lines and whatever underground conduits are available to provide connectivity.

The World Trade Center attack showed that we don't know enough about the variety of phone lines, power lines, etc. that run under our streets. The City needs to track its utilities better using modern technology.


Our other most pressing infrastructure concern is transportation.

In lower Manhattan, Federal assistance is essential to rebuild subway stations and to alleviate transportation congestion on overburdened lines.

If people can't get to jobs, restaurants and stores in an area, those enterprises don't survive. The new MTA map shows what's been lost: no # 9 service, no C service, no # 1 service south of Franklin Street, no N and R service south of City Hall, no PATH service to lower Manhattan.

While the MTA has quickly patched together alternate routes, these are no substitute for the service that workers and residents need.

The Federal Government has separate funding for transportation projects that we can access, independent of the emergency funds for clean up and reconstruction.

We also must maintain and encourage private investment in ferry service that has developed since the September 11th disaster with special attention given to areas currently underserved by public transportation.

Among the most critical transportation projects for our City are:

Finding immediate alternatives to fill the needs created by the loss of the PATH lines and several subway stations in Lower Manhattan. The City must speak out on behalf of the MTA and Port Authority, which own and will have to reconstruct the tracks and tunnels.

The redevelopment of Penn Station: Funding is available, and it appears that with the help of the President, the Post Office is "back on track" to support this critical initiative. Now, we must ensure its completion.

The extension of the #7 line: This must be part of any Javits Center area development. Its impact on the whole West Side is hard to overstate.

The East Side Access of the LIRR into the Grand Central Terminal is going to be a tremendous success story. It is funded in the MTA capital plan, appears to be moving forward on schedule and will dramatically improve Long Islanders ability to work and shop in Manhattan.

A full length Second Avenue subway is vital. But the fact is that it was not funded before September 11th, and monies are even less available now. The only short term practical solution to East Side overcrowding is express buses in camera enforced bus lanes.

And we must remember, New York is a city of water, islands and peninsulas. We should work with private ferry operators to get more ferries in the water. Ferries work, and can provide critical support at this time.

There are also some very innovative transportation initiatives on the drawing board that we should seriously consider, moving forward, such as congestion pricing in the central business district and the extension of the No. 7 line.

The NYC 2012, the Olympic proposal, presents us with a blueprint for passenger transportation development in and around the Cammerer Hudson yards on the west side of Manhattan, where a single transportation hub can emerge from a currently inaccessible area by linking the No. 7 line, Metro-North, the Long Island Rail Road and AMTRAK.

And transportation doesn't just mean public transportation. We also have to address surface traffic.

The State must pass legislation to allow expanded use of technology, including cameras, to facilitate pedestrian and vehicle flow.

NYC doesn't have the resources to put a human being every place we need security or law enforcement. The law must let New York City issue summonses using modern methods.

Red-light-running drivers are killing too many seniors and endangering everyone - and mass transit will never replace the automobile unless we can enforce the law regarding "buses only" lanes by using automatic ticket issuing devices.

The only short-term solution to our traffic problems is limited stop bus service in restricted access lanes. The only affordable way to keep cars and trucks out of those lanes is with technology.

Additionally, we should have more ferry service to, from and around Manhattan. The City should work with companies to market this mode of transportation to people that don't consider using it. The Staten Island Ferry shows how efficient water service can be; let's take advantage of it.

Creating Jobs

1. Budget

But we must also remember that beyond capital construction and infrastructure improvements, there are many other areas that we must address in the effort to build a thriving economy and create good jobs for all New Yorkers.

And one critical lesson of the last eight years is that the public sector has to keep its finances in order to create an economic environment that is conducive to private sector growth. We have to show that we can keep our books in order, or the private sector won't have confidence in our City and our economy.

Which is why we must have a Balanced Budget: first and always.

Tax revenues are falling and are likely to remain lower than pre-September 11 forecasts for the short-term future. Worse, the immediate rate of decline could be greater than the City's ability to adjust its expenses, most of which are fixed costs that are required by law, mandated by court order, covered by contract, or debt service.

New York City has several revenue streams. The sales and personal income taxes are affected immediately by the September 11th disaster. The third, property taxes, fortunately is less susceptible to short term fluctuation.

Raising taxes is not an option. Higher taxes are a disincentive to those considering moving into the City - and encourage those already here to leave. The net effect of almost any tax rate increase would probably be a reduction in total tax revenues received!

This means we need to control expenses, or raise revenues through economic development rather than new taxes.

Since 50% of all City expenses are labor and the other half is fixed, clearly we will have no choice in the short term but to reduce personnel costs. Out of fairness to the very people we need to improve the way city government works, the focus must be on a combination of a temporary hiring freeze, attrition and voluntary retirements.

The great challenge for me as the next Mayor is how to encourage those workers that we desperately need, while simultaneously implementing efficiencies to replace those that retire.

A cost reduction "partnership" has to be formed immediately with all municipal unions. Our employees must be significantly more efficient if NYC is to survive - and they will accomplish this much more enthusiastically if they share in the savings. With the right gain-sharing structure, we'll be amazed how much more we can do with less.

We also need some legislative help from the State and Federal government to ease some of the financial pressure.

For example, under current federal law, all monies sent to the City are distributed through the State. The State keeps * of 1%, or $100 million out of $20 billion for "administrative" costs.

The federal law should be modified for the disaster relief funds, given the magnitude of the sums involved and the fact that the City has the structures in place to receive and distribute the funds itself. Likewise with monies for rebuilding transportation destined for the MTA or Port Authority.

We need less bureaucracy not more.

The City also needs to control its own destiny.

Currently, if the City incurs a deficit of $100 million or more, the Financial Control Board steps in to "run the City." This trigger level has never changed since the fiscal crisis of the 1970s, even though our government budget has grown four fold.

Should the economic impact of September 11th result in the "worst case" scenario, a real possibility exists that this limit will be violated shortly after I take office.

In the interest of democracy, we must find a legislative distinction between a one time terrorist attack and profligate spending.

And we should push for the removal of IRS' restrictions on our debt.

There currently exists an IRS restriction that tax-exempt debt can be refunded only once. Much of New York City debt has already been through this interest rate lowering process. We need relief from this arbitrary limitation. The City could save $120,000,000 in present value terms by refunding existing debt at current lower interest rates.

We also need to get better access to the bond markets. And as an ex-bond trader, I'd love to discuss the esoteric intricacies of the municipal bond market, but my advisors warned me against adding a half-hour to the speech.

We have needs that are long term and unlike ongoing expenses, should be financed with long-term debt.

To accomplish this, we should have the Transitional Finance Authority sell bonds -- up to $12 billion worth -- backed by the sales tax revenues currently committed to paying off the Municipal Assistance Corporation debt.

We can't let money we do spend to waste. We should model failing organizations after those that work. For example, the School Construction Authority does not build schools on time and on budget but the New York State Dormitory Authority does. Let's learn from their example. Our kids and our City can't afford to wait any longer.

2. Private Sector Growth

Now, after minding our municipal finances, the other piece of creating jobs is what we do for our private sector. And one very important area to focus on is Public/Private partnerships for economic development.

Public/Private Partnership

For example, we could try and get labor to invest in housing construction. In return for Project Labor Agreements, we probably could convince the AFL-CIO pension funds to invest in office and housing construction in New York City the way they do in other municipalities.

The most difficult problem for large-scale private development in New York is simply getting enough contiguous land to make a project economically viable. The City has the legal authority to facilitate this activity.

While we have to be sensitive to individuals' rights, society does have legitimate concerns in continuing progress. A balance is required, but we do need to build large-scale housing developments, schools and hospitals.

Additionally, the State must enact effective brownfields legislation to make unused and vacant land throughout the five boroughs productive for their surrounding communities. The State should limit the liability on land after it's cleaned up, thus removing any uncertainty for developers. We then can make this land available at low cost, providing developers an economic incentive to construct desperately needed "affordable housing."

And we should encourage the creation of Business Improvement Districts in areas that are not experiencing economic resurgence, because BIDs have been successful across the city.

Venture Capital To Develop New Industries

Venture capital is another important tool -- often determining where emerging industries locate.

The City's Emerging Industries Fund, created years ago, has funded only one equity investment in a biotechnology company and no investments in information technology, telecommunications -- or anything else! We should not miss the opportunity to encourage new industry growth.

We need local advisors who will reach out to potential targets of investment and provide links with technical assistance. The fund should be for high-risk, flexible investments, not sure-fire profit-making ventures. We cannot just focus on retaining financial services.

New industries such as biotech and Nanotechnology - and old ones like "culture," media, fashion, etc. are just as important to our future.

Help Small Businesses

And many of those are really made up of a lot of small businesses. Half of all our employed population works at companies of 10 people or less. You know, this is an area very near and dear to my heart. I started my company in two rooms with one pot of coffee. I know the challenges small business owners face and I understand the courage it takes to build a your own business.

These stores, restaurants, light manufacturers, services companies etc. are the most vulnerable to the current economic slowdown and the World Trade Center disaster. We must keep them in business!

Many of these businesses that can't make ends meet desperately need small Business Adminsitration loans and outright small cash grants from foundations.

A grace period on rent payments offered by landlords and encouraged by tax incentives to those building owners would also assist during the current steep decline in business.

Our tax incentive programs are geared toward large corporate businesses that own their own buildings. In the new global economy, emerging industries often consist of small shops with only a handful of workers and they are likely to rent space rather than own it.

Therefore, traditional real-property exemptions and abatements don't benefit them. Incentives should be geared to occupants, not just owners.

We must periodically evaluate and monitor tax benefit and business retention programs. Performance standards have to be developed to evaluate the effectiveness of benefits. Are we getting the job creation promised? Is the community getting the amenity promised by a developer? If not, developers should pay back the money to the City. Tax incentives are an agreement and both sides have to uphold their end of the deal.

And Tax incentive programs for residential and commercial/manufacturing must work together. When they were first created, business and residential uses were separate and distinct.

Today, those working in high-tech industries can work from their residences. Our existing tax programs must be reviewed and revised to reflect the current marketplace.

In addition, some activity currently categorized as manufacturing is actually commercial in nature -- such as jewelry making -- and can readily co-exist with residential uses.

The State must redirect tax incentives to facilitate the development of mixed-use construction and rehabilitation in communities appropriate for development. Those areas with mixed use have the economic diversity to improve chances of success.

Part 2

My Street Address:

My ZIP Code:

Find what city council district you are in -- and learn more about what's going on there, and who's running.

What is this?
Gotham Gazette's Searchlight on Campaign 2001 offers a comprehensive look at what is being called New York City's most significant campaign season in modern history. (See the left-hand column for an explanation).

Districts of the Week

District 1 -- Lower Manhattan
Whoever wins the election in district 1 will represent immigrant Chinese garment workers, as well as Wall Street traders living in Battery Park City. There are several candidates hoping to be the council's firsts -- the first Asian-American man, the first Asian-American woman, the first gay Rhodes Scholar, the first dot-com guru -- running against some politically well connected opponents. Endorsements and fundraising will play a big role in this race. But voter turnout could be the main determinant of who will next represent district 1 on the council. The key question is how many voters from each community will come out on Election Day.

District 7 -- Washington Heights, Manhattan
The northern tip of Manhattan has become one of the most popular places for new immigrants to call home. The northern tip of Manhattan is a place that today's new immigrants call home. The majority have come from the Dominican Republic, but also from countries in South America, Eastern Europe, and Asia. But it is not just new immigrants that are moving in. Students, artists, and other Manhattanites looking for less expensive rents and larger apartments have also moved north. Ten Democratic candidates are competing for the 15,000 voters expected on primary day. The winner who emerges from a crowded field of candidates will have to balance the needs of the newcomers with those who have lived there for years.

District 16 -- Highbridge, Bronx
The neighborhoods of district 16 are the city's poorest, with the highest rate of unemployment and the lowest median household income. But those who live there also point out that much is positive and stable about the area, thanks in large part to local organizations, not-for-profit agencies, and houses of worship that help hold the neighborhoods together. Each candidate for City Council believes that through his or her connections to churches and local organizations, they can help empower the community toward a better life. Helen Foster, the current council member daughter, will face Michael Benjamin, who has worked as an aide to several government officials and Anthony Curry, a Bronx neighborhood activist.

District 20 -- Northeast Flushing, Queens
This year district 20 may elect the first Asian-American ever to the City Council to an area which now has the second highest number of immigrants from Korea and Taiwan in the city. There are three Asian candidates in the Democratic race who have each drawn big endorsements. Council Speaker Peter Vallone endorsed Terence Park, City Comptroller Alan Hevesi endorsed John Liu, and the New York Times recently endorsed Ethel Chen The campaign has also drawn national and international press coverage

District 25 -- Jackson Heights, Queens
Thirty-seventh Avenue in Jackson Heights, Queens is one of the most diverse streets in the world. Little India quickly blends into Little Colombia, with vendors selling Latin American food to Colombians, Peruvians, Ecuadorians, Mexicans, and Uruguayans. And each summer, the Queens Pride Parade fills the same street with rainbow banners. So it is no surprise that this election year the district produced a diverse field of candidates. A number of them, however, found out that getting on the ballot is not an easy task, especially when the Queens Democratic organization sends teams of lawyers to challenge petitions. But five Democratic candidates survived and will face off on September 11.

District 31 -- South East Queens
When a heavy rain hits southeast Queens, many residents in neighborhoods like Springfield Gardens, Laurelton and Rosedale head to the basement with a bucket in hand. And it has been that way for the last 50 years. In the rush to build housing in the area after World War II, developers overlooked the need for storm drains in hopes that the city would eventually build a city-wide sewer system. The plan never materialized and the area has experienced "100-year rains" three times in the last decade. The eight Democrats -- all with little experience overseeing massive infrastructure projects--will try to convince voters that they can finally solve the flooding problems.

District 35 -- Central Brooklyn
The residents in council district 35 have some of the highest incomes in Brooklyn and some of the lowest. They can play in a famous park and a beautiful botanical garden, and live in the city's most crumbling public housing. They can attend one of the four institutions of higher learning in the district, and the worst-scoring high schools in the city. Such juxtapositions are a way of life for a district that includes the Brooklyn Academy of Music, the Brooklyn Museum, and the Brooklyn Botanical Gardens; mid dle-class African-American communities near Prospect Park; immigrant communities from Haiti, Sierra Leon, Nigeria, and Trinidad, and in Crown Heights, a mix of Hasidic Jews and African-Americans. Seven Democratic candidates are campaigning in hopes that they can bring some kind of unity, and attention, to the area. Their backgrounds are as diverse as the neighborhoods themselves.

District 39 -- Park Slope/Carroll Gardens, Brooklyn
The candidates in district 39 include a chief of staff for an Assemblywoman, the husband of a member of U.S. Congress, a lawyer for the Legal Aid Society, an attorney and president of the Central Brooklyn Independent Democrats, Senator Hillary Clinton's campaign manager, the district manager of Community Board 6, and a labor organizer. This is the race to watch this year. The group of high-profile Democrats have raised a lot of money, almost $1.4 million combined.

District 45 -- East Flatbush
In no place in the city are the effects of campaign finance reform and term limits being felt more than in East Flatbush. The seven Democratic candidates seeking to represent this largely West Indian district come from a number of Caribbean nations. Many have been working on politicians' staffs and serving with community groups, clearly hoping someday to win their own elected office. Term limits has presented them with that opportunity, and they want to make the most of it. But this race that usually draws only about 8,000 voters could be decided by just a few votes. The candidates are attempting to come up with anything that will separate them from the pack.

District 49 -- North Shore, Staten Island
Staten Island has always been somewhat of a suburban stepchild to New York City. When a 1998 survey asked New Yorkers why they go to Staten Island, the top two responses were ''visiting friends and relatives" and ''passing through.'' But in many ways, the north shore has more in common with areas of Manhattan and Brooklyn than with the rest of the Staten Island. The top priority for all the candidates -- Jon Del Giorno, an administrative manager for the Board of Elections, Mike McMahon, an attorney and counsel to current Councilmember Jerome O'Donovan, and Debi Rose, an administrator at the College of Staten Island and the first African-American candidate in Staten Island politics -- is to make sure that the island becomes more than just a turn-around-point for the over one million tourists who ride the free ferry from Manhattan each year.

Register To Vote or Be A Poll Worker

Voter Registration Forms
After printing and filling out the voter registration form, please send them by mail to:

Board of Elections
32 Broadway, 7th Floor
New York, NY

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Poll Worker Applications

After completing the forms, please send them to the address on the form.

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Links You Can Use

Government sites
NYC Campaign Finance Bd.
NYC Board of Elections
NYC Voter Assistance Comm.
NY City Council
Federal Election Comm.

Local non-partisan sites
NY League of Women Voters
Common Cause New York

National non-partisan sites
Ctr. for Responsive Politics
Common Cause
League of Women Voters

NAACP Voter Empowerment
Vote Smart


Political consultants
Amer. Assc. of Pol. Consultants

Prime New York

Gotham Gazette
The Empire Page
Campaigns and Elections
Legislative Gazette

Political columnists
Andrea Bernstein
Joe Conason
Mario Cuomo (radio)
Rudy Giuliani (radio)
Clyde Haberman
Nat Hentoff

Joseph Mercurio
Joyce Purnick
John Tierney
Michael Tomasky

Political parties
Right to Life
Working Families
Marijuana Reform
Natural Law Party
Taxpayers Party

Political clubs and groups
Blueprint Camp. Finance Reform
Central Queens Greens
The Jefferson Democratic Club of Flushing
NY Young Republican Club
Stonewall Democratic Club
Village Independent Dems.

Abbreviations for Party Affiliation

American Dream Party (AMD)
Better Schools Party (BES)
Communist (Com)
Conservative (Con)
Constitution (CST)
Democratic (Dem)
Friends United Party (FUN)
Fusion Party (FUS)
Green (Gre)
Harmony Party (HAR)
Independence (Ind)
Liberal (Lib)
Libertarian (LBT)
Marijuana Reform Party (POT)
Natural Law Party (NLP)
Party of Ethics and Traditions (PET)
Reform Party (Ref)
Republican (Rep)
Right to Life (RTL)
School Choice Party (Sch)
Socialist Workers Party (SWP)
Working Families (Wor)

2001 Election Calendar

June 1 -- Deadline for candidates to join the Campaign Finance program, qualifying for the four-to-one match of contributions.
June 5 - First day for candidates from the eight major parties (Democratic, Republican, Indpendence, Conservative, Liberal, Green, Working Families, and Right to Life) to circulate petitions. Candidates running for City Council must collect the signatures of at least 900 people living in the district for which they are running in order to appear on the Primary ballot. Candidates not running under these eight major parties do not appear on the Primary ballot and have a separate set of deadlines.
July 12 - Deadline for major party candidates to file petitions.
July 10 - First day for unaffiliated candidates to circulate petitions, in order to appear on the ballot in the General Election. They must collect the number of signatures equal to five percent of the total enrolled in that party.
August 7 - Board of Elections announces candidates appearing on the Primary ballot.
August 17 - Last day for non-absentee voters to register to vote in the Primary Election.
August 21 - Deadline for non-major party candidates to file petitions to be included on the General Election ballot.
September 4 - Last day to postmark application for absentee voting in the Primary
September 10 - Last day to personally deliver application for absentee voting in the Primary Last day to postmark absentee ballot for Primary
September 11 - Primary election; Polls open at 6:00a.m. and close at 9:00p.m.; Absentee ballots must be hand-delivered by 9:00 p.m.
September 25 - Runoff Primary election for Mayor, Comptroller and Public Advocate, if needed
October 12 - Last day to for non-absentee voters to register to vote in the General Election
October 30 - Last day to postmark application for absentee voting in the General Election
November 5 - Last day to hand-deliver an application for absentee voting, or to postmark an absentee ballot for the General Election.
November 6 - General Election; polls open at 6:00a.m. and close at 9:00p.m. in NYC; Absentee ballots must be hand-delivered by 9:00 p.m.

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