Gotham Gazette

The Place for New York Policy and politics

Citizens Union



A Brief History of New York Transportation

  Grand Central Depot, now known as Grand Central Station.
1652 - Traffic Laws
The rulers of what was then New Amsterdam institute the first traffic regulations in America. The law bars wagons, carts and sleighs from being driven at a gallop.

1693 - First Bridge
The first bridge in the city, King's Bridge connects Manhattan and what is now the Bronx. It is demolished in 1917.

1811 - Ferry Service
The Juliana, the world's first commercially operated steam ferry, begins running between New Jersey and Vesey Street.

1811 - Street Plan
The New York State Legislature introduces the Grid Plan for New York City, dividing its streets into a rectangular pattern. The design has been the basis for transportation planning in the city ever since.

1825 - Link to the West
The Erie Canal is finished, making New York City America's premier port.

1832 - First Railroad
The first railroad system in New York, owned by the New York and Harlem Railroad company, begins operating approximately nine blocks between Union Square and 23rd Street.

1870 - Above Ground
The city's first elevated railway begins running regularly along Greenwich Street and 9th Avenue. It would be driven out of business by the subway 50 years later.

1871 - New Station
Grand Central Depot, now known as Grand Central Terminal, is constructed in 1871 to handle New York City's railroad traffic.

1874 - Link to New Jersey
Colonel Dewitt Haskins breaks ground for the first tunnel under the Hudson, designed to connect Hoboken and Lower Manhattan. It is completed almost 30 years later. Parts of it are still used in the PATH rail system.

  Contsruction on the Brooklyn Bridge.
1883 - Across the East River
On May 24, the Brooklyn Bridge over the East River opens, connecting Manhattan and Brooklyn.

1890 - Street Transit
The first cable cars appear, replacing animal-powered streetcars.

1903 - East River Crossing
The Williamsburg Bridge, the largest of the bridges across the East River, is completed.

1904 - First Subway
The first official subway system in Manhattan opens. The Interborough Rapid Transit initially covers 9.1 miles of track and 28 stations between City Hall and 145th street.

1905 - Buses Start
The first gasoline-powered buses in America begin running along Fifth Avenue.

1905 - East and West
The Manhattan Bridge is completed, connecting Canal Street in Manhattan and Flatbush Avenue in Brooklyn over the East River.

1907 - Bye, Bye Battery
Slow moving battery taxis are replaced with faster, gas-powered vehicles.

1913 - Creating a City System
New York City approves the expansion of subway lines owned by both the Independent Rapid Transit Company and the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company. The $302 million project adds 123 miles of track to the subway system.

1916 - Help from Washington
The Federal Aid Road Act of 1916 establishes a regular system of federal funding for state road projects. It is the basis for all future federal transportation laws that provide funding to states, including New York, for highway construction.

1919 - Red Light, Green Light
New York City installs its first traffic signal light at Fifth Avenue and 42nd Street.

1921 - Joint Project
New York and New Jersey form the Port of New York Authority to improve the city's mass transportation facilities.

1924 - Bronx River Parkway
The Bronx River Parkway, the city's first modern parkway, is completed.

1925 - Another Subway
Mayor John F. Hylan wins approval to create the city-owned Independent Subway System.

1927 - Under the River
The Holland Tunnel opens, becoming the city's first underwater tunnel for motor vehicles. A construction project shared by New York and New Jersey, the tunnel connects lower Manhattan at Canal Street and Jersey City.

1930 - Air Travel
Bennett Airport on Barren Island in Brooklyn is finished, accommodating the first regular plane service in the city.

  The George Washington Bridge.
1931 - Over the River
The George Washington Bridge opens, connecting upper Manhattan and New Jersey over the Hudson River. It is the first bridge in New York to be constructed completely out of steel.

1934 - Along the River
The East River Drive, now known as the FDR Drive, is completed, running from the Battery to the Triborough Bridge along the eastern edge of Manhattan.

1934 - Order on the Buses
Mayor Fiorello LaGuardia sets out a coherent policy for surface transit, doing away with some streetcar lines and granting franchises to private bus companies.

1935 - Major Construction
Construction begins on the Major Deegan Expressway, cutting a path from the Bronx to upstate New York.

1937 - Taxi Medallions
La Guardia signs the Haas Act, establishing a system of medallions, or official licenses, for the city's taxi cabs. Medallions are limited to 13,566 and cost $10 each.

1937 - Another Link
The Lincoln Tunnel opens, connecting midtown Manhattan and New Jersey under the Hudson River.

1938 - Belt Parkway
One of the many roads masterminded by Robert Moses, this highway around Brooklyn and Queens opens.

1939 - La Guardia Airfield
La Guardia Airfield opens in Queens, handling 250 flights a day in its first year.

1940 - Subway Takeover
The city takes over the subway system as it purchases the financially ailing Brooklyn-Manhattan Transit Corporation (BMT) and the Interborough Rapid Transit Company (IRT).

1941 - Bus Protest
After a four-week, citywide boycott led by Adam Clayton Powell, Jr., bus companies in New York agree to hire black drivers.

1948 - Cars Not People
Construction begins on the Cross-Bronx Expressway. To make way for it, 159 apartment buildings were destroyed in East Tremont and Morris Heights and 1,530 families had to move.

1948 - End of an Era
The subway fare rises to 10 cents, the first fare hike since the system began operation 44 years earlier.

  "Fliteseer" tram in front of a pair of Alitalia DC-7s at Idlewild Airport.
1948 - New Airport
Idlewild International Airport, later renamed John F. Kennedy International Airport, opens in Queens. It goes on to become the busiest cargo airport in the world.

1950 - Bus Station
The Port Authority Bus Terminal opens to the public. It was expanded in 1963 and again in 1979.

1950 - Department of Traffic
The city creates a Department of Traffic to take over responsibility for traffic control from the police departments. It soon institutes a number of programs, including alternate side of the street parking.

1953 - Running the Subways
The New York State Legislature creates the New York City Transit Authority to manage and operate the city's subway and bus systems.

1953 - That and a Token
Subway tokens debut on July 25 as the subway fare rises from 10 to 15 cents.

1956 - New Highways
The Federal Interstate Highway Act authorizes construction of a 41,000-mile interstate highway system, with the federal government paying 90 percent of the cost. New York City would use this legislation for projects such as completion of the Cross-Bronx Expressway.

1957 - End of an Era
The last city streetcar line is eliminated.

1962 - Commuter Rail

  PATH Train Exiting Journal Square Transportation Center.
The PATH rail system connects Hoboken, New Jersey to Manhattan.

1964 - Staten Island
The Verrazano-Narrows Bridge opens, linking Manhattan and Staten Island. The Staten Island Expressway, connected to the bridge?s upper deck, is also finished. It required the demolition of 400 buildings and the displacement of 3,500 residents.

1967 - Yellow Cabs
The city orders all medallion cabs to be painted yellow.

1968 - State Control
The New York State Legislature creates the Metropolitan Transportation Authority, which becomes New York City Transit's parent organization.

1971 - Fare Policy
The New York Taxi and Limousine Commission is created to license and regulate the city's yellow cabs.

1977 - Shifting Control
The city Department of Transportation takes over street operations, including traffic control and parking regulations.

1980 - Easier Access
The first wheelchair lifts for passengers with disabilities appear on city-owned buses.

1989 - End of Westway
After years of controversy, Greenwich Village residents, environmentalists and others finally defeat a plan to build Westway, a highway along the Hudson River in Manhattan.

1990 - Accessible City
Americans with Disabilities Act is signed into law, requiring that public transportation be accessible to people with disabilities. Activists use the legislation to make all city curbs accessible in 2002.

1993 - Candid Camera
The city launches the Red Light Program, automatically taking pictures of the license plates of vehicles that run red lights.

1994 - Swipe and Go
The MTA introduces MetroCards, installing turnstiles that accept them at the Wall Street and Whitehall Street subway stations.

1997 - The Rise of the MetroCard
All New York City buses and subway stations now accept MetroCards.

2001 - September 11
A terrorist attack destroys the World Trade Center on September 11. There is a partial collapse of the Cortlandt Street Station underneath the complex. IRT Broadway 1/9 service is shut down between Chambers Street and South Ferry. PATH lines adjacent to the site are ruined.

2002 - MTA Splits
MTA New York City Transit is officially separated into two separate companies called MTA Subways and MTA Buses.

2003 - Death of an Icon
New York City subways and buses stop accepting tokens, as MTA New York City Transit hikes fares on its buses and subways by 33 percent from a $1.50 to $2.00. It is the largest fair increase in city history.

2003 - Transit Center
The Lower Manhattan Development Corporation and other agencies begin planning a new transportation hub at the World Trace Center site.

Material researched by Martin Bricketto and Catherine Shu


Moving Around the City -- A Quiz About Transportation in New York
New York's Fight for Transportation Dollars in Congress
City Council Transportation Legislation
An Appalachian Trail Through The Heart Of NYC

Making the MTA Play Fair and Square


The ruling by a State Supreme Court judge on May 14 that the Metropolitan Transportation must roll back its first fare increase in eight years represented a surprising turn of events. State Controller Alan Hevesi, whose report charged that the MTA misrepresented its finances, called the ruling "a great victory."

The public reaction, on the other hand, was to keep the champagne corked. The Daily News quoted Jessica Alexander, getting off the F train in Queens, saying "That's nice for now, but I'm sure the fare will go back up again before we know it." Another rider quoted in the Times commented, "I don't see how they can go back on what they've already decided. That's politics."

Not only politics but also the law. The MTA immediately appealed the ruling, halting, at least for now, the fare rollback. As the public has figured out, Judge Louis B. York's ruling is highly unlikely to result in a permanent rollback to the old $1.50 base fare. Even if the MTA were forced to go back to the old fare, the agency could hold new public hearings and re-institute the $2.00 fare. The ruling itself could be overturned on appeal in the next several weeks.

So what does this ruling mean? Is there any reason for transit riders to celebrate?


In an article for Gotham Gazette, Gene Russianoff, the senior attorney for the Straphangers Campaign, which brought the lawsuit, says he hopes the decision forces sweeping changes in the way the MTA reports its finances.

Thus, the court case is less about a rollback in the fare than making the MTA play fair and square. It is about the integrity of the public hearing process. Judge York called the $2.8 billion budget deficit figure in the MTA's notice for the public hearings on the fare increase a fictitious gap that "had a chilling effect on the public, discouraging an open and complete discussion of the proposals and foreclosing the presentation of creative alternatives." The judge concluded that the MTA's hearings were based on the false and misleading premise that the MTA was in worse financial condition than it knew itself to be."

Without accurate information, the public could not meaningfully comment on a proposed fare increase. As the judge noted(in pdf format), although the MTA has the legal authority to raise the fare as it sees fit, this power is subject to certain safeguards that include a fair and open hearing.

In sum, the court ruling affirms that accurate information plays a vital role in maintaining public confidence in public authorities. This may seem obvious to many but it was not obvious to the MTA, which argued in court that it had no obligation to share financial information with the public.

But would an honest process make any difference? Are many riders correct in assuming that the fare would go up whether or not the public had accurate information about the MTA's finances? And even if the MTA is not financially strapped in 2003, won't it need a fare increase next year?

There is much reason to be skeptical about the public hearing process for the MTA or any other agency. The most insightful and influential public comment is often made not at hearings but in news articles, editorials and op-ed pieces. Hearings can become an exercise in the mutual infliction of pain: you'll raise our fare, but you'll have to suffer through listening to me before you do.

Just as there is good cholesterol and bad cholesterol, there are good and bad public hearing processes. Designing an effective public participation process, satisfactory to all interested parties, is no easy task.

One key is accurate information, distributed early in the process. The lack of accurate financial information was obviously the focus of the suit against the MTA.


But good information is not the only requirement. Guidebooks published by the Environmental Protection Agency, the California Public Utilities Commission and a commentaryby the Association of the Bar of the City of New York, stress the need for informal meetings conducive to open discussion as well as formal public hearings. Also important is the transparency of the process, direct involvement by key decision-makers and responses to comments. Federal agencies must respond in writing to each comment submitted during a formal rulemaking process.

The MTA's recent proposalsto publish more extensive financial information and provide more time for public comment and input from elected officials are welcome steps toward a more transparent budget process.

Interestingly, the city has much more stringent procedures than those the MTA followed for this year's fare increase. The City Charter requires that before adopting a new regulation, such as an increase in the taxi fare, the department involved must state what exactly it proposes to adopt and what the purpose of the regulation is.

This year, the MTA never put a specific proposal before the public. Instead, it published a series of options with different fare structures that would raise different amounts of revenue. These options provided a good starting place. But the MTA did not publish a final proposal and so it was never clear which fare option the public should focus on.

The public and the agency need to have good information and clear proposals or options to begin a dialogue. And both parties need to be willing to listen as well as talk.

This is where the governor becomes critical. Although the exact relationship between the MTA and Governor George Pataki is often murky, it is generally assumed that the MTA only does what the governor wants it to do, at least on major issues. How can the MTA engage in a worthwhile public hearing process if it has one ear cocked in the governor's direction?


Public participation is important in shaping the actions of public authorities. It can generate a wider range of options and a deeper understanding of the issues for both government officials and public participants.

Hearings can foster meaningful dialogue between government agencies and interested parties. One needs only to think about how public comments on the early designs for the World Trade Center site caused the Lower Manhattan Development Corporation and the Port Authority to revamp their plans. Even the MTA sharply cut back its plans for to close token booths based on public comment.

In my own experience with hearings on taxicab regulations (including the fare), public hearings acted as a vetting or testing process. The agency must have reasonable answers to the issues raised by interested parties. Did we think of everything? Is there another idea that we should consider?

Having to lay out your plans before smart people who have different interests and perspectives makes you think through an issue more carefully. This was shown in the discussions over the plans for the World Trade Center site.

More broadly, the hearing process drives home the idea to public employees that they work for the public and that the information they deal with should be part of the public debate.

So the short answer to the skeptics' questions are, yes, Virginia, this fare increase is here to stay. At most, there will be a temporary reprieve -- and don't count on even that.

Even so, Judge York's ruling is an important step toward creating meaningful public debate and dialog on the fare and other issues facing the MTA. Whether sustained or overturned on appeal, the judge's decision further bolsters the movement to hold the MTA accountable and supports those within the MTA who want to open up the authority's books and open up the process.

Bruce Schaller is Principal of Schaller Consulting, which provides research and analysis to government, business and non-profit groups seeking to identify and meet customer needs in the transportation sector. He is also a Visiting Scholar at the Center for Transportation Policy and Management at New York University.

Hallelujah - for Now



When the Straphangers Campaign joined riders, workers and elected officials to sue the Metropolitan Transportation Authority, we thought we had a good chance of winning a finding that the MTA had misled the public. But we didn't know if the court would order a rollback of the $2 fare.

But on May 14 Manhattan State Supreme Court Justice Louis York ordered the Metropolitan Transportation Authority to roll back the fare increases on city subways and buses, the Long Island Rail Road, MetroNorth and Long Island Bus by May 28 and to hold a new round of public hearings. The judge also halted the closing of 62 subway station booths.

My reaction is simple and like that of virtually all riders: Hallelujah!

Even though the order is now on hold as the MTA appeals it, the May 14 decision is a victory for truth in government. [See related story on the MTA hearing process.]

The Straphangers Campaign, New York State Senate Minority Leader David A. Paterson and several transit riders filed the suit last month, after State Comptroller Alan Hevesi and City Comptroller William Thompson found that the MTA had misled the public about the state of the authority's finances. Transport Workers Union Local 100 President Roger Toussaint has also intervened on the side of the plaintiffs.

We argued that the authority violated the law when it voted to raise the fare on March 6 because it did not follow the required process. Under the law, public hearings must be held before the MTA can approve any fare hike. But at the hearings in February, the MTA deliberately deceived the public about the state of its finances. For example, the MTA's posters announcing the hearings all said that the authority was facing a $2.8 billion budget gap in the next two years.

That is simply not true. According to Hevesi's affidavit in the suit, the MTA, moved resources off budget and from one year to another. That had the effect of grossly reducing the projected size of the 2002 surplus from $537.1 million to $24.6 million. Concealing this money bolstered the MTA's claim that it faced huge deficits. Without these actions, the MTA's surplus in 2003 would have been $83 million, according to Hevesi. These deceptions on the part of the MTA made a sham of the hearings.

The comptrollers also said the MTA hid its financial gyrations from the public. Astoundingly, the main argument of the lawyers for the MTA was that the MTA has no legal obligation to disclose financial information to the public.

In his ruling, Judge York roundly rejected this contention. "The right to a public hearing and to public scrutiny are based on the principle of fundamental fairness, which is required of all government agencies . . . when dealing with citizens of the state or their affairs."

In addition to the controversy over finances, serious questions have been raised about the independence and vigor of the MTA inspector general. On May 14, the authority fired two security officials saying they had falsified information. The two have charged the agency with corruption and graft.

The MTA faces its worst crisis of public confidence in its 35-year history. Whatever the fate of the $2 fare, the decision should force sweeping changes in the way the MTA reports its finances.

The very day of York's ruling, the authority announced changes that it said would better inform the public about its finances. Among the modest reforms, the MTA says it will give the public more time to comment on its proposed budgets, issue a four-year plan that it will revise three times a year, and provide more financial information on its web site. Katherine N. Lapp, the executive director, said the changes were not a response to the many recent criticisms of the MTA.

The state legislature is considering a range of reforms, including an Independent Budget Office for the MTA, a computerized registry for MTA contracts and more independence and clout for the MTA inspector general. Many of the most important changes are in a bill sponsored by Assemblymember Richard Brodsky. The legislature should act on these ideas.

Governor George Pataki, Mayor Michael Bloomberg, the state legislature and the MTA need to take immediate action to restore the MTA's credibility. Pataki should appoint an independent blue ribbon panel -- known under state law as a "Moreland Act" commission -- with subpoena power to investigate the MTA's budgeting and finances, as well charges of corruption in the agency's contracting. Bloomberg should use the city's considerable resources to audit the MTA's finances and to call off his proposal to slash city payments to the MTA.

We won our lawsuit because the MTA misled the public about its finances and made a sham of public hearings. If the MTA learns from its mistakes, the actions could usher in a new era of open government at the transportation agency.

Gene Russianoff is senior attorney with NYPIRG/Straphangers Campaign.


Print Friendly and PDF

Editor's Choice

Gotham Gazette: High Rates of Head Trauma in New York City Jails Raise Public Health, Recidivism Concerns High Rates of Head Trauma in New York City Jails Raise Public Health, Recidivism Concerns Gotham Gazette: Embracing Sanders, De Blasio Leaves Behind His Clinton-Cuomo Era Embracing Sanders, De Blasio Leaves Behind His Clinton-Cuomo Era Gotham Gazette: State Senate's New Sexual Harassment Policy Draws Criticism State Senate's New Sexual Harassment Policy Draws Criticism Gotham Gazette: 2018 Will Be a Busy, Contentious Election Year in New York 2018 Will Be a Busy, Contentious Election Year in New York


The comments section is provided as a free service to our readers. Gotham Gazette's editors reserve the right to delete any comments. Some reasons why comments might get deleted: inappropriate or offensive content, off-topic remarks or spam.