Gotham Gazette

The Place for New York Policy and politics



Budget Cuts In Transportation


Budgets reveal priorities and politics, and never is this more true than when the budget needs to be cut. The importance of Staten Island voters to a Republican mayor was therefore evident on June 8 when Mayor Michael Bloomberg announced $90 million in budget restorations. Keeping the fourth boat on the Staten Island ferry in service during rush hour was one of nine restorations proposed by the mayor. This budget cut would have saved $2.4 million annually by reducing the ferry schedule from every 15 minutes to every 20 minutes.

Other cuts proposed in the mayor's budget show how the city's current budget woes are likely to affect New Yorkers' daily lives. The budget details also show how budgets can drive transportation policy in ways both good and bad.

Winners and Losers

The mayor proposed to cut the city Department of Transportation's budget by about $50 million, or about $48 million after the ferry restoration. Under the mayor's proposals, fewer streets would be re-surfaced by city crews, saving $7.2 million. This is the biggest single cut in the transportation department budget.

Smaller cuts would eliminate East River bridge necklace lighting ($75,000 savings) and fire callbox lights maintenance ($472 million savings) and reduce bridge preventive maintenance ($1.34 million savings).

Some "cuts" are really improvements, however. A prime example is $4.9 million in maintenance and electricity savings resulting from switching traffic signals to Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs). Not only do LEDs save money but they are brighter and far more visible.

Another example is an increase of $4 million in revenue from expanding the commercial parking program, which the Department of Transportation says will improve traffic flow. In the current program in Midtown Manhattan, trucks and other commercial vehicles are charged escalating parking rates to encourage short stays and thus free up parking for the next driver making a delivery.

Other items listed as budget cuts are actually ways to dip into the citizenry's pockets a bit deeper. For example, cutting subsidies to privately operated bus companies will save $8 million and result in express bus fares rising from $3 to $4, keeping in line with the fare increase by the Metropolitan Transportation Authority..

Some of the mayor's proposed cuts are simply catching up to reality. The mayor proposes to save $324,000 from the elimination of vehicle transport on the Staten Island ferry, which were in fact eliminated after the Sept. 11 attacks.

Beyond the transportation department budget, the mayor proposes to raise $65 million a year for the next three years through the sale of 900 new taxicab medallion licenses (300 a year). Whether environmental constraints will prevent the city from issuing the full 900 remains to be seen, but the first 300 is probably a safe bet. This initiative is not only good news for the budget but good news for taxi riders, who have had a notably hard time finding a cab even with the recession. This is a case of the budget driving good policy.

All of these figures pale in comparison with one of the biggest and vaguest items in the mayoral budget, $200 million in "regional transportation initiatives." About one-half this savings could come from the MTA taking over the seven city-subsidized private bus companies that serve eastern Queens and parts of the other boroughs. The city and Metropolitan Transportation Authority have discussed the MTA taking over the lines and assuming at least some portion of the financial responsibility. Officials said at a State Assembly hearing on June 4 that the framework for a deal should be completed by June 30.

Many complexities need to be resolved, including who will foot the bill for bus service, putting in doubt whether a deal will be made any time soon. If a deal is made, it might be good news for not only the cty budget but also riders on the private lines, who have had to put up with years of substandard service. It might be bad news for the MTA' current riders, however, who may have to shoulder the $100 million or more cost through future fare increases.

According to the New York Post , the mayor' budget also envisions additional cuts in the city's subsidy to the MTA, which again, could result in transit service reductions or quicken the next fare increase.

Saved by the State Budget Deal

Some other possible cuts were averted when the State Legislature and City Council approved $700 million in higher taxes. The most visible cuts in the mayor's "doomsday" budget included eliminating the elderly and disabled fare subsidy to the MTA and private bus lines, increasing the fare on private bus lines to $2, cuts in service on the private bus lines, reductions in street maintenance, cleaning and pothole repairs, cutting Staten Island ferry service from half-hour to hourly on nights and weekends, and a 50 percent cut in the city's subsidy to the MTA for van service for persons with disabilities.

Bruce Schaller is Principal of Schaller Consulting, which provides research and analysis to government, business and non-profit groups seeking to identify and meet customer needs in the transportation sector. He is also a Visiting Scholar at the Center for Transportation Policy and Management at New York University.
















New York's Fight for Transportation Dollars in Congress

  Federal highway funds are used to restore and repair the city's bridges - including the Manhattan Bridge, shown above.
Every six years, Congress sets out to reauthorize the transportation funding that supports highway and mass transit programs. And every six years, the states scramble to get the biggest share of that funding. This year, with the current funding set to expire September 30, a coalition of mostly Southern and Midwestern states is looking to increase their shares at the expense of a few states in the Northeast and North Plains. New York's highway program would be particularly hard-hit, with a cut of 18 percent, or close to $2 billion over six years if current funding levels remained the same.

New York's funding is being attacked on the grounds that the state is being subsidized by the rest of the country, and should be "self-sufficient" when it comes to highway programs. A recent study (in pdf format) at the Rudin Center for Transportation Policy and Management that I co-authored shows, however, that New York receives a relatively small share of the highway pie.

Underlying the debate is the mechanism used to fund the federal highway program. Since the mid-1950s, gas taxes and certain other highway-user fees such as sales taxes on tires have been deposited in a national Highway Trust Fund and paid out in grants to the states. Originally, these taxes financed a grand national project - the Interstate Highway System. As that project came to an end, Congress added programs to support pedestrian amenities, safety, and air quality improvement, and the states began to squabble more over the distribution of funds. The fact that highway programs were supported by dedicated taxes made it easy for states to compare the amount of taxes they sent to Washington with the funding they received in return.

The states that pay more in federal gas taxes than they receive in highway funding - so-called "donor" states led by Florida, Texas, and Michigan - argue that they are shortchanged by this system and end up subsidizing other states. States such as New York, on the other hand, which are net recipients of federal highway funds, argue that the maintenance costs of their older infrastructures, and the wear and tear caused by their harsh climates, require higher levels of federal funding.

These arguments, however, obscure some of the underlying realities of the finances. Our study shows that, by a number of measures, New York receives a very low level of transportation funding:

  • On a per capita basis, New York receives less federal highway funding than all but one state.
  • As a percentage of the state's total highway spending, the portion covered by the federal government in New York is the smallest of any state.
  • When it comes to mass transit, New York City's Metropolitan Transportation Authority receives 16 percent of the federal transit funding, but carries 32 percent of the nation's transit riders.

New York is seen as a net recipient of federal highway funds, despite receiving a smaller-than-average amount, because New Yorkers pay an even smaller share of federal gas taxes. The federal gas tax is the same throughout the country - 18.4 cents - but New Yorkers drive less and take transit more than the rest of the country. According to the 2000 Census, nearly one-quarter of state residents take transit to work, compared with less than five percent in the United States as a whole. As a result, New Yorkers pay far less in federal gas taxes and other highway-user taxes than other Americans - $67 versus $112 for the nation as a whole in 2001.

If the donor states have their way, the implications for New York could be serious. In the last 12 years, New York City has spent $1 billion in federal highway funds to restore and repair bridges, notably the Williamsburg, Brooklyn, Manhattan, and Queensboro bridges. Federal funds have helped pay for the city's high tech traffic management system, for safety enhancements on Queens Boulevard, and for the creation of bike lanes and greenways. Mass transit has also benefited from highway funding, as the state has transferred more than $120 million in federal highway funds each year to mass transit programs. A cut of $2 billion over six years could slow the city's bridge rehabilitation program and affect new projects such as the Second Avenue Subway.

What are the chances such a cut will pass Congress? The last time transportation funding was renewed, in 1997, the donor states were placated by a small increase in their share, and a large increase in the overall level of federal funding. New York's share shrank, but it received an absolute increase in funding, thanks to the overall increase.

This time around, the political and economic climate is different but the outcome may be similar. With the slowing economy, tax receipts into the Highway Trust Fund are falling, meaning the overall funding will shrink unless measures are taken such as increasing the gas tax - something the Bush Administration is loath to do. But Majority Leader Tom DeLay of Texas, a lead sponsor of the proposal, has not ruled out a tax increase, and the chairman of the House Transportation and Infrastructure Committee, Don Young of Alaska, has proposed increasing the gas tax and indexing it for inflation. His bill would increase the size of the program by about 50 percent, more than enough to make up cuts to individual states.

Interestingly, when the entire federal budget is considered, most of the states that are pushing for a bigger share of the highway funds already receive more in total federal spending than they pay in taxes. Florida, for example, paid $227 million more in gas taxes than it received in federal highway spending in 2001; but when the entire budget is counted, including defense, Social Security, and other programs, the state received $5.7 billion more from Washington than it paid in taxes. Oklahoma ran a "deficit" of $74 million with the federal highway program in 2001, but had an $8 billion "surplus" with the overall budget. In contrast, New York, New Jersey, and Connecticut together received $182 million more in federal highway spending than they paid in federal gas taxes, but they ran an overall deficit with Washington of $65 billion. These numbers should make legislators think twice about which states really are "self-sufficient."

Mark Seaman is project manager for the Rudin Center for Transportation Policy and Management at New York University's Wagner Graduate School of Public Service.

Moving Around the City -- A Quiz About Transportation in New York
City Council Transportation Legislation
A Brief History of New York Transportation
An Appalachian Trail Through The Heart Of NYC

A Brief History of New York Transportation

  Grand Central Depot, now known as Grand Central Station.
1652 - Traffic Laws
The rulers of what was then New Amsterdam institute the first traffic regulations in America. The law bars wagons, carts and sleighs from being driven at a gallop.

1693 - First Bridge
The first bridge in the city, King's Bridge connects Manhattan and what is now the Bronx. It is demolished in 1917.

1811 - Ferry Service
The Juliana, the world's first commercially operated steam ferry, begins running between New Jersey and Vesey Street.

1811 - Street Plan
The New York State Legislature introduces the Grid Plan for New York City, dividing its streets into a rectangular pattern. The design has been the basis for transportation planning in the city ever since.

1825 - Link to the West
The Erie Canal is finished, making New York City America's premier port.

1832 - First Railroad
The first railroad system in New York, owned by the New York and Harlem Railroad company, begins operating approximately nine blocks between Union Square and 23rd Street.

1870 - Above Ground
The city's first elevated railway begins running regularly along Greenwich Street and 9th Avenue. It would be driven out of business by the subway 50 years later.

1871 - New Station
Grand Central Depot, now known as Grand Central Terminal, is constructed in 1871 to handle New York City's railroad traffic.

1874 - Link to New Jersey
Colonel Dewitt Haskins breaks ground for the first tunnel under the Hudson, designed to connect Hoboken and Lower Manhattan. It is completed almost 30 years later. Parts of it are still used in the PATH rail system.

  Contsruction on the Brooklyn Bridge.
1883 - Across the East River
On May 24, the Brooklyn Bridge over the East River opens, connecting Manhattan and Brooklyn.

1890 - Street Transit
The first cable cars appear, replacing animal-powered streetcars.

1903 - East River Crossing
The Williamsburg Bridge, the largest of the bridges across the East River, is completed.

1904 - First Subway
The first official subway system in Manhattan opens. The Interborough Rapid Transit initially covers 9.1 miles of track and 28 stations between City Hall and 145th street.

1905 - Buses Start
The first gasoline-powered buses in America begin running along Fifth Avenue.

1905 - East and West
The Manhattan Bridge is completed, connecting Canal Street in Manhattan and Flatbush Avenue in Brooklyn over the East River.

1907 - Bye, Bye Battery
Slow moving battery taxis are replaced with faster, gas-powered vehicles.

1913 - Creating a City System
New York City approves the expansion of subway lines owned by both the Independent Rapid Transit Company and the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company. The $302 million project adds 123 miles of track to the subway system.

1916 - Help from Washington
The Federal Aid Road Act of 1916 establishes a regular system of federal funding for state road projects. It is the basis for all future federal transportation laws that provide funding to states, including New York, for highway construction.

1919 - Red Light, Green Light
New York City installs its first traffic signal light at Fifth Avenue and 42nd Street.

1921 - Joint Project
New York and New Jersey form the Port of New York Authority to improve the city's mass transportation facilities.

1924 - Bronx River Parkway
The Bronx River Parkway, the city's first modern parkway, is completed.

1925 - Another Subway
Mayor John F. Hylan wins approval to create the city-owned Independent Subway System.

1927 - Under the River
The Holland Tunnel opens, becoming the city's first underwater tunnel for motor vehicles. A construction project shared by New York and New Jersey, the tunnel connects lower Manhattan at Canal Street and Jersey City.

1930 - Air Travel
Bennett Airport on Barren Island in Brooklyn is finished, accommodating the first regular plane service in the city.

  The George Washington Bridge.
1931 - Over the River
The George Washington Bridge opens, connecting upper Manhattan and New Jersey over the Hudson River. It is the first bridge in New York to be constructed completely out of steel.

1934 - Along the River
The East River Drive, now known as the FDR Drive, is completed, running from the Battery to the Triborough Bridge along the eastern edge of Manhattan.

1934 - Order on the Buses
Mayor Fiorello LaGuardia sets out a coherent policy for surface transit, doing away with some streetcar lines and granting franchises to private bus companies.

1935 - Major Construction
Construction begins on the Major Deegan Expressway, cutting a path from the Bronx to upstate New York.

1937 - Taxi Medallions
La Guardia signs the Haas Act, establishing a system of medallions, or official licenses, for the city's taxi cabs. Medallions are limited to 13,566 and cost $10 each.

1937 - Another Link
The Lincoln Tunnel opens, connecting midtown Manhattan and New Jersey under the Hudson River.

1938 - Belt Parkway
One of the many roads masterminded by Robert Moses, this highway around Brooklyn and Queens opens.

1939 - La Guardia Airfield
La Guardia Airfield opens in Queens, handling 250 flights a day in its first year.

1940 - Subway Takeover
The city takes over the subway system as it purchases the financially ailing Brooklyn-Manhattan Transit Corporation (BMT) and the Interborough Rapid Transit Company (IRT).

1941 - Bus Protest
After a four-week, citywide boycott led by Adam Clayton Powell, Jr., bus companies in New York agree to hire black drivers.

1948 - Cars Not People
Construction begins on the Cross-Bronx Expressway. To make way for it, 159 apartment buildings were destroyed in East Tremont and Morris Heights and 1,530 families had to move.

1948 - End of an Era
The subway fare rises to 10 cents, the first fare hike since the system began operation 44 years earlier.

  "Fliteseer" tram in front of a pair of Alitalia DC-7s at Idlewild Airport.
1948 - New Airport
Idlewild International Airport, later renamed John F. Kennedy International Airport, opens in Queens. It goes on to become the busiest cargo airport in the world.

1950 - Bus Station
The Port Authority Bus Terminal opens to the public. It was expanded in 1963 and again in 1979.

1950 - Department of Traffic
The city creates a Department of Traffic to take over responsibility for traffic control from the police departments. It soon institutes a number of programs, including alternate side of the street parking.

1953 - Running the Subways
The New York State Legislature creates the New York City Transit Authority to manage and operate the city's subway and bus systems.

1953 - That and a Token
Subway tokens debut on July 25 as the subway fare rises from 10 to 15 cents.

1956 - New Highways
The Federal Interstate Highway Act authorizes construction of a 41,000-mile interstate highway system, with the federal government paying 90 percent of the cost. New York City would use this legislation for projects such as completion of the Cross-Bronx Expressway.

1957 - End of an Era
The last city streetcar line is eliminated.

1962 - Commuter Rail

  PATH Train Exiting Journal Square Transportation Center.
The PATH rail system connects Hoboken, New Jersey to Manhattan.

1964 - Staten Island
The Verrazano-Narrows Bridge opens, linking Manhattan and Staten Island. The Staten Island Expressway, connected to the bridge?s upper deck, is also finished. It required the demolition of 400 buildings and the displacement of 3,500 residents.

1967 - Yellow Cabs
The city orders all medallion cabs to be painted yellow.

1968 - State Control
The New York State Legislature creates the Metropolitan Transportation Authority, which becomes New York City Transit's parent organization.

1971 - Fare Policy
The New York Taxi and Limousine Commission is created to license and regulate the city's yellow cabs.

1977 - Shifting Control
The city Department of Transportation takes over street operations, including traffic control and parking regulations.

1980 - Easier Access
The first wheelchair lifts for passengers with disabilities appear on city-owned buses.

1989 - End of Westway
After years of controversy, Greenwich Village residents, environmentalists and others finally defeat a plan to build Westway, a highway along the Hudson River in Manhattan.

1990 - Accessible City
Americans with Disabilities Act is signed into law, requiring that public transportation be accessible to people with disabilities. Activists use the legislation to make all city curbs accessible in 2002.

1993 - Candid Camera
The city launches the Red Light Program, automatically taking pictures of the license plates of vehicles that run red lights.

1994 - Swipe and Go
The MTA introduces MetroCards, installing turnstiles that accept them at the Wall Street and Whitehall Street subway stations.

1997 - The Rise of the MetroCard
All New York City buses and subway stations now accept MetroCards.

2001 - September 11
A terrorist attack destroys the World Trade Center on September 11. There is a partial collapse of the Cortlandt Street Station underneath the complex. IRT Broadway 1/9 service is shut down between Chambers Street and South Ferry. PATH lines adjacent to the site are ruined.

2002 - MTA Splits
MTA New York City Transit is officially separated into two separate companies called MTA Subways and MTA Buses.

2003 - Death of an Icon
New York City subways and buses stop accepting tokens, as MTA New York City Transit hikes fares on its buses and subways by 33 percent from a $1.50 to $2.00. It is the largest fair increase in city history.

2003 - Transit Center
The Lower Manhattan Development Corporation and other agencies begin planning a new transportation hub at the World Trace Center site.

Material researched by Martin Bricketto and Catherine Shu


Moving Around the City -- A Quiz About Transportation in New York
New York's Fight for Transportation Dollars in Congress
City Council Transportation Legislation
An Appalachian Trail Through The Heart Of NYC

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